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PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS

@@In this book, this "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS" is also called "This Book". This book, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "A SEPARATION OF POWERS FOR EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" are also called "These Books" in this book.
@@Each of the particular things like this material, this body, this human being, I, you, he, she, this space, yesterday, today, tomorrow, the present, this sight, this image, this idea, and so on is also called a "Particular Thing" in these books.
@@Each of the things which are not particular things and which a particular thing has are also called a "Property" of a particular thing, a Property which a particular thing has, a Property attributed to a particular thing in these books. Some particular things share some properties. In addition, some properties are attributed to some particular things. For example 1, universal gravitation, velocity, acceleration, energy, and so on are the properties attributed to every material. For example 2, colors and brightness are the properties attributed to every sight, that is, everything appearing on a visual sensation.
@@Some sets of particular things having some properties have already been designated by some common nouns. For example, the set of particular things having some properties of being included in the things themselves, having spatial and temporal extents and the smaller particles like molecules, atoms, electrons, nuclei, positrons, neutrons, and so on's coming into and going out of themselves is designated by some common nouns like "materials", "matter", "substances", and so on. Then, a set of particular things having some properties is also called a "Set of General (Common Noun)s", a Set of (Common Noun)s, General (Common Noun)s, (Common Noun)s in these books. For example, the set of particular things having the properties as was enumerated above is also called a set of general materials, a set of materials, materials.
@@In contrast, the other sets of particular things having some properties have not been designated by any common nouns yet. For example, the set of particular things having some properties of being included in appearing things, having spatial and temporal extents have not been designated by any common nouns yet. Then, each of such sets is also called a "Set of General (Noun Phrase designating some of its properties)s", a Set of (Noun Phrase)s, General (Noun phrase)s, (Noun phrase)s in these books. For example, the set of particular things having properties of being included in appearing things, having spatial and temporal extents is also called a set of general appearing spatial and temporal things, a set of appearing spatial and temporal things, general appearing spatial and temporal things.
@@After all, each of the sets of the particular things having some properties is also called a Set of General (Common noun or Noun Phrase)s, a Set of (Common noun or Noun Phrase)s, (Common noun or Noun Phrase)s, or the (Common noun or Noun Phrase)s in these books. However, such presentations are complicated. Accordingly, such (Common noun or Noun Phrase designating some of its properties)s is also represented as "  s", A, B,c in this book.
@@In contrast to general   s, each of the particular things which is an element of a set of general   s is also called a "Particular   " in these books. For example, each of the particular things which is an element of the set of general materials is also called a particular material.
@@Of course, in mathematics, a lot of sets of general   s are defined with some properties. Such properties are also called the "Necessary Properties" of   s in these books. The necessary properties are the properties whose    could no more be    if any of the properties were changed.
@@Each of the above definitions is also called a "Definitions with Properties" in these books. However, some things designated by some common nouns are impossible to present their necessary properties. For example, time and space are impossible to do so. Such a thing has no choice but to be defined by some samples that never designate any other things. For example, the past, the present, and the future are also called the time. Such definition should not omit the future. That is because the time would become the past and the present if the future was omitted. In addition, such a definition should not omit the present. That is not only because the time would become the past and the future but also because there would be no moments. Such a definition is also called a "Definition with Sample" in these books. For example, in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF THE ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", each of the sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, tastes, pains, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, images, ideas, and so on is also called an "Appearing Thing". Surely, it had no choice but to define an appearing things in such a way.
@@The set(A) having some properties(a) includes the set(B) having the properties(a) and some other properties(b), the set(B) includes the set(C) having the properties(a and b) and some other properties, and the same are repeated. For example, the set of general materials having the properties of being included in the things themselves, having spatial and temporal extents, and some smaller particles' coming into and going out of themselves include the set of general living things having the above properties, and having some other properties of consisting of macromolecules like proteins, lipids, saccharides, and so on, and of reproducing some other materials which have the same properties.
@@A set of general   s is also called a "Set of   s as a Kind,"   s as a Kind, or a Kind in these books.
@@A set of general   s is also called "the Whole or All of the   s as a Kind", All   s in these books. A set of general A's including other sets of general B, C, and so on is also called A's Including B, C, and so on as Kinds or B, C, and so on's are Parts of A as Kinds in these books. Above all, one set of general B's being included in another set of general A is also called B's being a Kind of A. For example, the set of general living things' being included in the set of general materials is also called the living things' being a kind of material.
@@That a set of general A include sets of general B, C, and so on, that none of B, C, and so on meet, none of B, C, and so on include any others, and that sum of B, C, and so on are A are also called A's being "(Completely) Divided" into B, C, and so on as Kinds in these books. For example, the things excluding the time are divided into appearing things and things themselves. In contrast, A's including B, C,cand so on is also called A's being "Separated" into B, C, and so on or A's Consisting of B, C, and so on as Kinds in these books. That is, even if there are some product sets or empty ones, the words of distinction, composition, and so on are used in these books.
@@The sum of all the sets of general   s is also called a "Set of General Things," General Things, Things, a Set of Things as Kinds, Things as Kinds in these books.
@@When the word of things is replaced by the word of   s, that is, a (common noun) or a (noun phrase designating some of its properties),   s are included in things. For example, the materials are included in things. When the word of things are modified by some modifiers, what the noun phrase involving the modifiers designate are included in things. For example, when the word of things is modified by the modifier "appearing", appearing things are included in things. By the way, sights, sounds, tastes, pains, and so on are included in appearing things. When the word of things in a noun phrase is replaced by   , what the changed phrase designate are included in what the unchanged designate. For example, when the word of thing in the phrase of a thing appearing on sensations is replaced by another person's face, another person's face appearing on sensations is included in things appearing on sensations. When some modifiers are added to a noun phrase, what the unchanged phrase designates include the changed. For example, another person's face appearing on a sensation include another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes.
@@Sets, elements, including, being included, the whole, parts, divisions, separations, consisting of, and so on include those as kinds, those of the space, those of the time, those of space and time. For example, solids, liquids, and gasses are the whole of the materials as kinds, and each of them is a part of the materials as a kind. And, the sea, land, underworld, and atmosphere are the spatial whole of the earth, and each of them is a spatial part. And, the past earth, the present earth, the future earth are the temporal whole of the earth, and each of them is a temporal part. However, when the modifiers like "as kinds," "spatial," "temporal," "spatial and temporal," and so on are always used, the sentences are complicated. In addition, it is usually clear which of kinds, space, and time, and so on are designated in the contexts without such modifiers. Accordingly, such modifiers will be omitted in these books.
@@Though things include appearing things, things themselves, their properties, their functions, and so on, things explained in this book is all the same about all things. Accordingly, such explanations will usually be omitted in these books.

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