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EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT

    It is not a purpose of these books to criticize religions. As for them, all that needs to be said is the following. It brings about unnecessary conflicts for particular religions to propose the ways to live and die of human individuals and societies. It is necessary that those ways which transcend all religions, which are common to all human individuals and societies, and which are universal be proposed, and it is possible. Even the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later can be proposed without religions. In addition, as science is progressed and propagated, all religions decline though slowly. If we depended on religions in seeking those ways, those ways would also decline as religions declines. It is necessary for us to seek those ways without depending on any religions, and it is possible. It is left to the complete liberty of individuals whether they have religions or not and which religions they have if they want to have any of them. Though this book is going to propose a way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later, even it is based on phenomenology and psychology, the whole or parts of these books are never based on any religions. These books are never religions, and there are no intention in the least for these writers to make these books religions.
    It is not the only purpose of these books to propose the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later. However, proposing it is convenient for the stream of this book. Accordingly, it will be proposed in the first chapters.
    Each of us, human beings, has the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later. It is the ultimate anxiety for human beings. The ways to transcend it have been proposed in various forms like religion. However, there have been no decisive ways. The decisive way will be explained a little later in this book.
    Material things, material functions, bodies, bodily functions, nervous systems, nervous functions, neurons, neurons' excitements and transmissions, molecules, atoms, nuclei, neutrons, protons, electrons, universal gravitation, electrostatic force, magnetic force, and so on can be called "Things in Themselves". In contrast, sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, tastes, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, images, ideas, and so on can be called "Things Appearing as Mental Phenomena", Things Appearing as Phenomena, Things Appearing, Mental Phenomena, or Phenomena. These books need to distinguish things appearing to me, things appearing to you, things which appeared in the past, things which will appear in the future, things appearing to me at present, things appearing to each of us at the then present, and so on. Only the words of things appearing which are modified with adjective or adverbial phrases or clauses or where the tenses of verbs are changed can distinguish such things. Accordingly, these books will use such words more often than those of phenomena, mental phenomena, and so on. In addition, a thing appearing's existing or being premised to exist can be called the thing's "Appearing". For example, the sights of my personal computer, my hands striking its keyboard, my desk, the walls, and the windows are appearing on a visual sensation, the sound of striking the keyboard is appearing on an auditory sensation, feeling of the keyboard is appearing on a somatic sensation, moderate hunger is appearing on an autonomic sensation, to me, who am one of the writers of this book, at present. Things excluding time and space are completely divided into things in themselves and things appearing as mental phenomena. That is, there are no remains or overlaps after they are divided. As far as time and space are concerned, they cannot be divided into two groups in such a clear way.
    Anyway, in things appearing as mental phenomena, the time when none of things appearing exist is nothing, and the time when some things appearing existed momentarily jump over that when none exist to that when some other things appearing will exist, and the first time and the third are continuous. For example, when we suddenly fall into a deep sleep or loss of consciousness and suddenly wake from it, we feel that its time is nothing or a moment. This is not true when that sleep contains dreams or accompanies nocturnal awakening or when that loss of consciousness accompanies gradual increase or decrease.
    Now, the only one thing can make sure that the only one group of things exists at the only one time. For example, the sights of my personal computer, my hands striking its keyboard, my desk, the walls, and the windows are appearing on a visual sensation, the sound of striking the keyboard is appearing on an auditory sensation, the touch of the keyboard is appearing on a somatic sensation, moderate hunger is appearing on an autonomic sensation, to me, who am one of the writers of this book, at present, and I can make sure that those sights, sound, touch, and feeling exist. In that the only one thing can make sure that the only one group of things exists at the only one time, the only one thing that can make sure can be called "I" or the "Ego", the only one time can be called the "Present", and the only one group of things whose existence can be made sure of can be called the "Things Appearing to Me at Present" or the "Group of things Appearing to Me at Present". In addition, a thing appearing to me at present's existing can be called the thing's "Appearing to Me at Present". The things appearing to me at present are included in things appearing as mental phenomena. A thing's appearing to me at present is included in the thing's appearing. I can make sure that the things appearing to me at present exist. In contrast, I cannot make sure that the other things exist. For example, there is a personal computer in front of me, and I can make sure that it exists, but the thing concerning it whose existence I can make sure of is no more than its sight, that is, no more than one of the things appearing to me at present on a visual sensation. All that I can make sure of the existence of is the things appearing to me at present.
    In the things appearing to me at present, they appear toward a point and appear with the point made a center. For example 1, in things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, perspective appears, and it appears with the inner part of the middle of both eyes made its original point. For example 2, in things appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears, the directions of and the distances to sound sources appear, and they appear the middle of both ears made their original point. Such a center can be called the "Center of the World Appearing to Me at Present". Such a center does not appear directly but do appears behind the things appearing to me at present as a center or an original point. Such can be called the "feeling that I am the center of the world". I cannot help feeling that I am the center of the world. It is a natural feeling and is never our arrogance. Both that center and that feeling are included in the things appearing to me at present and in things appearing as mental phenomena. Accordingly, if it were not for the things appearing to me at present, that center and that feeling would not exist.
    Such a center of the world is what we feel to be I in our daily life more than the only one thing that can make sure that the things appearing to me at present exist which was explained above. Accordingly, the center of the world appearing to me at present can also be called I.
    Because

(1)all that I can make sure of the existence of is the things appearing to me at present

and because

(2)I cannot help feeling that I am the center of the world

I cannot help feeling that I am absolutely irreplaceable. That is, I cannot help feeling that I am a thing which is irreplaceable by any means. It is this feeling that makes the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later decisive.
    Now, each thing can make sure that each group of things exists at each time, or it is premised that each thing can make sure that each group of things exists at each time. For example, when you and I look at each other and talk, I can make sure that the sight of your face appearing to me at present on a visual sensation and your voice appearing to me at present on an auditory sensation exist, and it is premised that you can make sure that the sight of my face appearing to you at present on a visual sensation and my voice appearing to you at present on an auditory sensation exist. In that each thing can make sure that each group of things exists at each time or it is premised that each thing can make sure that each group of things exists at each time, each thing can be called "Each of Us", each time can be called the "Then Present", and each group of things whose existence can be made sure of or whose existence is premised to be able to be made sure of can be called "Things Appearing to Each of Us at the Then Present" or Each Group of Things Appearing to Each of Us at the Then Present. A thing appearing to each of us at the then present's existing or being premised to exist can be called the thing's "Appearing to Each of Us at the Then Present". Things appearing to each of us at the then present include the things appearing to me at present and are included in things appearing as mental phenomena. A thing's appearing to each of us at the then present includes the thing's appearing to me at present and is included in the thing's appearing. In addition, each of us include I, and the then present include the present. Each of us can make sure that things appearing to each of us at the then present exist or it is premised that each of us can make sure that things appearing to each of us at the then present exist.
    Concerning things appearing to each of us at the then present, in the case that they are the things appearing to me at present, no premises are necessary, and in the other case, some premises are necessary. However, when such case divisions are always done, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, from now on, such case divisions will not be done, and such premises will be done concerning all things appearing to each of us at the then present.
    Excluding such presence or absence of premises, it is premised that things appearing to each of us at the then present and what concern them are just the same as the things appearing to me at present and what concern them. That is, in things appearing to each of us at the then present, it is premised that they appear toward a point and appear with the point made a center. Such a center can be called the "Center of the World Appearing to Each of Us at the Then Present". It is premised that such a center does not appear directly but does appear behind things appearing to each of us at the then present as a center or an original point. Such can be called the "feeling that each of us is the center of the world". It is premised that each of us cannot help feeling that I am the center of the world. The center of the world appearing to each of us at the then present and the feeling that I am such a center is included in things appearing to each of us at the then present and in things appearing as mental phenomena. Accordingly, if it were not for things appearing to each of us at the then present, such a center would not exist. The center of the world appearing to each of us at the then present can also be called Each of Us. Moreover, because of the above things, it is premised that each of us cannot help feeling that each of us is abosolutely irreplaceable. It is this feeling that makes the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later decisive.
    Now, it cannot be made sure whether or not things in themselves exist. For example, the sight of my personal computer, its keyboard, my hands striking it, and so on are appearing on a visual sensation, the sound of striking it is appearing on an auditory sensation, and feeling of the keyboard is appearing on a somatic sensation, to me at present, and I can make sure that they exist, but they are only sights, sounds, feeling, and so on, that is, things appearing as mental phenomena and are not things in themselves, and I can no way make sure whether or not my personal computer, its keyboard, and so on in themselves exist. Moreover, it cannot be made sure whether or not things appearing as mental phenomena, excluding the things appearing to me at present, exists. For example, when you and I look each other and talk, I can make sure that your face appearing to me at present on a visual sensation and your voice appearing to me at present on an auditory sensation exist, but I cannot make sure whether or not my face appearing to you at present on a visual sensation or my voice appearing to you at present on an auditory sensation exists.
    However, it is premised that general things in themselves exist. Though it is not premised that things appearing as mental phenomena represent things in themselves completely, it is premised that they do so to a degree. Accordingly, it is premised that at least general things in themselves exist. Moreover, it is premised that things appearing as mental phenomena, excluding the things appearing to me at present, exist. As far as they are concerned, it is premised that even delusions, illusions, and misunderstanding exist as such. Of course, it is premised that things appearing to each of us at the then present, excluding the things appearing to me at present, exist. For example, when you and I look at each other, I think that you can see my face like I can see yours.
    Moreover, it is premised that each of us can make sure that things appearing to each of us at the then present exist. For example, when you and I look at each other, I think that you can make sure that my face appearing to you at present on a visual sensation exists like I can make sure that your face appearing to me at present on a visual sensation exists.
    Moreover, it is premised that things appearing to me at present exist continuously for hours. For example, it is premised that, from waking up in the morning till falling asleep at night, the sights of the rising sun, my town, living things including human beings, the setting sun, streetlights, and so on, their sounds, the images of the things which I will write in this book, and so on have been appearing and will be appearing continuously to me who am one of the writer of this book. The whole of the things appearing to me at present which are premised to exist continuously for hours can be called the "Things Appearing to Me" or the Group of Things Appearing to Me. In addition, it is premised that things appearing to each of us at the then present appear in the same way. The whole of the things appearing to each of us at the then present which are premised to exist continuously for hours can be called "Things Appearing to Each of Us" or Each Group of Things Appearing to Each of Us. For example, the whole of the things appearing to each of the diurnal animals on the earth from waking up in the morning till falling asleep at night are included in them. The things appearing to me contain the things appearing to me at present, and things appearing to each of us contain things appearing to each of us at the then present.
    Moreover, it is premised that the things appearing to me are caused directly by several parts of a nervous system, which are contained in an individual body, which are included in things in themselves. For example 1, it is premised that the things appearing to me on a visual sensation are caused directly by the neurons' excitements and transmissions from the retinae to optic nerves, to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on. For example 2, it is premised that the things appearing to me on a somatic sensation like the pain, hotness, coldness, and so on of the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, and so on are caused directly by the neurons' excitements and transmissions from them, to sensory nerves, to spinal cords and brain stems, to somatosensory areas on temporal lobes, and so on. The nervous system whose several parts are premised to directly cause the things appearing to me can be called "My Nervous System". In addition, the individual body containing my nervous system can be called "My Body".
    However, even after the above things are premised, I cannot admit that my body is me. That is because I intuit that I do not exist unless the things appearing to me at present exist and unless I can make sure that the things appearing to me at present exist. Simply, that is because I intuit that the brain death is the death. Accordingly, my body and the things appearing to me containing the things appearing to me at present which are premised to be caused by its several parts can be called "My Self".
    However, even after the things appearing to me included in things appearing mental phenomena and my body included in things in themselves are integrated as my self, the vividness of the things appearing to me at present never fade away. Accordingly, all the same, I cannot help feeling that my self is absolutely irreplaceable.
     In addition, it is premised that things appearing to each of us are caused in the same way. The nervous system whose several parts are premised to cause things appearing to each of us directly can be called "Each Nervous System". In addition, the individual body containing each nervous system can be called "Each Body". In addition, each body and things appearing to each of us can be called "Each Self", or "Each of Us". In addition, even after the things appearing to each of us included in things appearing mental phenomena and each body included in things in themselves are integrated as each self, it is premised that each of us cannot help feeling that each self is absolutely irreplaceable.
    So far, the following group (A) and group (B) have been distinguished.

Group (A)
I, the present, the things appearing to me at present, the things appearing to me, my nervous system, my body, my self, that I can make sure that the things appearing to me at present exist, that I cannot help feeling that my self is absolutely irreplaceable.

Group (B)
each of us, the then present, things appearing to each of us at the then present, things appearing to each of us, each nervous system, each body, each self, that it is premised that each of us can make sure that things appearing to each of us at the then present exist, that it is premised that each of us cannot help feeling that each self is absolutely irreplaceable.

Concerning them, the following can be said in a sense.

I ⊂ each of us
the present ⊂ the then present
the things appearing to me at present ⊂ things appearing to each of us at the then present
the things appearing to me ⊂ things appearing to each of us
my nervous system ⊂ each nervous system
my body ⊂ each body
my self ⊂ each self
that I can make sure that the things appearing to me at present exist ⊂ that it is premised that each of us can make sure that things appearing to each of us at the then present exist
that I cannot help feeling that my self is absolutely irreplaceable ⊂ that it is premised that each of us cannot help feeling that each self is absolutely irreplaceable

However, the starting point in group (A) is liberated from premises. In contrast, that in group (B) is not so. However, excluding that, whatever is true in group (A) is true in group (B), too. Accordingly, from now on, group (A) and (B) will not be distinguished, and group (B) will be argued. In addition, each nervous system including my nervous system, each body including my body, or each self including my self is called the Nervous System, the Body, or the Self in these books.

THE ANXIETY ABOUT THE SELF'S DYING SOONER OR LATER

    As was explained above, it is premised that things appearing to each of us are caused directly by several parts of the nervous system, which is contained in the body, which is included in things in themselves. In other words, it is premised that things appearing to each of us are not caused and do not exist if the several parts of the nervous system do not function. Actually, the heart in the body, the brain stem in the nervous system, or so irreversibly stops functioning, and as a result the several parts of the nervous system irreversibly stops functioning, and as a result things appearing to each of us irreversibly stop being caused and stop existing. That the body never exists or functions well enough to cause any things appearing to each of us can be called the "Body's Death" or the Body's Being Dead. In addition, the body's going dead can be called the Body's Dying. It is premised that the body's death brings it about that things appearing to each of us are never caused and never exist. The body's death and the fact that things appearing to each of us never exist which the body's death is premised to bring about can be called the "Self's Death" or the Self's Being Dead. In addition, the self's going dead can be called the self's Dying. When the self is dead, it is premised that things appearing to each of us containing things appearing to each of us at the then present never exist, and that each of us can never make sure that any things appearing to each of us at the then present exist.
    The self dies sooner or later. Each of us, human beings, has the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later. It is the ultimate anxiety for human beings. The ways to transcend it have been proposed in various forms like some pieces of religion. However, there have been no decisive ways. However, the decisive way to transcend it is latent in the things which have already been explained and are about to be explained.

THE DECISIVE WAY TO TRANSCEND THE ANXIETY ABOUT THE SELF'S DYING SOONER OR LATER

    As was explained earlier, it is premised that all that can be made sure of the existence of is things appearing to each of us at the then present, and it is premised that each of us cannot help feeling that the self is the center of the world. Accordingly, it is premised that each of us cannot feel that the self is absolutely irreplaceable. On the other hand, each of us premises that things in themselves exist and that time and space is endless and eternal. That is, each of us premises that the endless time exists after the self's death and that the self never exists. The anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later is that about those premises. That is, it is the anxiety about the self's finiteness in contrast to the world's infiniteness. Human beings have even known and sought infiniteness. Simultaneously, they cannot help recognizing their finiteness. It is the anxiety about those. It is ultimate anxiety.
    However, is the self actually irreplaceable? It is premised that each of us can make sure that things appearing to each of us at the then present exist just in the same way as I can make sure that the things appearing to me at present exist. It is premised that each of us cannot help feeling that each of us is the center of the world just in the same way as I cannot help feeling that I am the center of the world. For this very reason, the self is not irreplaceable but replaceable. Already at the stage of its being premised that each of us can make sure that things appearing to each of us at the then present exist, the self is not irreplaceable but replaceable. It is so no less than at the stage of its being premised that each of us cannot help feeling that each of us is the center of the world. Moreover, it is so no less than at the stage of its being premised that each of us cannot help feeling that the self is absolutely irreplaceable. For the very reason that each of us feels that the self is irreplaceable, we are just the same as one another at the bottom, we can replace one another, and we are not irreplaceable but replaceable. Simply, when I die, I become you, and when you die, you become me. Simply, I am never the only existence, center, or irreplaceable thing. There are endless centers and irreplaceable things in the world. Knowing those is the decisive way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later.
     Knowing this is the decisive way to transcend that anxiety.
    The anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later contains the anxiety about space and time's being endless and accordingly the anxiety about there's being endless time after the self's death. However, because of the very endlessness, an infinite number of material things similar to the animal bodies containing the nervous systems on the earth are sure to be generated and to exist and function forever. For example, even the living things having the same genes that you have are generated in the endless space. It is premised that such an infinite number of material things cause an infinite number of things appearing to each of us at the then present forever. It is premised that an infinite number of things appearing to each of us at the then present exist forever, that an infinite number of each of us can make sure forever that they exist, that an infinite number of each of us cannot help feeling that each of us is the center of the world, that an infinite number of each of us cannot help feeling that the self is absolutely irreplaceable. It is premised that an infinite number of each of us cannot help feeling that the self is absolutely irreplaceable. Far from the self is not irreplaceable but replaceable, it is replaceable with an infinite number of the self. The way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later which was explained earlier is all the more decisive.
    In addition, among groups of things appearing to each of us, such spatial and temporal distances as are among our bodies in things in themselves do not exist.
    First, as for temporal distances, in things in themselves, there are some temporal distances among the bodies which are premised to cause some groups of things appearing to each of us. For example, when I have been dead for a billion years and when some animals where some things appearing as mental phenomena are caused are generated on another planet, there are temporal distances of a billion years between my body and theirs. In contrast, in things appearing as mental phenomena, the time of no things appearing's existing is only a moment. This is just like falling fast asleep and waking up. Sound sleep for hours and for a billion or more years make no difference. More precisely, the time of no things appearing's existing is more a moment than any sleep. That is because the latter involves some dreams. For example, when I have been dead for a billion years and when some animals where some things appearing as mental phenomena are caused are generated on another planet, as soon as the sight of the earth lightened by the sun disappears, that of the planet lightened by another fixed star is appearing.
    Second, as for spatial distances, in things in themselves, there are some spatial distances among the bodies which are premised to cause some groups of things appearing to each of us. For example, there is a spatial distance of its diameter between two person's bodies that live on the opposite sides of the earth, and there are spatial distances of light years among the stars where some animals can be generated. However, if anything needed to move among them, the time of the movement would be a moment, as was explained above. Actually, because nothing needs to move, it is all the more a moment. For example, when I see stars light years far away, just like I do so, some animals having visual sensations on some planets of some of those fixed stars see the one which we call the sun.
    In those ways, in things appearing as mental phenomena, there are no spatial and temporal distances that there are in things in themselves. Simply, however far away with the temporal and spatial distance of light years or centimeters you and I are, as soon as I die, I become you, and as soon as you die, you become me. More simply, there are an infinite number of I or the self. Accordingly, the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later which was explained earlier is all the more decisive.
    In other words, that we are borne, die, are borne, and repeat the same is equal to that I live forever with loss of memory repeated. It is true that every time each body dies, the nervous system dies, the image's sources which have been generated, memorized, and stored disappear, and loss of memory, that is, forgetting all is caused. It is true that a part of the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later is that about loss of memory. However, loss of memory is the only thing that animals having memories need to accept. We do not need to accept anything other than loss of memory. Each of us forgets all and lives again. It is not so bad things, is it? If you desperately want to preserve the way of life of individuals or societies, or the way of production or management, you can leave writings or patents. Again, that we are borne, die, are borne, and repeat the same is equal to that I live forever with loss of memory repeated. This explanation may be more easy to understand than the above because it is concrete one.
    Somebody would question the following. There is no guarantee that human beings will be borne again as human beings. That is right. We will be born again as pigs, snakes, bugs, worms, and so on, too. We are not satisfied only with having sensations. We want to have memory, feeling, desire, ego, thinking, and so on and to be human beings. However, as long as animals having sensations, their nature, and the nature where they can evolve exist and function, they are certain to evolve to animals having the above functions and like human beings. Until then is, as was explained earlier, like dreaming. In such animals as only have sensations, the image and consciousness of the self is faint or nothing. Accordingly, our existence while we are such animals is like dreaming. Accordingly, that we are borne, die, are borne, and repeat the same is equal to that I live forever with loss of memory and sleep repeated.
    Knowing those is the decisive way to transcend the ultimate anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later. Those who have died transcending that anxiety have known this way vaguely and metaphorically or intuitively. Simply, ignorance is better than the midway philosophy or religion.
    Though metaphorically, the contents of the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later which have been explained in this chapter can be called "Being Borne (Again) and Living (Again)" or the "Endless repetition of life and death".

EVOLVED HUMAN BEINGS

    Living things evolve. There are no living things that do not evolve. We, human beings, too, evolved from what is called lower animals. If human beings should be extinct, as long as what is called lower animals, their nature, and the nature where they can evolve exist and function, they are certain to evolve to animals like human beings. Moreover, human beings, evolve, too. Though we cannot foresee how we will evolve, we will not evolve in the way we hope. For example, if medicine progress more and more and if those who have hereditary diseases survive and leave offspring, we will evolve to unhealthy animals. Anyway, it is self-evident that living things including human beings evolve. In addition, few of the present human beings will try to resist evolving. Accordingly, even if the words of "human beings or evolved ones" or so are not used, mere words of "human beings" imply them in these books.

REDUCING THE UNNECESSARY PAIN CAUSED BY HUMAN BEING AS IN GENERAL AS POSSIBLE

    Of course, animals including human beings have not only pleasure but also displeasure. Human beings have not only bodily or physical displeasure like aches, hotness, coldness, and so on but also mental displeasure like fear, anxiety, grief, loneliness, and so on. However, the word of "Pain" would be more familiar to us in daily life than that of "Displeasure". In addition, that of Pain as an uncountable noun designates not only bodily but also mental displeasure. Accordingly, the uncountable noun "Pain" is often used to designate bodily and mental displeasure in these books.
    Human beings also cause and suffer intentional and persistent pain by abuse, violence, war, despotism, torture, and so on. A lot of us think that we have pain more than pleasure, and some think that we have only pain. In such pain, it is sometimes the largest desire to be borne and to live again as another individual.
    Of course, each of us is borne and lives again in the repetition of life and death not on the earth but in the infinite space, and it is rarely that we are borne and live on the earth. However, even if rarely, nobody wants to suffer such intense and persistent pain as is caused by human atrocity.
    As soon as we transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later, we know that there is endless pain in the very endless repetition of life and death. Knowing this is intense pain like anxiety, fear, and so on. Here if we try to escape the endless repetition of life and death, it is a fact of life, and escaping it is a futile attempt. Even if only human beings and animals on the earth suffer pain and if the pain ends up with the natural drastic change of the earth or the sun, we will suffer a lot of pain until that ending. The anxiety about suffering such endless or a lot of pain may be no less severe than that about the self's dying sooner or later. All that we can do is reduce the unnecessary pain caused by human beings as in general as possible.
    Part of pain is necessary for animals' individuals and species to exist. For example 1, the pain on the skin prevent injury from reaching deeper vital organs. For example 2, hunger and thirst prevent malnutrition and dehydration. For example 3, the dissatisfaction of sexual drive ensure the existence of the species. Above all, anxiety or fear is a sophisticated feeling which can foresee and prevent severer danger. In contrast, human beings cause a lot of pain which is unnecessary also for human individuals and species to exist. For example 1, the aggression against the citizens excluding the government and the armed force is unnecessary. For example 2, using animals at random in experiments is useless. In such a way, it is the unnecessary pain caused by human beings that we need to reduce.
    Of course, we need to reduce pain in our daily life. However, it is far more necessary for us to reduce the continuous, continual, and severe pain caused by intense and rigid systems and organizations like autocracy, despotism, totalitarianism, and so on in oppression, war, holocaust, torture, and so on. Accordingly, we need to reform the systems and organizations in human society and to enlarge and deepen democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law. By those means, we need to reduce the unnecessary pain caused by human beings as in general as possible.
    From the beginning, we cannot know as whom or what we will be borne when we are borne and live again in the repetition of life and death on the earth. As was explained earlier, though we are borne as animals other than human beings, the time when we live as them is like a dreaming. In contrast, we cannot feel dreaming when we are borne as human beings and are suffering, for example, war, oppression, and so on. Accordingly, we need to reduce pain caused by human beings as in general as possible by reforming systems and organizations and enlarging and deepening democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law. For example, in slavery, because masters will sometimes be borne as slaves, not only the latter but also the former need to abolish it, and in despotism, because the persecutors will sometimes be borne as the persecuted, not only the latter but also the former need to restrain it.
    In contrast to pain, systems, organizations, and political powers do not need to and should not deal with pleasure. Pleasure can and must be pursued freely by each of us, that is, an individual. That is because the pleasure forced by others is not pleasure. In addition, seeking pleasure freely in itself is pleasure, and freedom in itself is pleasure. Moreover, the intervention in pleasure by systems, organizations, and, above all, political powers leads to their becoming autocratic, despotic, or totalitarian. Above all, political powers' propagating happiness leads to them. Political powers need to concentrate on preventing oppression, war, misgovernment, and so on caused by themselves. We need to enlarge and deepen democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law in order to prevent them from running wild. The necessity to reduce the pain caused by human beings as general as possible, the necessity for individuals to seek pleasure by their complete liberty, and the necessity to abolish and prevent totally destructive means totally, which will be explained later, are the first principles of these books.
    If we need to use words like eternity, heaven, and hell, we are eternal, but there are no heaven or hell. It is possible that we make the earth a place like a hell. It is possible, too, that we do not do it. We do not need to make the earth a place like a heaven. Life like a heaven needs to be sought by each of us with his or her complete liberty.

THE ABOLITION AND PREVENTION OF TOTALLY DESTRUCTIVE MEANS

    However, we, human beings, can extinguish all the living things including human beings on the earth by nuclear weapons, immutable gene means, and so on which will be explained below before the natural drastic change of the earth or the sun, that is, the natural ending. It can be called the "Artificial Ending" in contrast to the natural.
    The weapons involving some changes of atomic nuclei like nuclear fission or fusion induced by human beings can be called "Nuclear Weapons". When a certain number or more of some subgroups of nuclear weapons are used in some situations, all the living things including human beings on the earth are extinguished.
    The genes manipulated by human beings which can replicate themselves and which it is possible do not undergo any spontaneous mutations can be called "Immutable Genes", and the means which involves some immutable genes can be called "Immutable Gene Means". The traditional genes have been able to undergo some spontaneous mutations, and the traditional gene means only submit to natural selections. In contrast, it is possible that immutable genes do not undergo any spontaneous mutations, and that immutable gene means involving such genes do not submit to natural selections, reproduce themselves endlessly, and drive out and extinguish all the living things including human beings on the earth.
    If the earth should change drastically by planets' collision, crustal cataclysm, and so on and if they should extinguish living things including human beings, they are included in the natural drastic change of the earth or the sun. In contrast, it is not impossible for human beings, for example, to change the orbit of an asteroid, to cause a drastic change, and extinguish living things including human beings. Such can be called "Artificial Drastic Changes (of the Earth or the Sun)".
    Human beings can extinguish all of the living things including human beings on the earth by nuclear weapons, immutable gene means, artificial drastic changes. They can be called "Totally Destructive Means".
    When a species of living things other than human beings prosper, the prosperity destroys its nature, and the destruction makes it decline or extinguish itself. The decline makes its nature revive and the species and some other species exist, or the extinction makes some other species exist. This can be called the "Cycle of Prosperity and Decline". However, we, human beings deviate from this cycle. That is because the nuclear weapons, the immutable gene means, and artificial drastic change can destroy the living things on the whole of the earth in a short time. Accordingly, human beings can extinguish all the living things including human beings on the earth before the drastic change of the earth or the sun. Human beings need to abolish and to prevent totally destructive means totally, that is, nuclear weapons, immutable gene means, and artificial drastic changes in order for living things including human beings to exist until the natural ending.
    The ideas like "Deterrence theory" or "mutual assured destruction" which justifies nuclear weapons assume that the insiders or the persons in charge of totally destructive means are rational enough to control these means. However, first, it is possible that these insiders or the persons in charge are not rational enough, or that they go irrational. For example, some of them can think of suicide and can jump off an operation center like jumping off a building. Second, there can be some accidents of those means including running wild, breakdowns, aging, and some disorders by natural disasters that are beyond human rationality. Third, some outsiders can intrude into those means and make them run wildly. Those who support or accept totally destructive means overlook or connive these three possibilities.
    It seems that nuclear weapons were not used on a large scale and that they did not bring about any great war during the Cold War. However, it is no more than tens of years. In addition, it is no more than fortunate years. If we, human beings or evolved ones, are to exist until the natural drastic change of the earth or the sun and if we are to satisfy the ultimate desire, we should exist for billions of years.
    It is only a fiction that some aliens' invasion will extinguish living things including human beings on the earth. If it were possible, its possibility is much smaller than that of human beings' extinguishing living things including human beings. We, human beings, do not need to cope with aliens' invasion or the natural drastic change of the earth or the sun but only need to dispose of ourselves and our own means. Simply, we do not need to care others but only need to care ourselves.
    The details of totally destructive means will be explained in "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY".

THE ULTIMATE DESIRE POSSIBLE TO SATISFY BEYOND LIFE AND DEATH

    Of course, all the living things including human beings on the earth will be extinguished someday with the natural drastic change of the earth or the sun. It can be called the Natural Ending. If some human beings could immigrate to another planet or a planet of another fixed star and survive, many human beings and most living things would die, and those immigrants would evolve to another direction in another environment, and we could not look upon it as the existence of "human beings" or "living things".
    However, in the space which has endless space and time, an infinite number of material things similar to the living things on the earth exist forever, by an infinite number of functions similar to the evolution on the earth, an infinite number of material things similar to animals having sensations or more on the earth exist and function forever, and it is premised that such functions cause an infinite number of things appearing to each of us at the then present forever. Such seeming spatial and temporal distances between things appearing as mental phenomena are nothing like falling fast asleep and waking up.
    However, most human beings have a strange attachment to and a persistent pride in their being human beings. They want to be borne again and to live again as human beings or as evolved ones on the earth at least till the natural drastic change of the earth or the sun. Or at least, they want to be borne again more as human beings than as dogs or cats. However, it is not a bad desire for living things because the various nature including various living things need to exist and function and to be preserved in order for human beings to exist.
    However, as was explained earlier, human beings cause unnecessary, continuous and continual, and large-scale pain, and torment living things, above all, human beings. Here, the idea can be caused that it is not so bad that living things or human beings will be extinguished before the drastic change of the earth or the sun. In addition, as was explained earlier, human beings can extinguish all the living things including human beings with totally destructive means, that is, nuclear weapons, immutable gene means, and artificial drastic change. Here the idea can be caused that it is not so bad to extinguish living things including human beings before the drastic change of the earth or the sun. However, such an idea is caused to few human beings, and is rarely caused. For example, it may cross the minds of those who have nuclear buttons or those of high level experts on genetic engineering. Anyway, most of us never have such an idea persistently or firmly.
    However, when we face the possibility of the extinction by totally destructive means of all the living things including human beings in war or so and the unnecessary, continuous and continual, and large-scale pain and violation of liberal rights in autocracy, despotism, or so, most of us are certain to resist them secretly but intensely. It is latent but intense desire of most of us to abolish and prevent totally destructive means totally, to reduce the unnecessary pain caused by human beings as in general as possible, to seek pleasure through our perfect freedom, and to exist as human beings until the drastic change of the earth or the sun. It is not completely impossible to satisfy this desire. It is "the ultimate desire possible to satisfy beyond life and death".
    Simultaneously, that desire is that which most of us who live at the present have latently but intensely. That pain contain that of us who live at the present. For example, if a nuclear weapon should be used, even if living things are not extinguished, and even if we are not immediately killed, many of us suffer carcinogenesis and infertility. or the anxiety about or fear of them. In addition, even if they are not used, most of use suffer the anxiety about or fear of their being used. Those who suffer them include our familiar family and friends. Accordingly, it is one of our rights to try to satisfy that desire, and that right can be called the "Right to Exist in General". This right differs from others in that the object of security automatically range over not only the present but also the future generations.
    The ultimate egoism beyond life and death is on the basis of that desire. That is because it not only tries to seek the present pleasure and tries to get rid of the present pain but do so while dealing with the future's in the endless repetition of life and death. We do not need to be altruistic but can be completely egoistic. We do not need to care about others. Far from that, our interfering in others cause unnecessary pain. We need to be completely egoistic.

SYSTEMS RESTRAINING TENDENCY TO POWERS

    Anyway, most of us have not desired the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means or unnecessary and large-scale pain. Why such undesirable things have been brought about. From the beginning, we have repeated war, atrocity, poverty, and so on, but most of us have not desired them. If most of us had desired and repeated them, that repetition could not have been helped. Most of us have not desired that repetition. This is the greatest regret. Why such undesirable things have been repeated.
    Human being have the fundamental tendencies to seek pleasure and try to escape pain, to try to control others, to seek power and money, and to struggle for them with one another. Those who have acquired power and money seek them more and more. As a result, human powers tend to be concentrated on a few persons. These tendency have resulted in (1) violence, theft, rape, and so on, (2) war, oppression, atrocity, and so on, (3) economic inequality, poverty, unemployment, and so on, (4) the destruction of the nature, the exhaustion of natural resources, and so on, and (5) the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means. Though (4) and (5) seem to be new and caused by the progress of science and technology, powers made use of scientists and technologists, and the latter could not help complying to the former, or the latter became the former. Those tendencies of human individuals and societies and their results (1)-(5) can be called the "Tendency to Powers".
    Moreover, powers and the tendency to powers become steadier and steadier by the systems which legitimize powers and their collusion. Including such systems, powers and such systems can be called Powers, and including such systematizations, the tendency to powers and such systematizations can be called the Tendency to Powers.
    Of course, in human societies, we need to restrain powers and the tendency to powers. Moreover, just the same as they became steady by their systems, we need to enlarge and deepen the systems restraining powers and the tendency to powers, and make the restraint steady. Such systems as restrain the tendency to powers can be called the "Systems Restraining the Tendency to Powers" literally.
    Such systems are nothing new. While one side of the human history has been the tendency to powers, the other side has been the groping of the systems restraining it. We can recognize that while the tendency to powers is a fundamental tendency of human individuals and societies, it is another fundamental tendency of them to restrain powers and systematize that restraint. We can rely on such systems.
    In addition, such systems are those which can restrain powers and can secure our liberty. Liberty, above all, the freedom of speech to expose and criticize powers is not only a purpose in itself but also a means to restrain powers. Accordingly, all the more we can rely on such systems. If they were those limiting our liberty, we could not rely on them. This is very important.
    Before the generation of civilizations, human societies were small, the relation of control and submission was simple, and they did not cause that large-scale pain. The larger human societies are and the more they are organized, the sharper that relation and that pain are. Moreover, the more human societies are systematized, the sharper that relation and that pain were. However, it was true that the larger and deeper democratic and separative systems, which will be explained below, were, the blunter at least that relation was. From now on, that relation is certain to blunter. How about that pain?
    Let us review that tendency. We, human being, (anti-1) have provide (1) as crimes in law and executed punishments. However, only by (anti-1), political powers, above all, state powers get stronger and stronger, and they repeat (2). It is not private powers but public powers, above all, state powers that we need to restrain intensely. Accordingly, we have arranged (anti-2) democratic and separative systems, that is, liberal rights, political rights, democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law in order to restrain state powers. However, only by (anti-1)(anti-2), (3) is left. Accordingly, we (anti-3) have provided social rights and had state powers intervene in the economy regardless of economic systems, and secure minimum life, education, and labor condition. As science and technology, industry, and human life progress, after the latter half of the twentieth century, (4) were clear and harm not only other living things but also human beings. Accordingly, we (anti-4) have had state powers regulate (4). As for (5), (anti-5) the systems for the sake of the abolition and prevention of totally destructive means are not completely impossible, as will be explained later.
    It is because of the tendency to powers that we, human beings, have repeated or will repeat (1)-(5).

ENLARGING AND DEEPENING LIBERAL RIGHTS, SOCIAL RIGHTS, POLITICAL RIGHTS, DEMOCRATIC SYSTEMS, SEPARATIONS OF POWERS, THE RULE OF LAW, AND THE RIGHT TO EXIST IN GENERAL

    The fundamentals of the systems restraining the tendency to powers are (a) liberal rights, (b) social rights, (c) political rights, (d) democratic systems, (e) separations of powers, (f) the rule of law, and (g) the right to exist in general. In order to restrain the tendency to powers, (a) the freedom of thought and speech which exposes and criticize that tendency. Of course, the freedom of life and body need to be protected. also in order to enjoy freedom, (b) life, health, minimum life, education, and labor condition need to be secured. (c)(d) At least when periodic elections are secured, citizens can change the holders of powers, above all, state powers who are running wild. It is because periodic and fair elections are nullified that autocracy or despotism passed through in the past even if there was only one enthusiastic election. Though the public opinion can be manipulated, manipulation is far better than oppression with armed forces. While democratic systems are those where citizens restrain powers comparatively directly, (e) separations of powers are effective systems where they separate powers and make them restrain one another. In such a way, the systems restraining the tendency of powers include those which made them restrain one another. Far from that, they are the most effective. That is because those systems do not weaken but make use of powers. Again, we need to not only restrain powers but also make them restrain one another. (f) The first essence of the rule of law lies on making the very holders of powers, above all, state powers comply the law, above all, the constitution. The second lies on restraining even the majority's running wild and on protecting minorities. (g) The right to exist in general was explained in one of the above chapters. Those systems restraining the tendency to powers can be called "Democratic and Separative Systems", too.
    It sometimes seems that democratic and separative systems are ineffective and short of the ability to deal with crises. However, it is autocracy or despotism that tend to bring about crises like international and civil war, man-made disaster, and so on. In addition, it is in crises that the freedom of speech, science, and so on which discuss and criticize current policies are necessary. In addition, though speedy discussion and criticism are necessary, new and old media, research institutes, and so on are readier for such speed than governments. Political ideals, politicians, and policies are transient. If a "philosopher king governs well, there is no guarantee that his or her successor do so. From the beginning, a philosopher king was a legend, that is, a fiction, and there is no evidence in the human history that anybody governed well. We need constantly to establish, maintain, and improve democratic and separative systems. When we suffer the pain of a war, we had better regret and improve old systems than hate and revenge ourselves on the enemy. The cause of pain in war lies not on enemies or friends but on the defects of the systems of the home or enemy nation or the both which enabled the violation of the freedom of speech or the running wild of the military or of the civilians controlling it.
    We need to reconfirm the merits of current democratic and separative systems and to enlarge and deepen them, and it is possible. Some ways to do so will be explained in "SEPARATING EACH STATE POWER INTO THE TWO SYSTEMS OF THAT OF THE RULE OF LAW PROTECTING LIBERAL RIGHTS AND THAT OF THE HUMAN RULE SECURING SOCIAL RIGHTS".

NEEDLESSNESS OF TOTALLY DESTRUCTIVE MEANS

     The more science and technology, above all, information technology advances, the more narrowly weapons can limit their targets, the more selectively they can destroy, and the less indiscriminately they need to destroy. It can be said that the only benefit which the cold war brought to us was such progress of information technology. Weapons which can destroy selectively in such a way can be called "Selectively Destructive Means". If totally destructive means, for example, nuclear weapons had been necessary in the twentieth century, that necessity would be decreasing in and after the twenty-first century. had been necessary, that necessity would be decreasing in the twenty-first century. In addition, with the advance of science and technology, not only destructive means but also defensive means advance. The defensive means which can be developed from now on will be of totally different kinds from any of those which were envisaged in the latter half of the twentieth century. When advanced selectively destructive means and defensive ones are linked, totally destructive means are more needless.
    If the governments or armed forces of any countries want to invade any other countries, all that the former need to do are reconnoiter the latter, to detect the main facilities of the governments and armed forces of the latter with advanced information technologies, and to destroy them with advanced selectively destructive means. Then, most of the citizens and the nature of the latter can exist, and the former can accomplish their purpose of invading and ruling the latter. If the former used totally destructive means, most of the citizens and the nature of the latter would be destroyed, too, and the former could not accomplish their purposes. That is because few of the human beings and little of the nature would exist which the former had hoped to rulle. First, totally destructive means are needless here.
    Of course, the governments and armed forces of the latter or international or world organizations can defend the latter with advanced defensive means. Moreover, they can destroy the governments and armed forces of the former with advanced selectively destructive means. When such an exchange destroy the governments and armed forces of the former and the latter, the war is over, and most of the citizens of the former and the latter can exist. Totally destructive means are needless here, too.
    The surface government and armed forces can be detected. Submarines in the bottoms of the sea, satellites and spaceships in the space, and deep underground facilities can hardly be detected. However, they cannot be detected or dealt with by totally destructive means or any means. That is, totally destructive means are useless and unnecessary here, too.
    In the above invasion, defense, or exchange, those undetectable means will be used. However, also in this case, if the detectable governments, armed forces, or organizations are destroyed with undetectable selectively destructive means, the war is usually over. If some of those governments or armed forces survived, they can easily invade the capital or main cities of other states, the war become civil wars if it continue, and totally destructive means are useless in civil wars. On those grounds, totally destructive means are unnecessary.
    In order to prevent aggression, war, and so on, though deterrence is necessary, what matters is who we need to deter. What we need to deter are not general citizens but political powers and armed forces and the holders of them who can wage war, aggression, and so on. In order to prevent aggression, war, and so on, all that we need to do is deter them and the holders of them with selective destructive means. They fear the danger to them alone, that is, that by selective destructive means more than anything, for example, that to general citizens. They can no more kill themselves along with general citizens. Old deterrence theory was wrong because it involved totally destructive means of nuclear weapons. If it involves only selective destructive means, it is not so bad. Here undetectable selectively destructive means enable it. It can be called "Selective Mutual Assured Destruction". However, because those words can bring about much misunderstanding, they will rarely be used in these books. Again, all that we need to do is deter political powers and armed forces and the holders of them.
    As was explained earlier, "deterrence theory" or "mutual assured destruction" is dangerous. As was explained earlier, that is because the accidents which human beings cannot foresee will happen, because the insiders or the person in charge of them can lose the rationality to control them, and because some outsiders can intrude into them.
    In contrast, even if those happenings are caused, "selective" mutual assured destruction with "selective" destructive means do not destroy general citizens indiscriminately or at random. If general citizens alienate the facilities of governments and armed forces and do not live near them, the possibility of general citizens' being destroyed indiscriminately or at random gets still smaller.
    In addition, as was explained earlier, it is only a fiction that some aliens' invasion will extinguish living things including human beings on the earth. Moreover, it is only a fiction that nuclear weapons repel invading aliens. If it were probable, that possibility would be much smaller than that of human beings' extinguishing living things including them.
    On those grounds, totally destructive means are unnecessary for any purposes.

THE WAY TO POUR SALT ON THE WOUND OF THE NEEDLESSNESS OF TOTALLY DESTRUCTIVE MEANS

    There is a way to pour on the wound of the needlessness of totally destructive means. It is for general citizens not to live close to governments and armed forces. Of course, the freedom of speech to expose and criticize governments and armed forces is the most important kind of liberal right, and that for citizens to approach them timely needs to be secured. However, it is free whether we approach or alienate them. More concretely, it is the protection of citizens' liberal right not to live close to governments and armed forces. In addition, in cases where governments or armed forces are formed or moved, it is the protection of citizen's liberal right to move to places far from them, and it is the security of their social rights to compensate the expense for the movement.
    In addition, we needs to prevent governments and armed forces from escaping into general citizens and to arrange the international law, fundamental law, domestic law, and system which discharge those escaping in such a way and appoint their substitutes.
    This is the right to escape war damage. In most cases, the responsibility for going to or being involved in war including international and civil war and including conventional and totally destructive war rests with the holders of political power or armed forces. It is only them that need to suffer war damage. Even in cases where somebody thinks that some citizens are responsible, general citizens may well charge those holders with war damage.
    When general citizens alienate governments and armed forces in such a way, totally destructive means decisively become needless. Both in the international society and in each state or nation, holders of powers can destroy each other with citizens left. This right is for general citizens in the world to make holders of powers in the world accept the responsibility for war. Simultaneously, it is for holders of powers to seek powers with the preparedness for that responsibility. It is the deterrence of the holders of powers in the world by the general citizens in the world. It may seem to be an excess in peacetime. However, it is easy to let us go to the facilities of the government or the military in tens of minutes by train or car if we want to go there. A little more closely, it is the distance of 30 kilometers or 15 miles. Each of the main facilities of the government or the military is within a radius of 1 kilometers or 0.5 miles. It is easy to destroy all of that facility and its staff by some selective destructive means as was explained earlier. It is easy for citizens to keep 29 kilometers or 14.5 miles away from its center and to go there by car or train as necessary. When the main parts of the government and the military is isolated with such a distance, nobody find any necessity of totally destructive means for any purposes.
    The protection and security of this right decisively makes totally destructive means needless and is the decisive way to abolish and prevent totally destructive means and reduce pain as in general as possible.
    Again, the liberal right of free speech to expose and criticize the government and the military need to be protected completely. It is free whether we approach or alienate them.

ONE-WAY ABOLITION

    As was explained above, if weapons are necessary, conventional ones, advanced selectively destructive means, and advanced defensive means which contain no totally destructive ones are enough. Above all, the superpowers have enough of them, and so each of them can abolish its own totally destructive means even one way without waiting and seeing the others. Such a one way abolition is the decisive way to abolish and prevent totally destructive means.
    Of course, the negotiations and pressures for the abolition and prevention of totally destructive means are necessary. Holders of powers hardly give up theirs. That is the same about state powers and totally destructive means. Accordingly, general citizens need to enlarge and deepen liberal rights, political rights, social rights, democratic systems, separations of powers, the rule of law, and the right to exist in general which will be defined later, and by these means citizens need to make state powers to abolish and prevent totally destructive means.
    In the latter half of the twentieth century and the first half of the twenty-first century, the above need to be done, above all, in the three superpowers. When the three superpowers abolish and prevent the totally destructive means, the others will do the same. Moreover, when two of the three do, the other of the three will do. Out of the three superpowers, two are not democratic. When they are democratized, if they abolish their totally destructive means, the others will do the same. In addition, at the end of the cold war, we had needed to abolish nuclear weapons at least.

SECURING THE EXISTENCE

    For human beings to abolish and prevent totally destructive means and for living things including human beings to exist until the natural drastic change of the earth or the sun while reducing pain as in general as possible can also be called the "Existence" simply, and a little more closely, the Existence of Living Things Including Human Beings, Existing until the Natural Ending, Existing While Reducing Pain, and so on. Those words designate for human beings to abolish and prevent totally destructive means and for living things including human beings to exist until the natural drastic change of the earth or the sun while reducing pain as in general as possible in these books.
    Desiring such an existence is the ultimate desire explained earlier, and the right to seek it is the right to exist in general explained earlier. In addition, for human beings to realize such an existence can be called Securing the Existence. Though such words seem to admire human dignity, actually securing the existence is for human beings to abolish and prevent totally destructive means totally which they have researched, developed, and held and to reduce the pain which they are causing, and it is only to pay the debt made by themselves by themselves.

THE SYSTEMS TO SECURE THE EXISTENCE

    First, the fundamental law like constitution in each state needs to provide that the state secure the existence, that its state power secure it in the state, and that its state power secure it in cooperation with the other state powers in the other states or with international organizations in the international society.
    Second, in each state, the law and systems to abolish and prevent totally destructive means and collective violence should be arranged.
    Third, though private powers can prompt totally destructive means, collective violence, and the destruction of the nature, it is state powers and the complexes of public and private powers that can prompt them the most, and so we need to enlarge and deepen democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law which can restrict them.
    Fourth, in the international society or world, some international or world organizations need to be made up, need to provide these first to fifth in their charters, and need to practice inspection, supervision, and so on in order to abolish and prevent totally destructive means.
    Fifth, the despotism, corruption, and so on of such international or world organizations need to be restricted, and so we need to seek and arrange democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law in the international society or in the world.

NECESSITY OF UNWRITTEN CONSTITUTIONS, LAWS, AND RIGHTS

    In order for the right to exist in general to be secured and for the systems explained in the above section to be arranged, not only the present written constitutions, laws, and rights but also those unwritten need to be admitted by general citizens and at least by judicial powers. Though, of course, it is desirable that they be written, we cannot wait for their being written.
    However, in order for it to be secured and for those systems to be arranged, we need to enlarge and deepen the constitutions, laws, and rights which have already been written to a degree, as will be explained in the following section.

ENLARGING AND DEEPENING LIBERAL RIGHTS, POLITICAL RIGHTS, SOCIAL RIGHTS, DEMOCRATIC SYSTEMS, SEPARATIONS OF POWERS, THE RULE OF LAW, AND THE RIGHT TO EXIST IN GENERAL BY ANOTHER AUTHOR

    Tough this theme was explained earlier, because it is very significant, and will be explained by another author.
    Human beings have the tendency to control others and tend to do so, and, in order to control, tend to gain, enlarge, hold, and use what are called "powers" like positions, armed forces, money, and so on. The largest and the strongest of powers are the state power in each country, state, or nation. It is state powers that have led autocracies, wars, massacres, the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means, and so on. In addition, the complexes of state powers and public and private enterprises and research institutes, that is, what are called "military-industrial complexes" prompt them. Anyway, state powers are at the center of those powers.
    In addition, the struggles for state powers in each country, state, or nation and the frictions among state powers in the international society cause autocracies, wars, massacres, the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means, and so on.
    From the beginning, not we, general citizens, but some holders of powers at whose center state powers are have researched, developed, held, and used totally destructive means and will struggle to do so from now on. Again, citizens have not done it and will not do it. Far from doing it, most citizens have not been informed of their doing it and will not be informed from now on. In addition, though citizens are informed of wars, massacres, and so on whether or not we hope, it is not citizens but some holders of powers at whose center state powers are that have launched them. Powers at whose center state powers will cause almost all disaster including wars, massacres, and the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means unless they are restrained.
    On those grounds, in order to secure the existence, we need to enlarge and deepen liberal rights, political rights, social rights, democratic systems, separations of powers, the rule of law, and the right to exist in general, and with them we need to restrict state powers themselves and the collusion between public and private powers, to separate each state powers, and to make the separated ones to restrict one another. Of course, we need to do so also in order to protect liberty and to satisfy daily desires and lives, that is, to protect liberal rights and to secure social rights.
    Democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law can be called "Democratic and Separative Systems". Out of them, democratic systems are systems where citizens restrict state powers comparatively directly. In contrast, separations of powers are systems where citizens separate the state power into several ones and make them restrict one another. The rule of law is a system which makes holders of powers rather than citizens comply the law, above all, the fundamental law like constitution and which even restrain the majority's arrogance. For example, if the president or the parliament restricts the human rights of a minority and even if the majority of the people support their doing so, as long as the constitution provides freedom of life, body, thought, religion, speech, and so on and equality under the law, no judges in the judicial power can decide for the president, the parliament, or the majority. Separations of powers and the rule of law are useful systems when democratic systems do not function to restrict state powers by means of dirty election, manipulation of public opinion, flattering the people, and so on.
    It sometimes seems that democratic and separative systems are inefficient and do not satisfy daily desires and lives effectively, and that autocracy, despotism, and so on are more efficient and satisfy them more effectively. However, such seemingness is only temporary. The latter restrict liberal and political rights and sacrifice daily desires and lives sooner or later. Such restrictions and sacrifices have been suffered frequently only in the twentieth century.
    In both ancient and modern times, some seeming democratic systems have run wild to despotism and caused wars, massacres, and so on. However, they have been caused by mere democratic systems which did not accompany separations of powers or the rule of law, and that by insufficient democratic systems. For example, they have been caused by unconstitutional legislation, only one or dirty election or referendum, and so on. We need to enlarge and deepen not mere democratic systems but democratic and separative systems involving separations of powers and the rule of law.
    Not that they are perfect, but that we need to enlarge and deepen them. It is not in the least that we should abandon them because conventional democratic systems could not restrict wars, totally destructive means, and so on. However, even conventional democratic systems which have not been enlarged and deepened yet are much better than autocracy, despotism, and so on. For example, some of the former suffer manipulation of public opinion, but the latter do oppression openly rather than manipulation, and manipulation is better than oppression. In this way, even primitive democratic systems are better than the latter. However, the former had the defect of allowing the transition from the former to the latter easily. In contrast, democratic and separative systems involving separations of powers and the rule of law have the functions of maintaining themselves and do not allow that transition easily. Moreover, we need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems extensively and deeply enough to nullify the possibility of autocracy, despotism, and so on's emerging. The very nullification of the possibility of the latter's emerging is the specialty of the former. The way to enlarge and deepen them will be explained in "SEPARATING EACH STATE POWER INTO THE TWO SYSTEMS OF THAT OF THE RULE OF LAW PROTECTING LIBERAL RIGHTS AND THAT OF THE HUMAN RULE SECURING SOCIAL RIGHTS".
    In addition, when some autocracy, despotism, and so on are overthrown, non-democratic systems often replace them after all. In order to prevent that, we need to prepare democratic and separative systems all over the world.
    Again, in order not only to secure the existence but also to protect liberty and to satisfy daily desires and lives, that is, in order to protect liberal rights and to secure social rights, we need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems. In addition, war, civil war, terror, and so on prompt the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means. Accordingly, we need to restrict them in order to abolish and prevent totally destructive means. Of course, we need to restrict them in order to protect liberty and to satisfy daily desires and lives. In order to restrict them, we need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems and to restrict autocracy, despotism, and so on.
    Moreover, from now on, it is probable that a kind of totalitarianism which displays the pretext of the existence of the whole of the human beings or living things gains power. This kind of totalitarianism destroys democratic and separative systems and run wild, and so, after all, it does not function for liberty or for the existence of human beings or living things. We need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems also in order to restrict this kind of totalitarianism.

DEVELOPMENT FROM HALF-WAY REVOLUTION TO ENLARGING AND DEEPENING DEMOCRATIC AND SEPARATIVE SYSTEMS

    It is easier to overthrow old regimes through an enthusiastic revolution. The question is the aftermath. We have often experienced that though some autocracy or despotism is overthrown through what is called revolution, it is only replaced by some other autocracy or despotism. That is because some groups lead it with half-way democratic and separative systems. We need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems also in order to prevent such a half-way revolution. These books never reject any revolution. They only say that the question is its aftermath.

IDEAL AND REALITY

    Typically, ideal and reality are realized in the following way. When young, everybody seek ideals to a degree. That degree is different among individuals. As we grow older, everybody adapt him or herself to reality, and the pursuit of realities goes latent to a degree and in some ways. That degree and way is different among individuals, too. That adaption is for the sake of the maintenance of life of individuals and their family for most of us. Some abandon themselves to the reality for the sake of struggle for power or money. Most of us abandon our selves to the reality for the sake of minimum life.
    Anyway, each of us may seek ideals on the complete freedom of thought and speech. Whatever ideals an individual have, they cannot trouble other individuals or societies. Parents, teachers, and superiors should not press their ideals on their children or inferiors. Moreover, each of us needs to seek ideals on the complete freedom of thought and speech. That is because it leads to totalitarianism for powers to tinge the ideals of individuals.
    In addition, ideals may be profound on individuals' complete liberty. However profound ideals are, they do not trouble other individuals or societies. Moreover, they had better be profound on individuals' liberty. If holding totally destructive means or going to war is questioned in elections or plebiscites, when we vote with such ideals, it will not be agreed on. However deeply we abandon ourselves to the reality, let us seek profound ideals and dreams freely and secretly. It is happy, isn't it?

DAILY DESIRES

    Typically, the relation between ideal and reality is embodied in the following way. The young pursuit some ideals to a degree though that degree is a little different among individuals. Anyway, as they grow older, they come to adapt themselves to the reality and the pursuit of ideals decreases to a degree though that degree, too, is a little different among individuals. Of course, that adaptation is for the sake of the maintenance of the life of each individual or his or her family. Some people abandon themselves in the reality for the sake of the struggle of power and control. Many people do so for the sake of minimum life. Anyway, most of us leave a lot of ideals.
    An individual's emotion and thinking having the following properties (1)(2) can be called a "Daily Desire" or Daily Desire for the Self.

(1) Most of it is occupied with emotion for the sake of the self.
(2) Even if it involves some emotion or thinking for the sake of any things other than the self, it only involves the emotion or thinking for the sake of those who or which are close like families, friends, boy or girl friends, neighbors, schools, offices, hometowns, and so on.

For example, wanting to play, to make money easily, to have good food, to love one another, to drink with friends, to talk with friends about human lives, to keep healthy, and to live long, wanting his or her family and friends to be healthy and to live long, hating being bound, and wanting to be free are daily desires. In addition, an individual's existence and functions which satisfy his or her daily desires can be called a "Daily Life".
    Daily desires and lives in themselves never cause totally destructive means or a lot of pain which were explained earlier. Even if the former cause the latter, they do so by being changed by totalitarian thought which will be explained below.

TOTALITARIAN THOUGHT

    As far as the ways to live and die of human individuals and societies are concerned, there can be no thoughts or ideas that are comprehensively right. For example, though the freedom of thought and speech seems to be so, it cannot be said that the speeches violating the pride or privacy of some general citizens are so. In contrast, the speeches exposing and criticizing the chiefs of administrative powers and the members of the legislative powers are right in any case. In such a way, there can be no thoughts or ideas concerning the ways to live and die of human individuals and societies that are comprehensively right, and they are partially right, vague, or wrong. The thoughts, ideas, emotions, religions, and so on concerning the ways to live and die of human individuals and societies which assert that they are comprehensively right or which pretend to be so can be called "Totalitarian Thoughts".
    Driven by the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later, some human beings (1) seek eternity, feel empty only by satisfying their daily desires, tend to get, keep, and enlarge powers, to control others, to win honor, to do something, and to leave something for the sake of certain large groups like countries, states, or nations. Some of them (1-1) lose themselves in mere means of powers or money, and some (1-1-1) seek mere powers, and some (1-1-2) seek mere money. Though the others (1-2) do not seek mere powers or money, some of them (1-2-1) want to do something or to leave something for the sake of certain large groups, and some of them (1-2-1-1) resort to or go to war, to develop, hold, and use weapons, and totally destructive means in the modern society. (1-2) may be more troublesome than (1-1). That is because they think that they are doing something for the sake of certain large groups. There is little harm in wanting to do something and to leave something for individuals or familiar small groups, that is, in daily desires in themselves. In contrast, there can be large harm in wanting to do or to leave something for the sake of certain large groups. Here they can be infiltrated or exploited passively by the totalitarian thought that they can do anything for the sake of large groups, or they can actively become advocators of such a totalitarian thought.
    The words of countries, states, and nations designate slightly different things. However, when the words "countries, states, or nations" are always used, sentences are complicated. Accordingly, the words of states are usually used in these books. Thought for the sake of each state as follows is the most troublesome in totalitarian thought. In the human history up to now, each state has been the largest, strongest, solidest, and clearest of all the groups. Though they are large, international organizations, the world, the earth, all of the human beings or living things, and so on have not been strong, solid, and clear groups. As a result, some of those who want to win honor, to do something, and to leave something for others want to do something for the sake of each state and seek its power, defense, prosper, interests, and so on, and some of them seek for it to hold totally destructive means.
    In addition, the holders of powers including public and private ones and their complexes have inspired, beautified, and taken advantage of citizens' moderate thought for the sake of each state, and enlarged their powers, prompted war, despotism, and so on, and restricted and sacrificed a lot of liberty and daily desires and lives, that is, liberal and social rights. In addition, it is undeniable that thought for the sake of each state at least have not restrained but implicitly accepted the research, development, and hold of totally destructive means.
    In addition, some daily desires are induced, beautified, and taken advantage of by the holders of powers, are changed into totalitarian thought, and sometimes prompt despotism, autocracy, war, the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means, and so on. For example, the daily desires to protect the self, his or her families, friends, boy or girl friends, and so on are changed into the pursuit of national power, defense, prosper, interests, and so on, resorting to and going to war is beautified, and the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means are sometimes connived. The beautification of our going to war in order to protect our families is considerably troublesome. Most of us have known that it is not for the sake of anything far from our families and have gone to war not willingly but reluctantly being forced by powers. It is necessary for us not to be induced, beautified, or taken advantage of. It is necessary for us to think and desire of, by, and for the self. In addition, the politicians using such a phase as "defending our family" need to be severely criticized.
    Even in the solidest one, a state is not a single entity like an individual of human beings or other living things but a complex consisting of various elements like the general citizens, political, economic, social powers, other smaller groups, culture, resources, nature, and so on within borders. Which of those elements do we have attachments to? Most of us have attachments to our families and neighbors and the food, drink, culture, and the nature of our hometowns and not in the least to political powers or their holders. It makes fool of general citizens to make such a complex consisting of various elements appear to be a single entity and to call up attachments. It is impossible and unnecessary for us to have what is called "patriotism". Simply, all that we need to do is love the self and the persons and things familiar to us.
    In addition, we cannot find out which of the elements we need to reform by looking upon a state as a single entity with various elements confused. It is often the political powers and systems that we need to reform. We do not need to reform individuals, families, cultures, and so on. If we needed to reform them, each of us could do it freely. In these ways, not in the least that states are unnecessary, but that we need to reform some parts of them. A little more closely, we need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems. Simply, we do not need to believe in or love states in the least but to improve and make use of them.
    In totalitarian thought, because large groups seem to be supreme, we can hardly see the things beyond them. For example, in thought for the sake of each state, we can hardly see what are beyond each state like the international or world societies, organizations, or systems, general human beings or living things, or so. On the other hand, we can easily see multinational corporations, mass media, social networking services, and so on. States are not the only real. Including both visible and invisible ones, and including both good and evil ones, it is certain that not only states but also what are beyond them are really influencing the world. We need to see such reality. Moreover, while seeing that reality, we need to seek necessary and possible ones of what are beyond each state.
    It is wrong that we believe in the whole of a thought. We do not have to believe in the whole at all. As for a lot of thoughts, some parts of each of them is appropriate and useful. For example, even some parts of old capitalism or communism are appropriate and useful. We need to make use of those parts. For example, old deterrence theory was wrong because it involved nuclear weapons, and the deterrence not involving any totally destructive means, as was explained earlier, is necessary in some situations.
    However, it is not that all of us need to see them. Even if we cannot do that, living on daily desires is much better for both existence and liberty than being induced and taken advantage of by the holders of powers and resorting to totalitarian thought. This is a kind of freedom of thought and of speech, too.
    In addition, many pieces of conventional science and technology have prompted the destruction of the nature and some of them has researched and developed totally destructive means. Of course, the self-restraint by scientists and technologists are necessary. However, the restrictions of them by others are necessary, too. However, they have also been induced and taken advantage of by the holders of political and economic powers or their complexes. Accordingly, above all, the restriction on the latter is necessary. In addition, from now on, many pieces of science including human, social, and natural science needs to take in at least human beings' deviating from the cycle of prosper and decline and nuclear weapons, the immutable gene means, and artificial drastic changes' having the ability to extinguish all of the living things including human beings on the earth. Some pieces of technology need to develop the means for the total abolition and prevention of totally destructive means. For example, the means for the detection and inspection of them need to develop. Moreover, if the completely defensive and safe means against totally destructive means should be developed, they would lose their value and vanish of themselves. If they could not do that, it would be necessary that human and social science like law, politics, economics, sociology, psychology, and so on seek and propose the systems for the enlargement and deepening of democratic and separative systems and for the total abolition and prevention of totally destructive means.
    However, again and again, even if we cannot do that, it is much better for us to live just on daily desires than to be induced and taken advantage of by the holders of powers and to resort to totalitarian thought. After all, it is necessary and possible that human individuals seek and represent the ways to live and die of human individuals and societies with their complete liberty. This is the essence of the freedom of thought and speech.

EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

    Please review the ways to reduce a lot of pain and to abolish and prevent totally destructive means. All of the ways are also those to protect liberty and to satisfy daily desires and lives, that is, to protect liberal rights and to secure social rights. The ultimate desire and daily desires never sacrifice each other. They are not contradictory but consistent. In short, existence and liberty are consistent. Even if we are urged to pick up one of them, we need to neglect such an absurd alternative and to secure both of them.

References

DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

SEPARATING EACH STATE POWER INTO THE TWO SYSTEMS OF THAT OF THE RULE OF LAW PROTECTING LIBERAL RIGHTS AND THAT OF THE HUMAN RULE SECURING SOCIAL RIGHTS

PSYCHOLOGIES OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES OR MORE



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