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EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

THINGS APPEARING TO EAFH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT

    Each of us, human beings, has the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later. It is the ultimate anxiety. We, human beings, have thought various ways to transcend it. This is an aspect of the human history. However, not a decisive way to transcend it has hit us. The decisive way will be explained a little later in this book.
    Material things, material functions, bodies, bodily functions, neural systems, neural functions, neural cells, neural cells' excitements and transmissions, molecules, atoms, nuclei, neutrons, protons, electrons, universal gravitation, electrostatic force, magnetic force, vacuum, the space itself, and so on can be called "Things in Themselves". In contrast, sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, tastes, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, images, ideas, and so on can be called "Appearing Things". They can also be called "Phenomena" or Mental Phenomena. However, we need to distinguish things appearing to me, things appearing to you, things which appeared in the past, things which will appear in the future, things appearing to me at present, things appearing to each of us at the then present, and so on. Accordingly, they are called Appearing Things in these books. An appearing thing's existing or being premised to exist can be called the thing's "Appearing". Things excluding the time are completely divided into THINGS IN THEMSELVES and APPEARING THINGS. That is, there are no remains or overlaps after they are divided.
    Now, only one thing can make sure that only one group of things exist at only one time. For example, the sight of my personal computer, my hands striking its keyboard, my desk, the walls, and the windows are appearing on a visual sensation, the sound of striking the keyboard is appearing on an auditory sensation, feeling of the keyboard is appearing on a somatic sensation, moderate hunger is appearing on an autonomic sensation, to me, who am the writer of this book, at present, and I can make sure that they exist. In that only one thing can make sure that only one group of things exist at only one time, the only thing that can make sure can be called "I", the only time can be called the "Present", and the only one group of things whose existence can be made sure of can be called the "Things Appearing to Me at Present" or the "Group of things Appearing to Me at Present". A thing appearing to me at present's existing can be called the thing's "Appearing to Me at Present". THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT are included in APPEARING THINGS. A thing's appearing to me at present is included in a thing's appearing. I can make sure that THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT exist.
    Now, each thing can make sure that each group of things exist at each time, or it is premised that each thing can make sure each group of things exist at each time. For example, when you and I look at each other and talk; I can make sure that the sight of your face appearing to me at present on a visual sensation and your voice appearing to me at present on an auditory sensation exist, and it is premised that you can make sure that the sight of my face appearing to you at present on a visual sensation and my voice appearing to you at present on an auditory sensation exist. In that each thing can make sure that each group of things exist at each time or it is premised that each thing can make sure that each group of things exist at each time, each thing that make sure can be called "Each of Us", each time can be called the "Then Present", and each group of things whose existence can be made sure of can be called "Things Appearing to Each of Us at the Then Present" or a Group of Things Appearing to Each of Us at the Then Present. A thing appearing to each of us at the then present's existing or being premised to exist can be called the thing's "Appearing to Each of Us at the Then Present". THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT include THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT and are included in APPEARING THINGS. A thing's appearing to each of us at the then present includes a thing's appearing to me at present and is included in a thing's appearing. Each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist or it is premised that each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist.
    Now, it cannot be made sure whether or not any THINGS IN THEMSELVES exist. For example, the sight of my personal computer, its keyboard, my hands striking it, and so on are appearing on a visual sensation, the sound of striking it is appearing on an auditory sensation, and feeling of the keyboard is appearing on a somatic sensation, to me at present, and I can make sure that they exist, but they are only sights, sounds, feeling, and so on, that is, APPEARING THINGS and are not THINGS IN THEMSELVES, and I can no way make sure whether or not they in themselves exist. Moreover, it cannot be made sure whether or not any APPEARING THINGS, excluding THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT, exist. For example, when you and I look each other and talk, I can make sure that your face appearing to me at present on a visual sensation and your voice appearing to me at present on an auditory sensation exist, but I cannot make sure whether or not my face appearing to you at present on a visual sensation or my voice appearing to you at present on an auditory sensation exists.
    However, it is premised that THINGS IN THEMSELVES exist. For example, it is unthinkable that all things in the world are no more than illusions. Moreover, it is premised that APPEARING THINGS excluding THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT exist. Moreover, it is premised that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT excluding THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT exist. For example, when you and I look at each other, I think that you can see my face like I can see yours.
    In contrast, as far as THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT are concerned, it is not that it is premised that they exist, but that I can make sure that they exist. For example, I, who am the writer of this book, can make sure that the sight of my personal computer, its keyboard, and my hands striking it appearing to me at present on a visual sensation, and so on exist. Moreover, it is premised that each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist. For example, when you and I look at each other, I think that you can make sure that my face appearing to you at present on a visual sensation exists like I can make sure that your face appearing to me at present on a visual sensation exists. After all, I can make sure that THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT exist, and it is premised that each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist. However, when we always divide those two cases, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, those are also called "Its being premised that each of us can make sure that things appearing to each of us at the then present exist" in these books.
    Moreover, it is premised that THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT exist continuously for hours. For example, from waking up in the morning till falling asleep at night, the sights of the rising sun, my town, living things including human beings, the setting sun, streetlights, and so on, their sounds, the images of the things which I will write in this book, and so on have been appearing and will be appearing continuously to me who am the writer of this book. THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT which are premised to exist continuously for hours can be called the "Things Appearing to Me" or the Group of Things Appearing to Me. In addition, it is premised that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT do this. THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT which are premised to exist continuously for hours can be called "Things Appearing to Each of Us" or a Group of Things Appearing to Each of Us. For example, things appearing to each of the diurnal animals on the earth from waking up in the morning till falling asleep at night are included in them. THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME contain THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT, and THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US contain THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT.
    Moreover, it is premised that THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME are caused directly by several parts of the neural system and their functions, which are included in the individual body and its functions, which are included in THINGS IN THEMSELVES. For example 1, it is premised that things appearing to me on a visual sensation are caused directly by the neural group's excitement and transmission from the retinae through optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes. For example 2, it is premised that things appearing to me on a somatic sensation like the pain, hotness, coldness, and so on of the skins, bones, tendons, and so on are caused directly by the neural group's excitement and transmissions from them to sensory nerves to spinal cords and brain stems to somatosensory areas on temporal lobes. The several parts of the neural system and their functions which are premised to cause THE APPEARING THINGS TO ME directly can be called "My Phenomenological Neural System". In addition, the individual body and its functions containing my phenomenological neural system can be called "My Body". However, mere bodies cannot be called animals or human beings, much less the self. Those words imply some appearing things. Accordingly, my body and THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME are called "My Self" or "I" in these books. In addition, it is premised that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US are caused in the same way. The several parts of the neural system and their functions which are premised to cause THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US directly can be called "Each Phenomenological Neural System". In addition, the individual body and its functions containing each phenomenological neural system can be called "Each Body". In addition, each body and the things appearing to each of us which are premised to be caused directly by each phenomenological neural system contained in each body can be called "Each Self", or "Each of Us".
    So far, the following group (A) and group (B) have been distinguished.

Group (A)
I, the present, the things appearing to me at present, the things appearing to me, my phenomenological neural system, my body, my self

Group (B)
each of us, the then present, things appearing to each of us at the then present, things appearing to each of us, each phenomenological neural system, each body, each self

Concerning them, the following can be said in a sense.

I ⊂ each of us
the present ⊂ the then present
the things appearing to me at present ⊂ things appearing to each of us at the then present
the things appearing to me ⊂ things appearing to each of us
my phenomenological neural system ⊂ each phenomenological neural system
my body ⊂ each body
my self ⊂ each self

However, in group (A), it is not that it is premised that THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT exist, and it is not that it is premised that I can make sure that they exist, but that I can make sure that they exist. In contrast, in group (B), it is premised that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT excluding THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT exist, and it is premised that each of us can make sure that they exist. In such a way, while the starting point in group (A) is liberated from premises, that in group (B) is not so. However, excluding that, whatever is true in group (A) is true in group (B), too. Accordingly, from now on, group (A) and (B) will not be distinguished. In addition, each phenomenological neural system, each body, or each self is also called the Phenomenological Neural System, the Body, or the Self in these books. In addition, as was defined earlier, that I can make sure that THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT exist, and that it is premised that each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist is called "Its being premised that each of us can make sure that things appearing to each of us at the then present exist" in these books.

THE ANXIETY ABOUT THE SELF'S DYING SOONER OR LATER

    As was explained above, it is premised that APPEARING THINGS TO EACH OF US are caused directly by the phenomenological neural system contained in the body, that is, several part of the neural system and their function. In other words, it is premised that APPEARING THINGS TO EACH of US are not caused and do not exist if the phenomenological neural system does not function. Actually, the heart in the body, the brain stem in the neural system, or so stops functioning irreversibly, and as a result the phenomenological neural system stops functioning irreversibly, and as a result APPEARING THINGS TO EACH OF US stop being caused and existing irreversibly. That the body never exists or functions well enough to cause any THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US can be called the "Body's Death" or the Body's Being Dead. In addition, the body's getting dead can be called the Body's Dying. It is premised that the body's death brings it about that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US are never caused and never exist. The body's death and the fact that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US never exist which the body's death is premised to bring about can be called the "Self's Death" or the Self's Being Dead. In addition, the self's getting dead can be called the self's Dying. It is premised that the body's death brings it about that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US is never caused and never exist, and the self's death implies it. When the self is dead, it is premised that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US and THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT which they contain never exist, and that each of us can never make sure that any THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist.
    The self dies sooner or later. Each of us, human beings, has the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later. It is the ultimate anxiety. We, human beings, have thought various ways to transcend it. This is an aspect of the human history. However, not a decisive way to transcend it has hit us. However, the decisive way to transcend it is hidden in the things which have already been explained and are about to be explained.

THE DECISIVE WAY TO TRANSCEND THE SELF'S DYING SOONER OR LATER

    In the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later, what it is about is sometimes mistaken for the body's death. The body is included in THINGS IN THEMSELVES, and the body's death is only a change of some THINGS IN THEMSELVES. None of us have any anxiety only about such a change of some THINGS IN THEMSELVES. Each of us has anxiety not only about the body's death but also about the fact that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US never exist which it brings about. That is, each of us has anxiety not about the body's death but about the self's death. That is because we, human beings, have already recognized the brain death as death and fear it as much as the traditional cardiac death. In addition, that is because, in our daily life and medicine, what is called "consciousness" is respected, and its loss is taken seriously. More precisely, as was explained earlier, THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US contain THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT, each of us has anxiety about the fact that the latter never exist. More precisely, each of us has anxiety about the fact that we are never able to make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist. For example, when we wake up to find the sunlight through the window, we sometimes make sure that we are alive. The anxiety about self's dying sooner or later is also the anxiety about the inability to do so.
    However, it is premised that each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist. Simply, each of us is I for he or she.
    In addition, the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later contains the anxiety about space and time's being endless and accordingly that about there's being endless time after the self's death. However, because of the very endlessness, in the space which has endless space and time, an infinite number of material things similar to the animal bodies including the neural systems on the earth are sure to exist and function forever. For example, even the living things having the same genes that you have are generated in the endless space. It is premised that such an infinite number of material things cause an infinite number of THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT forever. It is premised that an infinite number of THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist forever, and that an infinite number of each of us can make sure forever that they exist.
    In addition, among groups of appearing things to each of us there are no spatial and temporal distances that can be seen among our bodies in things in themselves.
    First, as for temporal distances, in THINGS IN THEMSELVES, there are some temporal distances among the bodies which are premised to cause some groups of THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US. For example, when I have been dead for a billion years and when some animals where some APPEARING THINGS are caused are generated on another planet, there are temporal distances of a billion years between my body and theirs. In contrast, in APPEARING THINGS, the time of no APPEARING THINGS' existing is only a moment. This is just like falling fast asleep and waking up. Sound sleep for hours and for a billion or more years make no difference. More precisely, the time of no APPEARING THINGS' existing is more a moment than any sleep. That is because the latter involves some dreams. For example, when I have been dead for a billion years and when some animals where some APPEARING THINGS are caused are generated on another planet, as soon as the sight of the earth lightened by the sun disappears, that of the planet lightened by another fixed star is appearing.
    Second, as for spatial distances, in THINGS IN THEMSELVES, there are some spatial distances among the bodies which are premised to cause some groups of APPEARING THINGS TO EACH OF US. For example, there is a spatial distance of its diameter between two person's bodies that live on the opposite sides of the earth, and there are spatial distances of light years among the stars where some animals can be generated. However, if anything needed to move among them, the time of the movement would be a moment, as was explained above. In addition, in APPEARING THINGS, it is premised that APPEARING THINGS TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT are just in front of each of us, and that each of us can make sure that they are just in front of us. For example, when I see stars light years far away, just like I do so, some animals having visual sensations on some planets of some of those fixed stars see the one which we call the sun. In addition, in APPEARING THINGS, the thing to which An APPEARING THING spatially appear appears. It is easier to understand when it is called the appearing center of the world. The thing to which APPEARING THINGS spatially appear in APPEARING THINGS can be called the "Appearing Center of the World". As a result, it is the same as "each of us" defined earlier. It seems to be at the head in the vertebrates on the earth. For example, things appearing on an visual sensation with both eyes seem to appear to the deep place between the both eyes in the head. In THINGS THEMSELVES, there are spatial distances of inches or more among such heads, as was exemplified above. However, in the appearing things, any head or any portion of a body is the same appearing center of the world, that is, each of us. For example, just like my head is the appearing center of the solar system for me, for an animal generated on a planet in another system light years far way, the head or another portion of his or her body is the appearing center of the latter system.
    In these ways, in APPEARING THINGS, there are no spatial and temporal distances that there are in THINGS IN THEMSELVES.
    In summary, in appearing things, there are no spatial and temporal distances that there are in things in themselves. It is premised that things appearing to each of us at the then present exist, and that each of us can make sure that they exist. In the space which has endless space and time, it is premised that an infinite number of things appearing to each of us at the then present exist forever, and that infinite number of each of us can make sure forever that they exist. Knowing these is the decisive way to transcend the ultimate anxiety about the Self's dying sooner or later.
    Those who have died transcending that anxiety have known this way vaguely and metaphorically or intuitively. The above way will be explained again a little metaphorically.
    That we are borne, die, are borne, and repeat the same is equal to that each of us lives forever with loss of memory repeated. It is true that every time each body dies, the neural system dies, the image's sources which have been generated, memorized, and stored disappear, and loss of memory, that is, forgetting all is caused. It is true that a part of the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later is that about loss of memory. However, loss of memory is the only thing that animals having memories need to accept. We do not need to accept anything other than loss of memory. Each of us forgets all and lives again. Again, that we are borne, die, are borne, and repeat the same is equal to that each of us lives forever with loss of memory repeated.
    Though the following is more metaphorical explanation than the above, we hope it will help understand the way. Its being premised that each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist transcends all the things including THINGS IN THEMSELVES and space and time. There seem to be spatial and temporal distances of light years between some groups of THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT. However, such seeming distances are nothing like falling fast asleep and waking up. Each of us becomes each of us in a moment whether they are light years far away or inches close. For example, you will be me when you die, and I will be you when I die. Not only light years are nothing, but also inches or centimeters are nothing. In addition, an infinite number of animals having sensations or more in the past have already become me.
    Though those are only metaphorical explanations, I hope that they help us to understand the way explained earlier. Though metaphorically, the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later which have been explained in this chapter can be called "Knowing Being Borne (Again) and Living (Again)" or the "Knowing the Endless repetition of life and death".

THE ULTIMATE DESIRE POSSIBLE TO SATISFY BEYOND LIFE AND DEATH

    However, we are not satisfied only with having sensations. We want to have memory, feeling, desire, ego, thinking, and so on. However, as long as animals having sensations, their nature, and the nature where they can evolve exist and function, they are certain to evolve to animals having the above functions. The seeming spatial and temporal distances among such APPEARING THINGS are nothing like falling fast asleep and waking up.
    However, all the living things including human beings on the earth will be extinguished someday at most with the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun. It can be called the "Natural Ending". If some human beings could immigrate to another planet or a planet of another fixed star and survive, many human beings and most living things would die, and those immigrants would evolve to another direction in another environment, and we could not look upon it as the existence of "human beings" or "living things".
    However, in the space which has endless space and time, an infinite number of material things similar to the living things on the earth exist forever, by an infinite number of functions similar to the evolution on the earth, an infinite number of material things similar to animals having sensations or more on the earth exist and function forever, and it is premised that such functions cause an infinite number of THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT forever. The seeming spatial and temporal distances between such APPEARING THINGS are nothing like falling fast asleep and waking up.
    However, many human beings want to be borne again and to live again as human beings or as evolved ones on the earth at least till the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun, don't they? This is the ultimate desire possible to satisfy beyond life and death. This can be called the "Ultimate Desire" (Possible to Satisfy beyond Life and Death). It is possible for us to satisfy beyond individuals and beyond generations because of the following. There are spatial and temporal distances of light years between the stars or systems where some living things can be generated. Accordingly, while the living things in a star or system hardly affect the living things in another star or system, in the same star or system including the earth, every living thing affects all the other living things that will be borne after it is borne in some ways. Of course, it can affect them to prompt their extinction before the natural ending, but it can also affect them to prompt their existence.

THE ABOLITION AND PREVENTION OF TOTALLY DESTRUCTIVE MEANS

    However, we, human beings, can extinguish all the living things including human beings on the earth by nuclear weapons and immutable gene means which will be explained below before the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun, that is, the natural ending. It can be called the "Artificial Ending" in contrast to the natural one.
    A weapon involving some changes of atomic nuclei like nuclear fission or fusion induced by the human beings can be called a "Nuclear Weapon". When a certain number or more of some subgroups of nuclear weapons are used in some situations, all the living things including human beings on the earth are extinguished.
    A gene manipulated by human beings which can replicate itself and which it is possible does not undergo any spontaneous mutations can be called an "Immutable Gene", and a means which involves some immutable genes can be called an "Immutable Gene Means". The traditional genes have been able to undergo some spontaneous mutations, and the traditional gene means only submit to the natural selections. In contrast, it is possible that immutable genes do not undergo any spontaneous mutations, and that immutable gene means involving such genes do not submit to the natural selections, reproduce themselves endlessly, and drive out and extinguish all the living things including human beings on the earth.
    Human beings can extinguish all of the living things including human beings by nuclear weapons and immutable gene means. The nuclear weapons and the immutable gene means can be called "Totally Destructive Means".
    When a species of living things other than human beings prosper, the prosperity destroys its nature, and the destruction makes it decline or extinguish itself. The decline makes its nature revive and the species and some other species exist, or the extinction makes some other species exist. This can be called the "Cycle of Prosperity and Decline". However, we, human beings deviate from this cycle. That is because the nuclear weapons and the immutable gene means can destroy the genes of living things on the whole of the earth. Accordingly, human beings can extinguish all the living things including human beings on the earth before the aging or death of the earth or the sun. Human beings need to abolish and to prevent totally destructive means totally, that is, nuclear weapons and immutable gene means in order to satisfy the ultimate desire possible to satisfy beyond life and death.
    The theories like "Deterrence theory" or "mutually assured destruction" which justifies nuclear weapons assume that the insiders or the persons in charge of totally destructive means are rational enough to control these means. However, first, it is possible that these insiders or the persons in charge are not rational enough, or that they go irrational. For example, some of them can think of suicide and can jump off an operation center like jumping off a building. Second, there can be some accidents of those means including running wild, breakdowns, aging, and some disorders by natural disasters that are beyond human rationality. Third, some outsiders can intrude into those means and make them run wild. Those who support or accept totally destructive means overlook these three possibilities.
    It is only a fiction that some aliens' invasion will extinguish living things including human beings on the earth. If it were possible, its possibility is much smaller than that of human beings' extinguishing living things including human beings. We, human beings, do not need to cope with aliens' invasion or the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun but only need to dispose of ourselves and our own means. Simply, we do not need to care others but only need to care ourselves.
    The details of totally destructive means will be explained in "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY".

REDUCING THE PAIN WHICH HUMAN BEINGS CAUSE AS IN GENERAL AS POSSIBLE

    Of course, animals including human beings have not only pleasure but also displeasure. Human beings have not only bodily or physical displeasure like aches, hotness, coldness, and so on but also mental displeasure like fear, anxiety, grief, loneliness, and so on. However, the word of "Pain" would be more familiar to us in daily life than that of "Displeasure". In addition, that of Pain as an uncountable noun designates not only bodily but also mental displeasure. Accordingly, the uncountable noun "Pain" is often used to designate bodily and mental displeasure in these books.
    Human beings also cause and suffer intentional and persistent pain by abuse, violence, war, despotism, torture, and so on. A lot of us think that we have more pain than pleasure, and some think that we have only pain. In such pain, it is sometimes the largest desire to be borne and to live again as another individual. Such a desire sometimes leads to the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later and the ultimate desire which were explained earlier, but it sometimes leads to the following.
    As soon as the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later, that is, knowing the endless repetition of life and death are explained in the above chapter, we are suffering the anxiety about suffering endless pain by the very endless repetition. Even if only human beings and animals on the earth suffer pain and if the pain ends up with the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun, we will suffer a lot of pain until that ending. The anxiety about suffering such endless or a lot of pain may be no less severe than that about the self's dying sooner or later.
    In the anxiety about suffering endless or a lot of pain, first, it is probable that some of us deny the endless repetition of life and death and construct another what is called world view, philosophy, or religion. However, the endless repetition of life and death is a fact of life. Then, we need to reduce pain as in general as we can, as will be explained above.
    In the anxiety about suffering endless or a lot of pain, second, it is probable that some of us actively seek or passively accept the extinction of human beings or the means which can cause it, that is, totally destructive means before the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun. A few will seek it actively, but more than are expected will accept it passively. However, the pain caused by totally destructive means is persistent and severe. For example, if nuclear weapons should extinguish us, we would suffer tens of thousands times more pain than hiroshima and nagasaki suffered in the summer of 1945. In addition, the radiation which nuclear weapons generate destroy or change our genes, and cause the persistent pain of the anxiety about carcinogenesis, infertility, and so on and that of the grief when they come true. Moreover, before the extinction, we suffer the anxiety about the possibility of the extinction including the death of the self and its family, friends, boy or girl friends, and so on. The totality of the pain which is caused directly by totally destructive means and the pain of the anxiety about the possibility of the extinction is no less severe than that of the pain which we suffer until the natural aging or death of the sun or the earth. Those who accept the extinction of human beings or totally destructive means overlook such pain.
    In the anxiety about suffering endless or a lot of pain, third, it is probable that some of us recognize not only the pain of human beings but also that of living things like that by the struggle for existence in evolution, that in food chain, and so on, and actively seek or passively accept the extinction of living things or totally destructive means. Few seek it actively, but more than are expected will accept it passively. However, the struggle for existence, food chain, and so on are necessary for the existence and evolution of living things including human beings. Simply, if it were not for them, we would not exist. In contrast, totally destructive means deviate from the cycle of prosper and decline which was explained earlier and from evolution and can cause the extinction of living things including human beings before the aging or death of the earth or the sun. In addition, the pain which animals excluding human beings cause and suffer is not as persistent as that which human beings cause and which animals including them suffer. For example, the pain of a herbivore killed by a carnivore is far less persistent than the carcinogenesis caused by the radiation generated by nuclear weapons. Of course, the pain caused by despotism, war, massacre, torture, and so on is severe and persistent.
    On those grounds, also in order to abolish and prevent totally destructive means totally and for human beings and living things to exist until the natural ending, we, human beings, need to reduce the pain which we cause as in general as possible. Of course, the reduction of pain is itself a purpose.
    From the beginning, we cannot know as whom or what we will be borne when we are bone and live again in the repetition of life and death on the earth. We will sometimes be borne as herbivores, carnivores, fishes, insects, worms, and so on. Many of us do not want to be borne as such animals. When we think of such things, it may not always be arrogant to hope the extinction of living things. However, in such animals, emotions like anxiety, fear, and so on, thinking, egos, and so on are nothing or thin. Accordingly, though the time when we live as them is not equal to falling asleep and waking up and to a moment, it is equal to dreaming and a very short time. In contrast, can we feel that it is a short time when we are borne as human beings and are suffering, for example, war, oppression, and so on? Then, we, human beings need to reduce pain which we cause as in general as possible. For example, in slavery, because masters will sometimes be borne as slaves, not only the latter but also the former need to abolish it, and in despotism, because the persecutors will sometimes be borne as the persecuted, not only the latter but also the former need to restrain it.
    In addition, a part of pain is necessary for animals' individuals and species to exist and evolve. For example 1, the pain on the skin prevent injury from reaching deep vital organs. For example 2, hunger and thirst prevent malnutrition and dehydration. For example 3, the dissatisfaction of sexual drive ensure the existence of the species. In contrast, human beings cause a lot of pain which is unnecessary also for human individuals and species to exist and evolve. For example, though the research and development of totally destructive means can prompt the advance of science and technology in general, the pain caused by them never prompts the existence and evolution of human individuals and species.
    On those grounds, we, human beings, need to reduce the pain which we cause as in general as possible. By the way, we do not need to increase pleasure. Pleasure can be pursued freely both by human beings and by living things. Simply, each of us does not need to intervene in the pleasure of other persons or living things. Again, human beings need to reduce the pain which they cause as in general as possible.
    Pain may have been made too much of since the beginning of this chapter. Many of us may think that there are not only pain but also pleasure and that they have been lucky to live as human beings on the earth. Nonetheless, they will want to reduce pain, above all, the pain which human beings cause.
    It is not completely impossible. Really, we, human beings, have even a little reduced the causes of pain. For example 1, we have even a little enlarged and deepened liberal rights, political rights, social rights, democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law, and have even a little reduced the causes of pain like oppression, despotism, and so on. For example 2, we have even a little enlarged and deepened social security. For example 3, we have even just a little worked on the preservation of the nature. The total abolition and prevention of totally destructive means, that is, nuclear weapons and immutable gene means is the most difficult, but it is not completely impossible.
    From the beginning, it is too empty that we seek or accept the extinction of human beings or living things or totally destructive means in order to end endless or a lot of pain. In addition, it is too painful that we exist until the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun while enduring a lot of pain. In contrast, each of us can have such a desire as follows. Each of us can have the desire to abolish and prevent totally destructive means totally and to exist until the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun while reducing the pain which we cause as in general as possible. This desire is worth calling the ultimate desire.
    On those grounds, with the above definition modified, the desire to abolish and prevent totally destructive means totally and to exist until the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun while reducing the pain which we cause as in general as possible can be called the Ultimate Desire (Possible to Satisfy beyond Life and Death). There is a consistent kind of egoism in it. It is in order for each of us to live freely when each of us is borne and lives again that each of us reduces pain and exists. Each of us needs to live only for each of us. Each of us does not need to live for others and should not do so. For example, the emotions or thought for the sake of states or nations lead to war, totally destructive means, and so on. Again, each of us needs to live only for each of us.

NEEDLESSNESS OF TOTALLY DESTRUCTIVE MEANS

     The more science and technology, above all, information technology advances, the more narrowly weapons can limit their targets, the more selectively they can destroy, and the less indiscriminately they need to destroy. Weapons which can destroy selectively in such a way can be called "Selectively destructive means". If they had been necessary in the twentieth century, the necessity of totally destructive means which destroy not selectively but at random and indiscriminately would be decreasing in the twenty-first century. For example, if nuclear weapons had been necessary, their necessity would have reached the peak in the latter half of the twentieth century, and it would be decreasing in the twenty-first century. In addition, with the advance of science and technology, not only destructive means but also defensive means advance. When selectively destructive means and defensive ones are more developed, totally destructive means are needless for any purposes like war, invasion, defense, and so on.
    If the governments or armed forces of any countries want to invade any other ones, all that the former need to do are reconnoiter the latter, to detect the main facilities of the governments and armed forces of the latter with advanced information technologies, and to destroy them with advanced selectively destructive means. Then, most of the citizens and the nature of the latter can exist, and the former can accomplish their purpose of invading and controlling the latter. If the former used totally destructive means, a lot of the citizens and the nature of the latter would be destroyed, too, and the former could not accomplish their purposes. That is because few of the human beings and little of the nature would exist which the former had hoped to control. First, totally destructive means are needless here.
    Of course, the governments and armed forces of the latter or international or world organizations can defend the latter with advanced defensive means. Moreover they can destroy the former with advanced selectively destructive means. When such an exchange destroy them and the former, the war is over, and most of the citizens of those countries and the other countries can exist. Totally destructive means are needless here, too.
    The surface government and armed forces can be detected. Submarines in the bottoms of the sea, satellites and spaceships in the space, and deep underground facilities can hardly be detected. However, they cannot be detected or dealt with by totally destructive means or any means. That is, totally destructive means are useless and unnecessary here, too.
    Also in the above invasion, defense, or exchange, those undetectable means will be used. However, also in this case, all that they have to do is destroy the governments or armed forces concerned with undetectable selectively destructive means, and the war is over. Totally destructive means are needless here, too. Paradoxically, undetectable selectively destructive means ensure it. If anybody want to call it "mutually assured destruction", we want to call it "Selective Mutually Assured Destruction" at worst.
    In order to minimize the damage to general citizens in the above situations, it is necessary for them not to live close to the facilities of governments and armed forces.
    In addition, we needs to prevent those governments and armed forces from escaping into general citizens, to arrange the international law, fundamental law, and system which discharge those escaping in such a way and appoint their substitutes.
    As was explained earlier, "Deterrence theory" or "mutually assured destruction" does not function. As was explained earlier, that is because the accidents which human beings cannot foresee will happen, because the insiders or the person in charge of them can lose the rationality to control them, and because some outsiders can intrude into them.
    In addition, as was explained earlier, it is only a fiction that some aliens' invasion will extinguish living things including human beings on the earth. Moreover, it is only a fiction that nuclear weapons repel invading aliens. If it were probable, that possibility is much smaller than that of human beings' extinguishing living things including them.
    If "deterrence", "mutually assured destruction", and so on were necessary, it would be enough to destroy only governments and armed forces. General citizens do not need to be involved. In order to destroy only the former, selectively destructive means are enough. If the latter, that is, general citizens alienate the former and if the latter do not live near the former, destroying only the former get easier.
    On those grounds, totally destructive means are unnecessary for any purposes.
    If weapons are necessary, conventional ones, advanced selectively destructive means, and advanced defensive means which contain no totally destructive ones are enough. Above all, the superpowers have enough of them, and so each of those which hold totally destructive means can abolish its own even one way without waiting and seeing the others. Such a one way abolition is the decisive way to abolish and prevent totally destructive means.
    Of course, the negotiations and pressures for the abolition and prevention of totally destructive means are necessary. Holders of powers hardly give up theirs. That is the same about public powers and totally destructive means. Accordingly, general citizens need to enlarge and deepen liberal rights, political rights, social rights, democratic systems, separations of powers, the rule of law, and the right to exist in general which will be defined later, and with them citizens need to make public powers to abolish and prevent totally destructive means. In the first half of the twenty-first century, those need to be done, above all, in and among the three superpowers.
    In the first half of the twenty-first century, it can be said that only the three superpowers need to be aimed at. That is because when the three abolish and prevent the totally destructive means, the others will do the same. Moreover, when two of the three do, the other of the three will do, and the others will do.
    In the early twenty-first century, out of the three superpowers, one is clearly not democratic, another is not enough. When they are democratized, they need to abolish their totally destructive means. Then, the other will do the same. In addition, at the end of the cold war, we had needed to cut nuclear weapons at least.

FIVE NECESSARY RESTRICTIONS ON, BY, AND FOR HUMAN BEINGS

    Human beings have the five troubles below in the natural state of the human society, and so they need to impose the five restrictions below on the whole or some parts of their society.
    First, violence like murder, injury, theft, and so on rampant and get organized or sophisticated more and more. Accordingly, we have provided crimes and penalties in the law, decided whether innocent or guilty and, if guilty, penalties in courts, and executed them.
    Second, political powers including armed forces center on a few people, and the holders of them tend to oppress general citizens and to run wild to autocracy, wars, massacres, and so on. Accordingly, in order to prevent them from oppressing us and running wild, we have restricted them with democratic systems, separations of powers, and so on.
    The first and second restrictions can also be looked upon as the protection of liberal rights and of political rights.
    Third, economic power including gold, money, land, resources, workers, machinery center on a few people and cause economic inequality and the contradiction of the capitalistic economy like monopoly, depression, unemployment, and so on. Accordingly, in order to dissolve them, no matter what economic system is adopted, more or less, we have arranged the systems where public powers regulate enterprises, secure workers' rights, and promote social security.
    Fourth, science and technology, industries, and human lives make progress, they are led by political and economic powers, and they together destroy the nature and harm our health. This destruction of the nature has been clear since the latter half of the twentieth century. Accordingly, in order to preserve the nature and our health, we are already regulating public and private enterprises and our lives more or less.
    The third and the fourth restrictions can also be looked upon as the security of social rights.
    Fifth, as was explained earlier, with nuclear weapons and immutable gene means, that is, with totally destructive means, we, human beings, can extinguish all the living things including human beings on the earth before the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun. This fifth trouble are different from the fourth above, that is, the destruction of the nature for the following reason. The forth trouble goes on slowly and does not deviate from the cycle of prosper and decline which was explained earlier. That is, if human beings destroy the nature, they decline, and the nature will revive. In contrast, totally destructive means can destroy genes of living things on the whole of the earth in a short time and can extinguish all the living things including human beings on the earth.
    Science and technology and industries will make progress even if left alone. The holders of political and economic powers will expand them even if left alone. Above all, they enlarge weapons. Accordingly, we cannot attribute totally destructive means only to the Manhattan Project, the Cold War, and so on. From the beginning, the fifth restriction on this fifth trouble is necessary. This fifth restriction is necessary, like the second restriction, above all, on the holders of political powers including armed forces and the holders of economic powers who collude with them.
    Of course, the self-restraint by scientists and technologists are necessary. However, the restrictions of them by others are necessary, too. However, above all, the restriction on the holders of political and economic powers who prompt and take advantage of them are necessary.

RIGHT TO EXIST IN GENERAL

    The ultimate desire, that is, the desires to abolish and prevent totally destructive means and to exist until the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun while reducing pain as in general as possible, is also a desire of each of us who lives at present. The pain of the anxiety and fear about the ultimate desire's being unsatisfied, that is, the anxiety and fear about a lot of pain and about the extinction of living things including Self and its family's death is serious. In addition, those who suffer such pain include each of us who lives at present. On these grounds, it is a right for each of us to satisfy the ultimate desire. The right for each of us to satisfy the ultimate desire can be called the "Right to Exist in General" or the Right to General Existence.
    Human rights are divided into liberal rights, political rights, and social rights which will be explained in "SEPARATING EACH STATE POWER INTO THE TWO SYSTEMS OF THAT OF THE RULE OF LAW PROTECTING LIBERAL RIGHTS AND THAT OF THE HUMAN RULE SECURING SOCIAL RIGHTS" and this right to exist in general. What is called right to life, right to live, right to exist, or right to existence is included in social rights. Liberal and political rights are rights of individuals at the then present. Social rights are rights of individuals and groups like families, companies, unions, and so on at the then present. Because the right in general is the right to reduce the anxiety and fear explained above, it is a right of individuals at the then present. If some totally destructive means should be used, it would be the violation of not only the right to exist in general but also liberal, political, and social rights.

SECURING THE EXISTENCE

    For human beings to abolish and prevent totally destructive means and for living things including human beings to exist until the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun while reducing pain as in general as possible can also be called the "Existence" simply, and a little more closely, the Existence of Living Things Including Human Beings, Existing until the Natural Ending, Existing While Reducing Pain, and so on. Those words designate for human beings to abolish and prevent totally destructive means and for living things including human beings to exist until the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun while reducing pain as in general as possible in these books.
    Desiring such an existence is the ultimate desire explained earlier, and the right to seek it is the right to exist in general explained earlier. In addition, for human beings to realize such an existence can be called Securing the Existence. Though such words seem to admire human dignity, actually securing the existence is for human beings to abolish and prevent totally destructive means totally which they have researched, developed, and held, and it is only to pay our debt.

THE SYSTEMS TO SECURE THE EXISTENCE

    First, the fundamental law like constitution in each country needs to provide that that country should secure the existence, that its public power endeavor to secure it in the state, and that its public power endeavor to secure it in cooperation with the other public powers in the other countries or with international organizations in the international society.
    Second, in each state, we need to arrange the law and systems to abolish and prevent totally destructive means.
    Third, though private powers can prompt totally destructive means, collective violence, and the destruction of the nature, it is public powers and the complexes of public and private powers that can prompt them the most, and so we need to enlarge and deepen democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law which can restrict them.
    Fourth, in the international society or world, some international or world organizations need to be made up, need to provide these first to fifth in their charters, and need to practice inspection, supervision, and so on in order to abolish and prevent totally destructive means.
    Fifth, the despotism, corruption, and so on of such international or world organizations need to be restricted, and so we need to seek and arrange some democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law in the international society or in the world.

ENLARGING AND DEEPENING LIBERAL RIGHTS, POLITICAL RIGHTS, SOCIAL RIGHTS, DEMOCRATIC SYSTEMS, SEPARATIONS OF POWERS, THE RULE OF LAW, AND THE RIGHT TO EXIST IN GENERAL

    Human beings have the habit to control others and tend to do so, and, in order to control, tend to gain, enlarge, hold, and use what are called "powers" like positions, armed forces, money, and so on. The largest and the strongest of powers are the alleged "public" power in each country, state, or nation. It is public powers that have led autocracies, wars, massacres, the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means, and so on. In addition, the complexes of public powers and public and private enterprises and research institutes, that is, what are called "military-industrial complexes" prompt them. Anyway, public powers are at the center of those powers.
    In addition, the struggles for public powers in each country, state, or nation and the frictions among public ones in the international society cause autocracies, wars, massacres, the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means, and so on.
    From the beginning, not we, general citizens, but some holders of powers at whose center public ones are have researched, developed, held, and used totally destructive means and will struggle to do so from now on. Again, citizens have not done it and will not do it. Far from doing it, most citizens have not been informed of their doing it and will not be informed from now on. In addition, though citizens are informed of wars, massacres, and so on whether we hope so or not, it is not we but some holders of powers at whose center public ones are that have launched them. Powers at whose center public ones are will cause almost all disaster including wars, massacres, and the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means unless they are restricted.
    On those grounds, in order to secure the existence, we need to enlarge and deepen liberal rights, political rights, social rights, democratic systems, separations of powers, the rule of law, and the right to exist in general, and with them we need to restrict public powers themselves and the collusion between public and private powers, to separate public powers, and to make the separated ones to restrict one another. Of course, we need to do so also in order to protect liberty and to satisfy daily desires and lives, that is, to protect liberal rights and to secure social rights.
    Democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law can be called "Democratic and Separative Systems". Out of them, democratic systems are systems where citizens restrict public powers comparatively directly. In contrast, separations of powers are systems where citizens separate the public power into several ones and make them restrict one another. The rule of law is a system which makes holders of powers rather than citizens comply the law, above all, the fundamental law like constitution and which even restrain the majority's arrogance. For example, if the president or the parliament restricts the human rights of a minority and even if the majority of the people support their doing so, as long as the constitution provides freedom of life, body, thought, religion, speech, and so on and equality under the law, no judges in the judicial power can decide for the president, the parliament, or the majority. Separations of powers and the rule of law are useful systems when democratic systems do not function to restrict public powers by means of dirty election, manipulation of public opinion, flattering the people, and so on.
    It sometimes seems that democratic and separative systems are inefficient and do not satisfy daily desires and lives effectively, and that autocracy, despotism, and so on are more efficient and satisfy them more effectively. However, such seemingness is only temporary. The latter restrict liberal and political rights and sacrifice daily desires and lives sooner or later. Such restrictions and sacrifices have been suffered frequently only in the twentieth century.
    In addition, in both ancient and modern times, some seeming democratic systems have run wild to despotism and caused wars, massacres, and so on. However, they have been caused by mere democratic systems which did not accompany separations of powers or the rule of law, and that by insufficient democratic ones. For example, they have been caused by unconstitutional legislation, only one or dirty election or referendum, and so on. We need to enlarge and deepen not mere democratic systems but democratic and separative systems involving separations of powers and the rule of law.
    Not that they are perfect, but that we need to enlarge and deepen them. It is not in the least that we should abandon them because conventional democratic systems could not restrict wars, totally destructive means, and so on. However, even conventional democratic systems which have not been enlarged and deepened yet are much better than autocracy, despotism, and so on. For example, some of the former suffer manipulation of public opinion, but the latter do oppression openly rather than manipulation, and manipulation is better than oppression. In this way, even primitive democratic systems are better than the latter. However, the former had the defect of allowing the transition from the former to the latter easily. In contrast, democratic and separative systems involving separations of powers and the rule of law have the functions of maintaining themselves and do not allow that transition easily. Moreover, we need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems extensively and deeply enough to nullify the possibility of autocracy, despotism, and so on's emerging. The very nullification of the possibility of the latter's emerging is the specialty of the former. The way to enlarge and deepen them will be explained in "SEPARATING EACH STATE POWER INTO THE TWO SYSTEMS OF THAT OF THE RULE OF LAW PROTECTING LIBERAL RIGHTS AND THAT OF THE HUMAN RULE SECURING SOCIAL RIGHTS".
    In addition, when some autocracy, despotism, and so on are overthrown, non-democratic systems often replace them after all. In order to prevent that, we need to prepare democratic and separative systems.
    Again, in order not only to secure the existence but also to protect liberty and to satisfy daily desires and lives, that is, in order to protect liberal rights and to secure social rights, we need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems. In addition, war, civil war, terror, and so on prompt the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means. Accordingly, we need to restrict them in order to abolish and prevent totally destructive means. Of course, we need to restrict them in order to protect liberty and to satisfy daily desires and lives. In order to restrict them, we need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems and to restrict autocracy, despotism, and so on.
    Moreover, from now on, it is probable that a kind of totalitarianism which displays the pretext of the existence of the whole of the human beings or living things gains power. This kind of totalitarianism destroys democratic and separative systems and run wild, and so, after all, it does not function for liberty or for the existence of human beings or living things. We need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems also in order to restrict this kind of totalitarianism.

DAILY DESIRES

    An individual's emotion and thinking having the following properties(1)(2) can be called a "Daily Desire" or Daily Desire for the Self.

(1)Most of it is occupied with emotion for the sake of the self.
(2)Even if it involves some emotion or thinking for the sake of any things other than the self, it only involves the emotion or thinking for the sake of what are close like families, friends, boy or girl friends, neighbors, schools, offices, hometowns, and so on.

For example, wanting to play, to make money easily, to have good food, to love one another, to drink with friends, to talk with friends about human lives, to keep healthy, and to live long, wanting his or her family and friends to be healthy and to live long, hating being bound, and wanting to be free are daily desires. In addition, an individual's existence and functions which satisfy his or her daily desires can be called a "Daily Life".
    Daily desires and lives in themselves never cause totally destructive means or a lot of pain which were explained earlier. Even if the former cause the latter, they do so by being changed by halfway thought which will be explained below.

HALFWAY THOUGHT

    In contrast to daily desires and to the ultimate desire, the thinking, emotion, thought, science, religion, and so on which deviate from daily desires and which contain none of the ultimate desire can be called "Halfway Thought".

    For example, if a kind of thought gave priority to a country, state, or nation, justice, or so over daily desires and lives and the existence, it would be halfway thought.
    Driven by the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later, some human beings (1) seek eternity, feel empty only by satisfying their daily desires, tend to get, keep, and enlarge powers, to control others, to win honor, to do something, and to leave something for the sake of certain large groups like countries, states, or nations. That is, they resort to halfway thought. Some of them (1-1) lose themselves in mere means of powers or money, and some (1-1-1) seek mere powers, and some (1-1-2) seek mere money. Though the others (1-2) do not seek mere powers or money, some of them (1-2-1) want to do something or to leave something for the sake of certain large groups, and some of them (1-2-1-1) resort to or go to war, to develop, hold, and use weapons, and totally destructive means in the modern society. (1-2) may be more troublesome than (1-1). That is because they think that they are doing something for the sake of certain large groups. There is little harm in wanting to do something and to leave something for individuals or familiar small groups, that is, in daily desires in themselves. In contrast, there can be large harm in wanting to do or to leave something for the sake of certain large groups, that is, in halfway thought.
    The words of countries, states, and nations designate slightly different things. However, when the words "countries, states, or nations" are always used, sentences are complicated. Accordingly, the words of states are usually used in these books. Thought for the sake of each state as follows is the most troublesome in halfway thought. In the human history up to now, each state has been the largest, strongest, solidest, and clearest of all the groups. Though they are large, international organizations, the world, the earth, all of the human beings or living things, and so on have not been strong, solid, and clear groups. As a result, some of those who want to win honor, to do something, and to leave something for others want to do something for the sake of each state and seek its power, defense, prosper, interests, and so on, and some of them seek for it to hold totally destructive means.
    In addition, the holders of powers including public and private ones and their complexes have inspired, beautified, and taken advantage of the moderate thought for the sake of each state of citizens, and enlarged their powers, prompted war, despotism, and so on, and restricted and sacrificed a lot of liberty and daily desires and lives, that is, liberal and social rights. In addition, it is undeniable that thought for the sake of each state or nation at least have not restrained but accepted implicitly the research, development, and hold of totally destructive means.
    In addition, some daily desires are induced, beautified, and taken advantage of by the holders of powers, are changed into halfway thought, and sometimes prompt despotism, autocracy, war, the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means, and so on. For example, the daily desires to protect the self, his or her families, friends, boy or girl friends, and so on are changed into the pursuit of national power, defense, prosper, interests, and so on, resorting to and going to war is beautified, and the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means are sometimes connived. The beautification of our going to war in order to protect our families is considerably troublesome. Most of us have known that it is not for the sake of anything far from our families and have gone to war not willingly but reluctantly being forced by powers. It is necessary for us not to be induced, beautified, taken advantage of, and to think and desire of, by, and for the self.
    Even in the solidest one, a state is not a single entity like an individual of human beings or other living things but a complex consisting of various elements like the general citizens, political, economic, social powers, other smaller groups, culture, resources, nature, and so on within borders. Which of those elements do we have attachments to? Most of us have attachments to our families and neighbors and the food, drink, culture, and the nature of our hometowns and not in the least to political powers or their holders. It makes fool of general citizens to make such a complex consisting of various elements appear to be a single entity and to call up attachments. It is impossible and unnecessary for us to have what is called "patriotism". Simply, all that we need to do is love the self and the people and things familiar to us.
    In addition, we cannot find out which of the elements we need to reform by looking upon a state or nation as a single entity with various elements confused. It is often the political powers and systems that we need to reform. We do not need to reform individuals, families, cultures, and so on. If we needed to reform them, each of us could do it freely. In these ways, not in the least that states are unnecessary, but that we need to reform some parts of them. A little more closely, we need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems.
    In halfway thought, because halfway things seem to be supreme, we can hardly see the things beyond them. For example, in thought for the sake of each state, we can hardly see the international or world societies, organizations, or systems, general human beings or living things, or so. However, it is not that all of us need to see them. Even if we cannot do that, living on daily desires is much better for both existence and liberty than being induced and taken advantage of by the holders of powers and resorting to halfway thought. This is a kind of freedom of thought and of speech, too.
    In addition, many pieces of conventional science and technology have prompted the destruction of the nature and some of them has researched and developed totally destructive means. Of course, the self-restraint by scientists and technologists are necessary. However, the restrictions of them by others are necessary, too. However, they have also been induced and taken advantage of by the holders of political and economic powers or their complexes. Accordingly, above all, the restriction on the latter is necessary. In addition, from now on, many pieces of science including human, social, and natural science needs to take in at least human beings' deviating from the cycle of prosper and decline and nuclear weapons and the immutable gene means' having the ability to extinguish all of the living things including human beings on the earth. Some pieces of technology need to develop the means for the total abolition and prevention of totally destructive means. For example, it needs to develop the means for the detection and inspection of them. Moreover, if the completely defensive and safe means against totally destructive means should be developed, they would lose their value and vanish of themselves. If they could not do that, it would be necessary that human and social science like law, politics, economics, sociology, psychology, and so on seek and propose the systems for the enlargement and deepening of democratic and separative systems and for the total abolition and prevention of totally destructive means.
    However, again and again, even if we cannot do that, it is much better for us to live just on daily desires than to be induced and taken advantage of by the holders of powers and to resort to halfway thought. This is a kind of freedom of thought and of speech, too.

EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

    Please review the ways to reduce a lot of pain and to abolish and prevent totally destructive means. All of the ways are also those to protect liberty and to satisfy daily desires and lives, that is, to protect liberal rights and to secure social rights. The ultimate desire and daily desires never sacrifice each other. They are not contradictory but consistent. In short, existence and liberty are consistent. Even if we are urged to pick up one of them, we need to neglect such an absurd alternative and to secure both of them.

References

DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

SEPARATING EACH STATE POWER INTO THE TWO SYSTEMS OF THAT OF THE RULE OF LAW PROTECTING LIBERAL RIGHTS AND THAT OF THE HUMAN RULE SECURING SOCIAL RIGHTS

PSYCHOLOGIES OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES OR MORE



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