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EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES

BASIC WORDS

    This "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES" can be called "This Book." Some parts of this book is written on the basis of "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES." Therefore, if possible, please read this book after reading that book. All the same, we will try to write this book so that you can read it without reading that book. "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES," this book, and "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE" can be called "These Books." These books can also be looked upon as chapters composing a book. Therefore these books can be called "A TRILOGY ON PSYCHOLOGY," too, as a book. These books, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY," "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY," "SEPARATING OF EACH STATE POWER INTO THE TWO SYSTEMS OF THAT OF THE RULE OF LAW PROTECTING LIBERAL RIGHTS AND THAT OF THE HUMAN RULE SECURING SOCIAL RIGHTS," and "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS" can be called "These Books," too.
    In this book, the words of material things, living things, bodies, animals, human beings, nervous systems, neuronal groups, functions, living functions, bodily functions, animal functions, human functions, nervous functions, neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions, their existing and functioning, things appearing as mental phenomena, things appearing as images, images, images' sources, sensations, memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, recognitions, and so forth designate the same things as in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES" Anyway, nervous systems are parts of bodies, they are included in living things, they are included in material things, nervous functions are included in bodily functions, they are included in living functions, and they are included in (material) functions. Nervous functions include sensations, memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, recognitions, and so forth.
    In "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" and "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY," because the species of animals or human beings are important, the words of animals or human beings usually designate their species. In contrast, in these books, because their individuals are important, those words usually designate their individuals.

VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS, PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS, SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS, AND AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS

VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS

    Unitary voluntary movements and complex voluntary movements which will be explained below can be called "Voluntary Movements."
    The movements of some parts of a body which are caused by some neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and striated muscle groups' excitements and contractions from the motor area on frontal lobe of cerebrum to spinal cord and motor nerves or to cranial nerves to striated muscles and which are inseparable can be called "Unitary Voluntary Movements." Unitary voluntary movements include bending and stretching of joints, upward, downward, rightward and leftward movements and bending and stretching of tongues, opening and closing and tensing and relaxing of vocal cords, upward, downward, rightward, and leftward movements and whirl of eyeballs, tensing and relaxing of parts of faces.
    A movement which consists of more than one unitary voluntary movement can be called a "Complex Voluntary Movement." For example, a human being's walking upright on two legs is a complex voluntary movement consisting of more than one unitary voluntary movement like bending forward of left shoulder joint, bending backward of right shoulder one, bending backward of left hip one, bending forward of right hip one, and so forth. Vertebrates' complex voluntary movements include walking, running, swimming, flying, uttering cries. Human beings' complex voluntary movements include walking upright on two legs, running alike, swimming the crawl, the butterfly, and so forth. By the way, human beings' speaking words is included in synthetic functions which will be explained later. That is because we are speaking them while perceiving the words spoken by ourselves, confirming whether or not they are correct, and thinking of their contents. Writing words and operating typewriters, computers, and other machines are included in synthetic functions, too.
    Voluntary movements are included in intentional functions which will be explained later.

PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS

    The functions containing some sensations or some recollections of images and containing no voluntary movements can be called "Pure Mental Functions." Pure mental functions include sensations, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, pleasure or displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, egos, and thinkings.
    Recollections of images, perceptions, associations, feelings, egos, and thinkings contain some recollections of images. Sensations, pleasure or displeasure sensations, drives contain no recollections of images.

SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS

    Functions containing some pure mental functions and some voluntary movements can be called "Synthetic Functions." Human beings' synthetic functions include speaking words, writing words, playing, studying, working, and interpersonal functions. For example, a human being's speaking words is to perceive the words spoken by himself or herself, to confirm whether or not they are correct, to think of their contents, and to move their mouse, tongue, larynx, and so forth, and so it involves at least perceptions, recognitions, thinkings, and voluntary movements. Therefore it is a synthetic function.
    When we look over human functions thus, we find that a lot of them are synthetic functions.

INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONS

    Synthetic functions coping with similar functions of some other human beings such as talking with, playing with, studying with, working with, keeping company with, breaking up with, fighting with, and being conciliated with them and escaping them can be called "Interpersonal Functions." They are the most important of all human functions for human beings to exist. For this very reason, there are interpersonal anxiety, expectation, desire, escape, and confrontation, and they are vital. Every human being has or does all of them more or less.
    Facing, confronting, or confrontation on the one hand and escape or escaping on the other hand will be explained in "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE." Interpersonal functions include interpersonal confrontation and interpersonal escape. Simply, keeping company with people even with interpersonal anxiety is interpersonal confrontation. In contrast, escaping people because of interpersonal anxiety is interpersonal escape. Fighting with people is not in the least the same as interpersonal confrontation. Please do not forget that. Fighting with people is often an interpersonal escape rather than interpersonal confrontation. Being reconciled is often an interpersonal confrontation. There are simple and complicated interpersonal escape. For example, not going to school or office because of interpersonal anxiety is simple interpersonal escape. Talking only superficial things or pretending to be unapproachable are a complicated interpersonal escape.

MENTAL FUNCTIONS

    Pure mental functions and synthetic functions can be called "Mental Functions."

AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS

    The bodily functions which do not contain any sensations, memories, or voluntary movements can be called "Autonomic Functions."
    Autonomic functions include the contraction and expansion of hearts, blood vessels, and lungs, digestive organs' movement, digestion, and absorption, endocrine, exocrine, and immunity. By the way, at least in human beings and higher mammals, evacuation from rectum and urination from bladder are not pure autonomic functions. That is because they contain voluntary movements. In contrast, digestive organs' movement to rectum and urination to bladder are autonomic functions.

INSTINCTIVE FUNCTIONS

    Moreover, there are functions which are hard to classify into any of them. There are some functions which contain some sensations and some parts of recognitions in a narrow sense of memories which were explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES" but do not contain any other parts of memories. Such functions can be called "Instinctive" Functions. For example, human adults' sucking nipples is a voluntary movement or synthetic function. An adult, if ever, is sucking nipples while an ego is intending to do so. In contrast, though newborns or babies have infantile egos as they are, their sucking nipples is caused even without egos. Thus, in human beings, there are some functions which will be voluntary movements or synthetic functions in adults but which are instinctive functions in newborns or babies.
    some Instinctive functions are classified into primordial outlines of the short-circuit, desperation, stickiness, showing off the self, controlling anything, destroying anything, and so forth, which are found also in human newborns, and which will be explained in "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE." At least the newborns of mammals, human beings included, have such primordial outlines of instinctive functions more or less.

SITUATIONS

    The word of the "situation" for a material thing or function were defined in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES." This section will complement the definition. With the word of situation, we usually imagine that for an individual, that is, what are outside the individual's body, that is, some other human beings, some other animals, and some parts of nature. All the same, as far as a part of an individual's body or the function of the part is concerned, a part of its situation is within the individual's body, and the other part is out of it. For example 1, when an individual has interpersonal anxiety and he or she thinks how to escape an interpersonal relation, the main situation of such thinking is that anxiety, and it is within the individual' body. For example 2, if that anxiety is enhanced by certain persons, those persons are a part of the situation for that anxiety, and the part is out of the individual's body. As far as the situation for a part of an individual's body or the function of the part is concerned, the part of the situation within the individual's body can be called the "Internal Situation" or Bodily Situation, and the part of the situation out of the individual's body can be called the "External Situation." In the above first example, that anxiety is an internal situation for that thinking, and in the second example, those persons are an external situation for that anxiety.
    In biology, psychology, and medicine, because what often matters is a part of an individual's body or the function of the part, the distinction between internal and external situations matters more than in other sciences. Nonetheless, in general, the word of situations designate external ones. Such a usage of the word are sometimes done also in these books.

OBJECTS AND MEANS

    Most functions have objects, means, and situations as properties or attributes. For example, concerning interpersonal functions, general human beings are their objects, spoken words, written words, telephones, mails, and so forth are their means, offices, schools, and so forth are their external situations, and interpersonal anxiety, desire, and so forth are their internal situations.

EMOTIONS

EMOTIONS

    The functions whose main part is pleasure or displeasure sensations can be called "Emotions." Emotions consist of pleasure or displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions which will be explained in this chapter.

PLEASURE OR DISPLEASURE SENSATIONS

    As was defined in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES," the things appearing on sensations which have pleasure or displeasure as properties or attributes can be called Things Appearing on Pleasure or Displeasure Sensations. In addition, the nervous functions which are premised to cause them can be called Pleasure or Displeasure Sensations. For example, smells, dizziness, tastes, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, and nausea are the properties of pleasure or displeasure. Things appearing on olfactory sensations, things appearing on balancing sensations, things appearing on taste sensations, things appearing on somatic sensations, and things appearing on autonomic sensations have such properties of pleasure or displeasure and are things appearing on pleasure or displeasure sensations. In addition, olfactory sensations, balancing sensations, taste sensations, somatic sensations, and autonomic sensations are pleasure or displeasure sensations. In things appearing on a pleasure or displeasure sensation, a spatial and temporal part where pleasure is dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Pleasure Sensation," and a spatial and temporal part where displeasure is dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Displeasure Sensation."
    The pain, itch, hotness, and coldness in the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints are the properties of things appearing on a pleasure or displeasure somatic sensation. Those in mucous membranes and palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, and thirst are the properties of things appearing on pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations.
    Visual sensations and auditory sensations excluded, sensations are pleasure or displeasure sensations. Visual sensations and auditory sensations are not pleasure or displeasure sensations. For example, the pain of the eyes or that of the ears is a thing appearing on somatic sensations or autonomic sensations, or a metaphor for mental pain.
    Directly and indirectly, most pleasure or displeasure sensations cause not only pure mental functions like memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so forth but also various autonomic functions spreading over the nervous system, above all, the autonomic nervous one, the endocrine one, the immune one, and so forth. For example, the pain on the skins causes not only the perception of that pain but also palpitation, sweating, and so forth indirectly through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine one.

DRIVES

    A bodily function which has the following properties can be called a "Drive."

(d1) It contains some pleasure or displeasure sensations.
(d2) When the function peculiar to it is not caused, some displeasure sensations peculiar to it are caused.
(d3) When the function peculiar to it is caused to a degree, the displeasure sensations explained in (d2) are reduced, and some pleasure sensations peculiar to it are caused.
(d4) When the function peculiar to it is caused excessively, some displeasure sensations peculiar to it are sometimes caused.
(d5) The above are sometimes repeated every several hours, days, or months.

    First, it is clear that hunger and thirst are included in drives, and the former can be called an "Eating Drives," and the latter can be called a "Water Drinking Drive." Second, though not so clear as they are, sexual urges are included in drives, and can be called "Sexual Drives." Third, there may be some gathering drives, controlling drives, defending drives, drives nursing children, and so forth.
    In (d1)-(d5), (d2) can be called a drive's "Dissatisfaction" or Being Dissatisfied, (d3) a drive's "Satisfaction" or Being Satisfied, and (d4) a drive's "Satiation" or Being Satiated.
    Pleasure or displeasure sensations and drives are functions which have been generated in evolution, and they have already, to a degree, become suitable functions for animal genes, individuals, groups, and species to exist. For example, the pain on skins which are included in pleasure or displeasure somatic sensations prevent injuries from reaching vital organs deeper than skins. Palpitation and dyspnea which are included in the pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations prevent us from overworking. Eating and water drinking drives prevent malnutrition and dehydration. Sexual drives, above all, is decisive functions for the existence of the genes and the species of most animals.

THE DIGEST OF "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES"

    As was explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES," sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, taste, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, images, ideas, and so forth can be called "Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena)."
    Things appearing as mental phenomena are divided into two groups of things appearing on sensations and images or things appearing as images. Things appearing on sensations are divided into things appearing on visual sensations, things appearing on auditory sensations, and so forth.
    Simply, things occurring to me and things remembered, expected, imagined, thought, and so forth are images. Out of images, those which are inseparable any more can be called "Individual Images" or Things appearing as individual images.
    More than one individual image which appears spatially and temporally closer to one another than to the other individual images or things appearing on sensations can be called a "Complex Image," a Thing Appearing as a Complex Image, an Image, or a Thing Appearing as an Image. Ways, functions, general things, abstract things do not appear as individual images but appear as complex images. Therefore the word "images" usually designate complex images in these books.
    Strictly, things appearing as images, things appearing on perceptions, and things appearing on associations are distinguished. Nonetheless, it is complex images that are significant in these books. In addition, when they are always distinguished, sentences will be complicated. Therefore things appearing on perceptions and things appearing on associations are included in things appearing as complex images, and they are called Complex Images, Things Appearing as Complex Images, Images, or Things Appearing as Images in these books.
    The things in themselves which are premised to cause things appearing as mental phenomena by making themselves sources can be called their "Sources," and in particular, those which are premised to cause images by making themselves sources can be called the Image's Sources. All the same, when images and images' sources are always distinguished, sentences will be complicated. Therefore images' sources are sometimes called Images in these books. That is, the word "images" can designates not only images but also their sources in these books.
    The nervous function which is premised to cause the image of a thing can be called the "Recollection" of the image('s source) or the thing, a Recollection, the image's (source's) Being Recollected or the thing's Being Recollected (as an Image). Though, in our daily lives, the word "recollection" often designates remembering some past events, that word designates not only remembering some past things but also thinking of some present things, expecting some future things, imagining some unreal things, dreaming, and so forth in these books.
    Some properties which each of some parts of a sensation's source has are recognized, the part is cut, and an individual image's source is generated. At once, more than one individual image's source is generated while going through a neuronal group diverging one after another and being classified on the basis of similarity. Each individual image's source generated and classified thus is memorized and stored in a unitary neuronal group in the diverging neuronal group.
    There are a lot of neuronal ways among such unitary neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources. Such neuronal ways among them can be called "Neuronal Ways among Individual Images' Sources" or "Image to Image Neuronal Ways." When they need to be contrasted with image to emotion neuronal ways, image to function neuronal ways, or function to function neuronal ways, which will be explained later in this book, the word of image to image neuronal ways will be used. By their excitements and transmissions, a lot of individual images' sources can arise and can be recollected spatially and temporally close, and can compose complex images(' sources), and complex images(' sources) can be recollected.
    Neuronal ways among individual images' sources (image to image neuronal ways) are distinguished into two group of (1) neuronal ways which make images recollected on the basis of similarity and (2) neuronal ways which make images recollected on the basis of temporal closeness. (1) are in the memorial neuronal group diverging one after another and make it possible for individual images' sources to arise on the basis of similarity. Above all, general things can be recollected as complex images mainly by (1). For example, when we encounter an alligator, the complex images of general alligator are recollected mainly by (1) and instantly it is perceived and recognized as an alligator, and its danger is associated. We instantly escape it without examining whether or not that particular alligator is dangerous. If we had examined whether or not particular alligators, tigers, lions, and so forth were dangerous, we could not have existed. (2) are among neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources widely beyond each kind of memory. When things are sensed, perceived, recognized, and generated as individual images temporally close, the neuronal ways (2) among those individual images' sources are activated. When these are repeated, those abilities are retained. Next time some of those individual images' sources excite and transmit, those activated neuronal ways excite and transmit, and the other individual images excite and transmit. After all, the individual images' sources generated temporally close arise and are recollected or associated spatially and temporally close, and they compose a complex images or things appearing on associations on the basis of temporal closeness. Some of the things caused temporally close are cause and effect. Cause and effect is recollected as a complex image or associated mainly by (2). In the above example, it was known in general that alligators are dangerous. In contrast, for example, dogs and cats are not dangerous in general. If a child was bitten by a dog and suffered considerable pain, in his or her neuronal system, the neuronal ways between the images of dogs and those of being bitten and suffering pain are activated on the basis of temporal closeness, and he or she comes to fear dogs. Recollections of complex images, perceptions, and associations are caused mainly on the basis of similarity and on that of temporal closeness.
    The abilities of (1)(2) occupy considerable parts of the abilities or tendencies of recollections of images, perceptions, associations, egos, thinkings, and so forth. All the same, (1) are activated mainly innately and make little difference of their abilities or tendencies between individuals. In contrast, (2) are activated acquiredly and make some difference of their abilities or tendencies between individuals. Therefore (2) matters to us more than (1).
    Because the neuronal group from those memorizing and storing individual images' sources to the replay converges and because the sources which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center reach the replay while making the others disappear. Therefore, at once, a limited number (N) or less of complex images are recollected. However, that limited number (N) fluctuate depending on its situation. For example, when a complex image is recollected very intensely, the number (N) get smaller. Anyway, that number (N) is limited. Therefore recollections of images are limiting functions.

AUTONOMIC SENSATIONS

    The sensations involving some autonomic nerves can be called "(Pleasure or Displeasure) Autonomic Sensations." Abdominal pain, headache, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, and so forth are things appearing on autonomic sensations. Autonomic sensations cannot be looked upon a unitary function like a visual sensation and an auditory sensation. For example, the heterogeneous things like palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, and thirst cannot be looked upon as caused by a unitary function. Therefore, even in an individual, it is appropriate to use plural forms like autonomic "sensations" and things appearing on autonomic "sensations." Autonomic nerves are distributed histologically to smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, mucous membranes, and so forth and anatomically to hearts, blood vessels, lungs, digestive tracts, and so forth. Therefore autonomic sensations transmit the internal situations of the contraction and expansion of hearts, blood vessels, and lungs, the movement of digestive tract, the inflammation of mucous membranes, osmotic pressure, the concentration of oxygen and glucose in blood, and so forth. They appear on autonomic sensations as palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, abdominal pain, headache, and so forth.
    As was explained earlier, most pleasure or displeasure sensations cause not only some memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so forth but also various autonomic functions spreading over the nervous system, above all, autonomic nervous one, endocrine one, immune one, and so forth. For example, the pain on the skin included in pleasure or displeasure somatic sensations causes the increase of heart rate and blood pressure through the autonomic nervous system, the activation of immune cells in the immune system, and so forth.
    Moreover, most autonomic functions caused by pleasure or displeasure sensations are sensed on autonomic sensations as palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, and so forth. That is, most pleasure or displeasure sensations cause some autonomic sensations. Moreover, most autonomic sensations cause some other autonomic sensations. For example, dyspnea, nausea, abdominal pain, and headache cause palpitation.
    After all, because all emotions contains some pleasure or displeasure sensations and because most pleasure or displeasure sensations cause autonomic sensations, most emotions cause some autonomic sensations. Please do not forget this.

FUNCTIONS OF PLEASURE OR DISPLEASURE AUTONOMIC SENSATIONS

That there are some displeasure sensations and drives' dissatisfactions is that the existence of genes, individuals, groups, or species is in danger. For example, that there is some pain on the skins is that the injuries can reach their deeper organs. In such a case, autonomic functions prepare individuals to cause the functions to prevent danger like counterattacking, running away, hiding, and so forth. For example, they increase heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate and prepare for supplying oxygen which will be consumed by voluntary movements. Those autonomic functions are sensed as displeasure on autonomic sensations, and displeasure autonomic sensations are caused as if they were warning animals of danger. For example, intense palpitation and dyspnea are caused, and they are displeasure. Thus, in general, displeasure sensations and drives' dissatisfaction cause displeasure autonomic sensations.
    However, if the functions preventing danger and the autonomic functions preparing for those functions were always caused, animals including human beings would be exhausted and could not exist. Even hearts and blood vessels are also exhausted. In the absence of displeasure sensations or drives' dissatisfactions, autonomic functions prepare animals to rest or sleep and recover from fatigue. For example, they decrease heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate and prompt digestive organs' movements, digestion, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Those autonomic functions are sensed as pleasure on autonomic sensations, and pleasure autonomic sensations are caused as if they were canceling warning and recommending to rest. For example, faint palpitation, smooth respiration, and moderate hunger are caused, and they are pleasure. Thus, the absence of displeasure sensations or drives' dissatisfactions can cause pleasure autonomic sensations.
    In addition, even the reduction of displeasure sensations can cause pleasure autonomic sensations. For example, though only in human beings, when fierce pain is reduced, we feel palpitation and dyspnea reducing.
    Moreover, displeasure autonomic sensations can cause the same kinds or different kinds of displeasure autonomic sensations. For example, palpitation and dyspnea cause more intense palpitation and dyspnea and nausea. It is as if they were warning animals of danger doubly.

FROM RECOGNITIONS TO INSTINCTIVE FUNCTIONS

    As was explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES," there are some neuronal groups recognizing (recognitions in a narrow sense) some properties which a sensation's source has, and with them, a memorial neuronal group generating and memorizing and storing images' sources begins. Phylogenetically and ontogeneticall, however, the genesis of those memorial neuronal groups are considerably late after the genesis of the following.
    There are some neuronal groups (1) recognizing (recognitions in a narrow sense) the objects and means essential for existence like food, fresh water, sexual objects, and natural enemies. In addition, there are some other neuronal group (3) causing the functions including voluntary movements like eating, drinking, mating, and counterattacking or running away which deal with those objects and means. In addition, there are some direct neuronal ways (2) from (1) to (3) which do not go through the neuronal groups causing higher functions like memories and recognitions in a broad sense. (1)(2)(3)'s excitements and transmissions cause instinctive functions explained earlier. (2) make it possible for recognitions in a narrow sense to cause instinctive functions. For example, a natural enemy is recognized, and such a recognition in a narrow sense cause instinctive functions like instantly running away, hiding, or the like. In addition, (2) reach the neuronal groups causing pleasure or displeasure sensations and drives. Such (2) make it possible for recognitions in a narrow sense to cause pleasure or displeasure sensations and drives. For example, a sexual object is recognized, and such recognition in a narrow sense causes sexual drives. It is probable that the image to emotion neuronal ways which will be explained in the following section are evolved from such (2).

IMAGE TO EMOTION NEURONAL WAYS

    There are some neuronal ways from the brancnes of the neuronal groups which images' sources go through to the neuronal groups causing autonomic sensations. When a thing is recognized, generated, memorized, stored, and renewed as images and simultaneously when that thing cause some emotions and some autonomic sensations intensely and continuously or continually, the neuronal ways from the branches of the neuronal groups which that thing's images' sources go through to the neuronal groups causing those autonomic sensations are activated on the basis of temporal closeness, and those abilities are retained. Next time that thing is sensed or recollected as images and recognized, those activated neuronal ways excite and transmit, and those autonomic sensations are caused. This is a feelings, which will be explained later. Such neuronal ways can be called the "Image to Emotion Neuronal Ways" from the neuronal group which that thing's images sources go through to the neuronal groups causing those autonomic sensations. In addition, sometimes, the words of "the neuronal groups which that thing's images' sources go through" are simplified into those of "that thing's images' sources," those of "the neuronal groups causing those autonomic sensations" are simplified into those of "those autonomic sensations," and those neuronal ways are called the Image to Emotion Neuronal Ways from that thing's images' sourcea to those autonomic sensations in these books. They have not been innately activated. They are activated acquiredly on the basis of temporal closeness in the above way.

FEELINGS

    Again, when a thing is recognized, generated, memorized, stored and renewed as images and simultaneously when that thing cause some emotions and some autonomic sensations intensely and continuously or continually, the image to emotion neuronal ways from that thing's images' sources (the neuronal groups which that thing's images' sources go through) to those autonomic sensations (the neuronal groups causing those autonomic sensations) are activated on the basis of temporal closeness, and those abilities are retained. Next time that thing is sensed or recollected as images and recognized, those activated image to emotion neuronal ways excite and transmit, and those autonomic sensations are caused. In this, that thing's images' sources, the sensation or recollection and recognition of that thing, the excitements and transmissions of those image to emotion neuronal ways, and those pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations can be called the "Feeling" of, about, for, at, or against that thing. In addition, that thing can be called the object of the feeling.
    For example, in the body, above all, the neuronal system of a baby who are battered around by its mother,
(1) Its mother is recognized, generated, memorized, stored and renewed as an image.
(2) Some displeasure autonomic sensations like palpitation and dyspnea are caused by its skin's pain's being caused by its being hit by its mother.
When (1)(2) are temporally closely caused again and again, the image to emotion neuronal ways from its mother's images' sources to those autonomic sensations are activated. Next time its mother is recollected as images and recognized, those activated image to emotion neuronal ways excite and transmit, and those displeasure autonomic sensations are caused. This is the feeling of the anxiety about or fear of a certain person or general human beings. In contrast, when a baby has hunger and thirst and when its mother hugs and nurses it again and again, in the baby's body, above all, nervous system, the generation and renewal of its mother's images and moderate palpitation and smooth breathing are simultaneously caused, which are caused by the reduction of hunger and thirst, and those pleasure autonomic sensations of moderate palpitation and smooth breathing are caused when its mother are recollected. This is the feeling of expectation for a certain person or general human beings.
    Feelings include anxiety, fear, expectation, ease, admiration for other things, admiration for the self, disgust at other things, disgust at the self or self-hatred, loneliness, feeling of being alienated, and feeling of being persecuted.
    Some feelings take place together with some pieces of what is called "conditioning." For example, Pavlov's dogs would also have entertained a faint expectation for food and the ring of bells. Not only human beings but also, at least, some higher mammals have some feelings. In addition, like the examples taken earlier, human babies have some simple feelings. Of course, human beings after infant period have various and complicated feelings.

THE EXTENSION OF THE OBJECTS OF FEELINGS

    The objects causing feelings are spread wider and wider in the following ways.
    A feeling consists mainly of (Ⅰ) the sensation or recollection as images and recognition of the object, (Ⅱ) the excitements and transmissions of image to emotion neuronal ways caused by (Ⅰ), and (Ⅲ) the autonomic sensations caused by (Ⅱ).
    First, an association often precede (Ⅰ), the contents of association sometimes seem to be the object of a feeling, and the association and (Ⅰ)(Ⅱ)(Ⅲ) sometimes seem to be the feeling. For example, not only does (Ⅰ) the recollections and recognition of the interpersonal relations at office or school directly cause (Ⅱ)(Ⅲ) and cause an interpersonal anxiety, but also the perception and recognition of its building causes an association, and in the association, the recollection and recognition of the interpersonal relations there are caused and cause (Ⅱ)(Ⅲ). While those are repeated, the neuronal ways from the images' sources of its building to the displeasure autonomic sensations are activated, and the perception and recognition of its building come to cause (Ⅱ)(Ⅲ) directly without any associations. This is included in feelings. First, the objects of feelings spread thus. Moreover, with the definition of feelings extended, a seeming feeling of such an association and (Ⅰ)(Ⅱ)(Ⅲ) is also called a Feeling, and it is included in feelings in these books. In addition, such a content of such an association is also called the Object of a feeling, and it is included in the objects of feelings in these books.
    In contrast, even without associations, while an existing feeling is being caused by one of its existing objects and when another thing is sensed or recollected as images and recognized accidentally, the objects of that feeling can spread to that other thing. For example, a child who already have the fear of a species of insects sees one of that species come out of a harmless species of bushes, it is probable that he or she comes to have the fear of that species of bushes, too.
    While their objects are spread in the above ways, feelings in themselves are strengthened or weakened in the following ways. As was explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES," the abilities of neuronal groups or ways are increased or retained by long-term intermittent repetitions and are decreased without them. That is true to image to emotion neuronal ways' abilities, too. Therefore feelings are strengthened or retained by their repetitions and are weakened without them. For example, if battering, bullying, alienation, and so on is repeated and if interpersonal anxiety is repeated, it is strengthened or retained, and if interpersonal relations not so harsh go on for months or years, interpersonal anxiety is rarely caused and sometimes reduced. From the beginning, if the objects of feelings only spread or if feelings were only strengthened or retained and were not weakened, our lives would be too hard to live.
    The spread of feelings' objects and feelings themselves' being strengthened, retained, or weakened are also true to desires, which will be explained later. Such explanations will be omitted in the section "DESIRES."
    The feelings where pleasure autonomic sensations are dominant can be called Pleasure Feelings, and the feelings where displeasure autonomic sensations are dominant can be called Displeasure Feelings. The distinction between them is seemingly vague. All the same, it can distinguish them whether or not they cause or promote any functional impulses which will be explained later. Pleasure feelings include expectation and ease, and displeasure feelings include anxiety, fear, disgust at other persons, disgust at the self or self-hatred, loneliness, feeling of being alienated, and feeling of being persecuted. When we look over them, we find that displeasure feelings are more abundant and significant than pleasure ones.

INNATE AND ACQUIRED FORMATION AND WHAT ARE INHERITED BY GENES AND WHAT ARE TRANSMITTED BY THINGS OTHER THAN GENES

    This place will be the best one where innate formation and acquired formation and what are inherited by genes and what are transmitted by things other than genes are explained.
    The whole or parts of a living thing, their properties, those properties' properties, and so forth including functions, and their abilities or tendencies, and so on, that is, all the things involved in living things are generated, formed, or changed by genes and their functions and by the things other than them. The former can be called an "Innate" Formation (by Genes) or Being Formed Innately (by Genes), and the latter can be called "Acquired" Formation or Being Acquiredly Formed. All the same, each of them is a part constituting the whole of a formation, and so all the things involved in living things are formed both innately and acquiredly. For example, though it seems that animal bodies are formed innately by genes in common situations, whether given by some others or acquired by themselves, even the formation by those common situations is an acquired formation. All the same, it is innate formation by genes that is significant in the formation of animal bodies even in abnormal situations. The question is whether innate formation or acquired formation is dominant in the formation of the abilities or tendencies of each living function. Therefore the word of "almost," "mainly," "evenly," "partially," or the like needs to modify the word of "innate" or "innately" or "acquired" or "acquiredly."
    By the way, the formation before delivery is not the same as innate formation, and the formation after delivery is not the same as acquired formation. For example, a human being's nervous system is immature at delivery, develops rapidly in the first three years, and become mature and stops developing in the adolescent period. Such formation of nervous systems after delivery is maily innate formation. Concerning disorders, for example, if a fetus's nervous system suffered some disorders through its mother's malnutrition or drug abuse in the fetal period before delivery, its disorders is formed mainly acquiredly.
    In general, the whole or parts of living things like bodies, organs, tissues, and cells, that is, material things in themselves are formed mainly innately. Nervous systems including neuronal groups in themselves are formed mainly innately, too.
    In contrast, how about the functions of nervous systems, that is, nervous functions and their abilities or tendencies? By the way, neuronal groups include neuronal ways. However, when it needs to be emphasized, the words of "neuronal groups or ways," "neuronal groups including neuronal ways," or the like are used, and otherwise, the words of "neuronal groups" are used in these books. In addition, nervous systems include sensory organs, neuronal groups include sensory groups, and similar words are used in these books.
    A lot of neuronal groups, when they have matured, already have the abilities enough to cause their necessary functions. This can be called their Being Activated (Mainly) Innately (by Genes), and such neuronal groups can be called Innately Activated Neuronal Groups. In contrast, some neuronal groups do not, and when they are activated and gain abilities, they come to have the abilities enough to cause their necessary functions. This can be called their Being Activated (Mainly) Acquiredly, and such neuronal groups can be called Acquiredly Activated Neuronal Groups.
    The nervous functions caused by neuronal groups all of which are innately activated are caused without problems when those neuronal groups have matured to a degree, and practically, the formation of their abilities or tendencies do not matter. It goes without saying that their abilities or tendencies are formed mainly innately. Such nervous functions can be called Innate Functions. Instinctive functions, sensations, pleasure or displeasure sensations, drives, autonomic functions are innate functions. For example 1, the abilities of the autonomic functions regulating heart rate, blood pressure, and so forth and the instinctive functions like sucking milk and crying have already been matured almost fully in the late fetal period. Otherwise, even human newborns could not exist. For example 2, though eyesight and hearing in human newborns are not fully developed, this is because their sensory organs in themselves are not matured. A little more closely, it is because their development in the amniotic fluid should be switched into that in the air. When those sensory organs are matured to a degree weeks or months after delivery, eyesight and hearing become satisfying.
    Concerning innate functions, what mattes is not the formation of their abilities or tendencies but the decline of them by the disorder and aging of the neuronal groups causing those functions. For example, general eyesight and hearing reduce gradually by aging and reduce rapidly or gradually by disorders like cataract, glaucoma, otitis media, and cerebrovascular disorders.
    In contrast, some nervous functions are caused by the neuronal groups containing some acquiredly activated parts, and their abilities or tendencies are formed by those parts' being activated. That is, their abilities or tendencies are formed mainly acquiredly. Such functions can be called Innate Functions. The tendencies of recollections of images, the tendencies of mental emotions, the tendencies of egos, the abilities of thinkings, the abilities of synthetic functions are formed mainly acquiredly, and those functions are Acquired Functions. For example, concerning anxiety included in feelings included in mental emotions, the tendency for interpersonal anxiety to be caused is formed mainly acqiredly by egos in the situations of home and school in and before the adolescent period.
    Thus, whether the abilities of neuronal groups are formed innately or acquiredly is the best criterion to decide whether innate or acquired formation is dominant in the formation of the abilities or tendencies of nervous functions. Moreover, something special is found. The neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources and the neuronal ways among them on the basis of temporal closeness are activated mainly acquiredly, and those on the basis of similarity are activated mainly innately, and the excitements and transmissions of those three kinds of neuronal groups or ways cause the recollections of complex images and sensory images. However, from the beginning, the following can be said. Some properties which some parts of some sensations' sources just sensed have are recognized, those parts are cut out, and individual images' sources are generated for the first time in an individual. Thereafter individual images compose complex images and sensory images. Without individual images, no complex images or sensory images appear, and memories are almost nothing. Therefore it can be said that images' sources in themselves are acquiredly generated, and the modifier "almost," "mainly," or the like can be omitted. Images' sources in an individual is what is called "knowledge." That is, knowledge is acquiredly formed. This does not conflict with our daily understanding and empiricism and psychology.
    In contrast to images' sources or images in themselves, the neuronal groups causing the nervous functions involved in images' sources' generations like recognitions and cuts are activated mainly innately, and the abilities of those nervous fuctions are formed mainly innately.
    Those can be summarized and described as follows. The "frames" of recollections of images or memories are formed (mainly) innately, and their contents are formed (mainly) acquiredly.
    As was explained above, the abilities or tendencies of the functions like recollections of images, perceptions, associations, feelings, desires, complex emotions, egos, thinkings, and synthetic functions are formed mainly innately, and those functions are acquired ones. Moreover those functions contain images' sources, which are acquiredly generated. Therefore the abilities or tendencies of those functions are formed all the more mainly acqiredly, and those functions are all the more innate functions. By the way, it cannot be said that their abilities or tendencies are formed ENTIRELY acquiredly. This is because the abilities or tendencies of those functions are formed, all the same, by some neuronal groups' being activated MAINLY acquiredly.
    Moreover, with abilities and tendencies included in contents, it can be said that the frames of those functions are formed (mainly) innately, and that the contents of those functions are formed (mainly) acquiredly.
    Moreover, recollections of images and egos are limiting functions, which will be explained later, and limiting functions contain limited functions. The tendencies of limited functions are formed mainly acquiredly and limited functions contain images' sources. In a limiting function, the limited functions whose tendencies are the largest are caused. Concerning such functions, that is, recollections of images and egos, limiting functions can be looked upon as frames, limited functions as contents, and it can be said that their frames are formed (mainly) innately and that their contents are formed (mainly) acquiredly.
    Above all, it is significant that egos' tendencies are formed mainly acquiredly. Egos' tendencies occupy most of what is called "personality." Therefore it can be said that what is called personality are formed mainly acquirdly.
    So far, we have been explaining mainly about the innate or acquired formation of the abilities or tendencies of pure mental functions. How about voluntary movements and synthetic functions containing them?
    The contractile forces of striated muscles are formed evenly (concerning innate and acquired formation). For example, they are increased through what is called "muscle training." On the other hand, when we have been bedridden for months, those of the whole body are reduced, and we can hardly sit up, stand up, or walk. In contrast, there are some muscular physiques. As far as a unitary voluntary movement is concerned, its ability consists mainly of the contractile forces of some striated muscles and the flexibility of joints. Therefore their abilities are formed evenly (concerning innate and acquired formation).
    In contrast to the abilities of unitary voluntary movements, those of complex voluntary movements, because they contain not only the contractile forces of striated muscles but also the abilities of function to function neuronal ways, which are acquiredly activated, are formed mainly acquiredly. Though the abilities of synthetic functions will be closely explained in a chapter in the latter half of this book, they are formed all the more mainly acquiredly because they contain not only the above contractile forces and abilities but also the abilities of some other neuronal ways.
    In contrast to striated muscles, the contractile forces of smooth muscles and cardiac muscle are formed mainly innately. In addition, as was explained earlier, the neuronal groups causing autonomic functions are innately activated. Therefore the abilities or tendencies of autonomic functions are formed mainly innately.
    Now, the following is a summary of important things for human beings.

(1)The functions whose abilities or tendencies are formed mainly innately:

sensations, pleasure or displeasure sensations, drives, instinctive functions, and autonomic functions.

(2)The functions whose abilities are formed evenly (concerning innate and acquired formation):

unitary voluntary movements.

(3)The functions whose abilities or tendencies are formed mainly acquiredly:

complex voluntary movements, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, feelings, desires, complex emotions, egos, thinkings, and synthetic functions.

(4)What are generated entirely acquiredly:

images' sources, images, or knowledge.
Moreover, the following representations are sometimes done with the modifier "mainly" omitted in these books:

(1)'s functions(' abilities or tendencies) are formed innately (by genes),
(1)'s functions are innate functions,
(3)'s functions(' abilities or tendencies) are acqiredly formed.
(3)'s functions are acquired functions.

    When we look over those, we find that what are the most important for human beings are formed (mainly) acquiredly.
    Those innately formed are inherited through genes and evolved. Those acquiredly formed are not inherited through genes and do not evolve. On the one hand, we feel that it is a pity. On the other hand, we feel that human individuals are free from the constraint by inheritance and evolution.
    Certainly, the abilities and tendencies of acquired functions, which are their contents, and knowledge or ideas, which are the contents of memories, are not inherited through genes but are transmitted and accumulated beyond generations by media like language and various kinds of artifacts. The accumulated are culture, custom, law, institution, science, technology, and so forth.
    In addition, the difference between individuals of acquired functions are much larger than that of innate functions. This difference between individuals, above all, the difference between personalities is the most significant and interesting for human beings, isn't it?
    All the same, while the contents of the functions significant for human beings are acquiredly formed, their frames are formed innately by genes and have been evolved in natural selection. Without frames, no contents could be formed. In this sense, genes and evolution are significant also for human beings. Simply, the brains of human beings which have been evolving are significant. According to the definition of frames and contents in this section, the following is not a mere metaphor. Genes and evolution give human beings frames, and human beings create their contents in those frames.

MAKING USE OF THE PLEASURE OR DISPLEASURE OF THE PAST, INCREASING OR MAINTAINING THE PLEASURE AND DECREASING THE DISPLEASURE IN THE FUTURE, AND SECURING EXISTENCE

    When some objects caused intense and continuous or continual displeasure emotions in the past, those emotions caused displeasure autonomic sensations, and the image to emotion neuronal ways from the images' sources of those objects to those displeasure autonomic sensations were activated. Next time those objects are perceived or recollected as images and recognized, their images' sources cause the excitements and transmissions of those activated image to emotion neuronal ways and those displeasure autonomic sensations. This is the feeling of the anxiety about or the fear of those objects. The animals including human beings which have such feelings can get rid of those objects in advance. The objects which cause intense and continuous or continual displeasure emotions are usually dangerous for the existence of animals' genes, individuals, groups, and species. When animals having some feelings have experienced some pain in the past, they can be afraid of such dangerous objects and can run away as soon as they perceive them. Animals having feelings can get rid of the danger to their existence in advance. Thus, feelings are functions which make use of the pleasure or displeasure of the past, increase or maintain the pleasure and decrease the displeasure in the future, and secure animals' existence. This is true in desires, complex emotions, and egos which will be explained later.
    Though it is clear the fittest survive in evolution, there were some disputes about which is the fittest, out of individuals, species, groups, or genes. The dominant argument is that the fittest is genes. That is, evolution ensures, primarily, the existence of genes and, as a result, ensures that of individuals, groups, and species. In contrast, though the frames of innate functions like feelings, desires, egos are inherited by genes and evolved, their contents are acquiredly formed, are not inherited or evolved. Their contents primarily ensure the existents of individuals. Whether or not they ensure the existence of groups, species, and genes will be argued in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY."
    If those contents are unfit for the human species or living things to exist, all that evolution could do is change those frames to contain such contents as are fit for existence. Such change by evolution is too unrealistic for anybody to take account of. All that human beings could do is change their self-made contents.

IMMINENCE OF OBJECTS

    The objects of feelings have imminence as properties. An imminent object is recollected intensely and frequently in associations, and as a result, cause the feeling which make it an object intensely and frequently. For example, the closer an important event comes, the more intensely and frequently the anxiety about and the expectation for it are caused.

DESIRES

    Some things bring about some pleasure emotions to the human beings or animals who have them or have something to do with them. Such a thing can be concrete or abstract, or physical or mental ones for human beings. For example 1, having much money brings about eating and drinking drives' satisfaction and the comfort of lives. For example 2, winning prizes bring about honor. For example 3, making a boy or girl friend brings about not only sexual drives' satisfaction but also various pleasure emotions. By such a repetition, the image to emotion neuronal ways from the images' sources of such a thing, having it, and having something to do with it to the pleasure autonomic sensations caused by those pleasure emotions are activated. Next time, such a thing, having it, or having something to do with it is perceived or recollected as images and recognized, those activated image to emotion neuronal ways excite and transmit, and those pleasure autonomic sensations are caused. In this, the perception or recollection as images and recognition of such a thing, having it or having something to do with it, those image to emotion neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, and those pleasure autonomic sensations can be called the "Desire" for that thing or to get it, have it, or have something to do with it. In addition, that thing can be called the Object of that desire. In addition, the images(' sources) of that object, having it, or having something to do with it in that desires can be called its Objective Images.
    When we can have or have something to do with the object of a desire, such pleasure emotions as were exemplified above are caused. This can be called the desire's satisfaction. When we cannot, some displeasure feelings like regret, grief, and anxiety are caused. This can be called the desire's dissatisfaction. When we can do so excessively, some displeasure feelings like being bored or empty are sometimes caused. This can be called the desire's satiation.
    Not only concrete and physical things but also abstract and mental things and human relations and situations can be the objects of desires. For example, not only power, money, food, water, sexual objects, and so on but also honor, glory, prizes, qualifications, abilities, skills, personality, humanity, jobs, friends, boy or girl friends, partners, families, homes, hobbies, urban life, rural life, health, independence, freedom, and so on can be the objects of desires.
    The relation between desires and drives will be explained here. Desires are on the basis of pleasure or displeasure sensations and drives. For example, in order for us to satisfy our eating drive, drinking drive, and sexual drive, we need to gain power and money to a degree, and the desire for money and power is formed. Drives are innate functions and their frames, contents, and tendencies are formed mainly innately. In contrast, desires are acquired functions, while their frames are formed innately by genes, their contents and tendencies are formed mainly acquiredly. In addition, the difference of desires' contents and tendencies between individuals are large. For example, there are some persons where the desire for powers is larger than that for money, and there are others contrary to them.
    Simply, desires are the objective images' causing some pleasure autonomic sensations, and are included in (pleasure) feelings, and those images only become a little complicated. However, the feelings excluding desires are called Feelings (in a narrow sense) in these books.
    Some desires are caused together with some pieces of what is called "conditioning."

DEVIATIONS OF OBJECTS OF DESIRES FROM ORIGINAL ONES TO DETAILED MEANS

    The objects of desires spread in the same way as those of feelings do. That extension of desires often comes out as the deviation of objects from intrinsic ones to detailed means. For example, power is intrinsically no more than the means for human beings to control other persons. However, sooner or later and more or less, the desire for power is formed in everybody, most persons lose themselves in the struggle for power, and, in the modern society, the desire for academic background, that for qualification, that for status or promotion, and so forth go on being formed. It can be said that the deviation of objects of desires from intrinsic ones to detailed means reflects the reality of the human society. In addition, that deviation is found in families, and it can also be said that that deviation is our daily lives. All the same, we sometimes regret some pieces of that deviation.

COMPLEX EMOTIONS

    A function which consists mainly of some feelings or desires, which sometimes contains some pleasure or displeasure sensations or drives, and which are recognized as a function in general can be called a "Complex Emotion." In addition, the object of the feeling or desire which is the main component of a complex emotion can be called the Object of the emotion.
    What is called "love" is a complex emotion which consists mainly of the desires for particular or general human beings, living things, or material things, which often contains sexual drive and gathering drive, which, in mothers, often contain drive, desire, and feeling concerning their children, and which sometimes contains interpersonal anxiety, expectation, and desire, the admiration at the true, the good, or the beautiful, the desire for eternity, and so forth. From the beginning, it might be wrong that the single word "love" designates such various complex emotions like, for example, heterosexual or homosexual love, parents' love for children, children's love for parents, scholars' love for the true, artists' love for the beautiful.
    What Nietche called the "will to power" is distinct from the mere desire for power. However, it can also be said that even the mere desire for power is a complex emotion which consists mainly of the desire to acquire some powers and to control or rule some people and, if any, the drive to control and sometimes contains the desire for money, the desire for eternity, and so forth.
    However, in a complex emotion, when a feeling or a desire is dominant, that complex emotion is sometimes designated with the name of that feeling or that desire in these books. Then, the above complex emotion can be called, all the same, the Desire for Power.
    In addition, the complex emotions where pleasure feelings or desires' satisfactions are dominant can be called Pleasure Complex Emotions, and the complex emotions where displeasure feelings or desires' dissatisfactions or satiations are dominant can be called Displeasure Complex Emotions. For example, the love where the dissatisfaction of the desire which is the main component is dominant is displeasure love. Sometimes this can be called "broken heart."

PLEASURE OR DISPLEASURE

    Pleasure or displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called "Emotions."
    Pleasure sensations, drives' satisfactions, pleasure feelings, desires' satisfactions, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Pleasure Emotions or Pleasures. Displeasure sensations, drives' dissatisfactions and satiations, displeasure feelings, desires' dissatisfactions and satiation, and displeasure complex emotions can be called a Displeasure Emotion, Displeasures, or "Pain." The word of "pain" as an uncountable noun designates both physical and mental pain. In addition, the word of pain is used more often than that of displeasure in our daily lives. Therefore the former is often used also in these books.
    Pleasure or displeasure sensations and drives can be called "Physical Emotions." Pleasure sensations and drives' satisfactions can be called Physical Pleasure, and displeasure sensations and drives' dissatisfactions and satiations can be called Physical Displeasures or Physical Pain.
    Feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called "Mental Emotions." Pleasure feelings, desires' satisfactions, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Mental Pleasures, and displeasure feelings, desires' dissatisfactions and satiations, and displeasure complex emotions can be called Mental Displeasures or a Mental Pain.

OBJECTS OF EMOTIONS

    The objects of feelings, desires, and complex emotions have already been defined in the above sections. The objects of pleasure or displeasure sensations and drives will be defined here. They form some feelings or desires indirectly. For example 1, the pain on the skins indirectly forms the fear of human violence, diseases, accidents, natural disasters, and so on which cause it. For example 2, eating drives indirectly form some desires for food. The objects of the feelings or desires which pleasure or displeasure sensations and drives form indirectly can be called their Objects.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

FUNCTIONAL IMAGES AND INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    At least in the individual of higher mammals including human beings, some functions can be caused by some of their images' sources just recollected and by some other functions (X). Such functions as can be caused by some of their images' sources just recollected and by some other functions (X) can be called "Intentional Functions," and such images' sources as can cause them together with some other functions (X) can be called their "Functional Images('s Sources)." Simply, functional images are the images of what are called "ways" or "how to." For example, when we bend our elbow joints while we are intending to do so, doing so is being recollected as functional images, and doing so is an intentional function. However, the example of a more complicated intentional function may be easier to understand them with. For example, when we persuade something into somebody, we think how to do it, and the images of the words, their contents, their tone, and our manners with which to persuade are recollected. Those images are functional images, and persuasion is an intentional function.
    Images' sources are acquiredly generated, memorized, and stored. So are functional images' sources. Therefore newborns where the images of "elbows," "joints," "stretching and bending," and "right and left" have not been generated yet cannot bend the right elbow joint intentionally. In contrast, they can do so reflexively when, for example, they suddenly suffer a pain on the right hand.
    Bending and stretching joints are included in unitary voluntary movements, which were explained earlier. First, unitary voluntary movements are included in intentional functions.

IMAGE TO FUNCTION NEURONAL WAYS AND FUNCTIONAL NEURONAL GROUPS

    The smaller neuronal group which is what is called a starter of the larger neuronal group causing an intentional function can be called its "Functional Neuronal Groups." It is confirmed that those of unitary voluntary movements are in the frontal lobe. What is called "motor cortex" consists of the neuronal bodies of the neurons composing those neuronal groups. It can be thought that those of the other intentional functions are also in the frontal lobe.
    The neuronal ways from the neuronal group which an intentional function's functional images' sources go through to its functional neuronal groups can be called the "Image to Function Neuronal Ways" from that intentional function's functional images(' sources) to that intentional function's functional neuronal groups. It can be thought that they go from the occipital lobe, parietal lobe, or occipital lobe to frontal lobe and that their axons go through the cerebral medulla.

ACQUIRED GENERATIONS OF FUNCTIONAL IMAGES' SOURCES AND ACQUIRED ACTIVATIONS OF IMAGE TO FUNCTION NEURONAL WAYS

    Images' sources are acquiredly generated, memorized, and stored or renewed. So are functional images' sources. First, other persons' intentional functions are sensed and perceived and their images' sources are generated, memorized, and stored. For example, when a baby sees its parents walking, the images' sources of the complex voluntary movement of walking upright on two legs are generated, memorized, and stored. This is the first part of the process of imitation. Second, the self's intentional functions are sensed, perceived and their images' sources can be generated, memorized, and stored more firmly than other persons'. For example, we cannot master any skills if we only see them done by others without doing them by ourselves. This is the first part of the process of try and error. In those two ways, functional images' sources are generated, memorized, and stored and can be recollected.
    Moreover, when an intentional function is caused again and again by trial an error, its images' sources are generated, memorized, stored and renewed, and the image to function neuronal ways from those images' sources to the functional neuronal groups causing that intentional function are activated acquiredly on the basis of temporal closeness. For example, when a baby sees its parents walking upright on two legs and when it tries to do it again and again, the images' sources of doing it are generated, memorized, stored, and renewed, and the image to function neuronal ways from those images' sources to the functional neuronal groups on the frontal lobes which can cause the unitary voluntary movements of limbs that compose doing it are activated.
    Moreover, when the images' sources of an intentional function are recollected and recognized, the image to function neuronal ways activated thus sometimes excite and transmit, and those excitements and transmissions and some other functions (X) can cause those of the functional neuronal groups causing that intentional functions and cause that intentional functions. On this stage, those images sources of that intentional functions recollected have already become its functional images. For example, when the images' sources of walking upright on two legs are recollected and recognized, the image to function neuronal ways which were activated thus excite and transmit, and those excitements and transmission and some other functions (X) can cause those of the functional neuronal groups causing walking, and the baby can walk while tumbling. On this stage, those images' sources of walking have already become its functional images.

SPECIAL INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    Intentional functions can be caused by (1) functional images' sources just recollected, (2) image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, and (3) Functional neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions, and by (X) some other functions. However, some intentional functions are sometimes caused as instinctive functions, which do not contain (1)(2)(X). For example, an adult's sucking milk can be caused by (1)(2)(3)(X), and it is an obvious intentional function. In contrast, newborns' doing it is caused as an instinctive function not containing (1)(2)(X). By the way, reflexes like a tendon reflex are always caused without (1)(2)(3)(X), and obviously, they are not intentional functions. Though imitated tendon reflexes are intentional functions, they are not true reflexes.
    There are intentional functions at least in higher mammals including human beings. In them, the intentional functions essential for newborns like unitary voluntary movements reducing displeasure sensations and satisfying drives and complex voluntary movements like standing and walking on four legs, sucking milk, crying are caused as instinctive functions not involving (1)(2)(X) as far as babies or infants are concerned. Thereafter, they can be caused only by (1)(2)(3)(X) and are, all the same, intentional functions. They can be called "Originally Innate (or Instinctive) Intentional Functions." In contrast, the intentional functions caused only by (1)(2)(3)(X) throughout life can be called "Pure Acquired Intentional Functions." In human beings, the former include sucking milk and crying, and the latter include walking upright on two legs and speaking words.

UNITARY AND COMPLEX INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    The intentional functions which are inseparable into smaller ones like unitary voluntary movements can be called "Unitary" Intentional Functions. In contrast, the intentional functions consisting of more than one unitary one like complex voluntary movements can be called "Complex" Intentional Functions. For example, walking upright on two legs consists of the unitary intentional functions (unitary voluntary movements) like bending and stretching of knee, hip, elbow, and shoulder joints, and so it is included in complex intentional functions (complex voluntary movements). Unitary voluntary movements are included in unitary intentional functions, and complex voluntary movements are included in complex intentional functions.

FUNCTION TO FUNCTION NEURONAL WAYS

    The smaller neuronal group which is what is called a starter of the larger neuronal group causing a unitary intentional function can be called its "Unitary" Functional Neuronal Groups.
    A unitary intentional function can be caused by one functional image's source, the excitements and transmissions of one image to function neuronal way and of one unitary functional neuronal group. In contrast, a complex intentional function cannot be caused so simply. In order for a complex intentional function to be caused, it is necessary (1) that each of the unitary intentional functions composing a complex intentional function be recollected as a functional image, and it causes the excitements and transmissions of its own image to function neuronal way and unitary functional neuronal group, or (2) that the unitary intentional functions composing a complex one are recollected as a "complex" functional image and (2-1) that its image to function neuronal ways diverge or (2-2) that there are some neuronal ways among the unitary functional neuronal groups. It is possible that the mixture of (1)(2-1)(2-2) exists and functions.
    On the first stage of the formation of the ability of a complex intentional function, mainly (1) functions. For example, when we learn a new manual labor, we should remember all its components. While (1) is repeated again and again, the neuronal ways in (2-1)(2-2) are activated, and (2-1)(2-2) come to function. As a result, even if not all the unitary intentional functions composing a complex one is recollected as functional images, the complex one comes to be able to be caused. For example, even if we do not think the right arm forward, the left one back, the right leg back, the left one forward, and so forth, we can walk and can think something like tomorrow's schedule other than walking while walking.
    Now, the neuronal ways in (1) and those before divergence in (2-1) can be called Image to Function Neuronal Ways again, and those after divergence in (2-1) and those in (2-2) can be called "Function to Function Neuronal Ways." In addition, the unitary functional neuronal groups of the unitary intentional functions composing a complex intentional function and the function to function neuronal ways between them can be called the "Complex" Functional Neuronal Group of the complex intentional function.

FORMATION OF ABILITIES OF COMPLEX INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    When image to function neuronal ways and function to function neuronal ways and unitary functional neuronal groups and complex functional neuronal group are distinguished in such a way as was explained in the above section, we find the following. Image to function neuronal ways are concerned with which intentional function to cause. In contrast, function to function neuronal ways are concerned with how to coordinate the unitary intentional functions composing a complex intentional function, that is, how well that complex one is, that is, its ability.
    At first, the functional images of the unitary intentional functions which are to compose a complex intentional function are separately recollected, their image to function neuronal ways separately excite and transmit, their unitary functional neuronal groups separately excite and transmit, those unitary intentional functions are separately caused, and they compose a kind of rudiment of that complex intentional function. Such a rudiment is awkward. While those are repeated by imitation and try and error, the function to function neuronal ways among those unitary functional neuronal groups causing those unitary intentional functions composing that complex intentional function are activated, and the ability of that complex intentional function are formed. For example, the function to function neuronal ways among the unitary functional neuronal groups causing the unitary voluntary movements of right arm forward, left arm backward, right leg backward, left leg forward, and so forth are activated, and the ability of walking upright on two legs is formed. As that ability is formed, those unitary intentional functions come to work in collaboration, and that complex intentional function come to work smoothly.
    Thus, function to function neuronal ways are acquiredly activated. Therefore, the abilities of complex intentional functions are formed (mainly) acquiredly, and complex intentional functions are acquired functions.

FORMATION OF ABILITIES OF VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS

    Voluntary movements are included in intentional functions, unitary voluntary movements are included in unitary intentional functions, and complex voluntary movements are included in complex intentional functions. The following explanations overlap with those in the section where voluntary movements were explained and with those in the section where acquired formation was explained.
    As was explained earlier, the contractile force of a striated muscle is formed evenly (concerning innate formation and acquired formation). The main component of a unitary voluntary movement is the contractions of a few striated muscles, and that of the ability of a unitary voluntary movement is the contractile forces of a few striated muscles. Therefore the ability of a unitary voluntary movements are formed evenly (concerning innate and acquired processes).
    Concerning the abilities of originally innate intentional functions explained earlier like sucking milk and crying, newborns' are formed mainly innately. As they grow up, those innately formed disappear temporarily, and formed in the same way as the other unitary or complex voluntary movements and, as a whole, reformed.
    Concerning complex voluntary movements excluding originally innate complex ones, they contain function to function neuronal ways, which are acquiredly activated, their abilities are formed mainly acquiredly, they are included in complex intentional functions and in acquired functions. The example of the formation of the ability to walk upright on two legs will be taken again. In a human baby, other persons like its parents' walking upright on two legs is perceived, the images' sources of doing it are generated, memorized, and stored. Those images' sources are recollected, and the baby try to do it. This is the process of imitation. The baby try to do it again and again while failing again and again. This is the process of try and error. While those are repeated, the function to function neuronal ways between the functional neuronal groups causing unitary intentional functions like the bending and stretching of its knee, hip, elbow, shoulder, and so on's joints composing doing it are activated. While those are repeated, the fundamental abilities to do it are formed. Moreover, while it grows, while it sees various adults and actors, models, or athletes doing it on television or screen, and while it imitates them and try and error, the abilities to do it in various ways like stepping, striding, marching, sneaking, roaming, walking fast anyway, and walking a long distance anyway are formed.
    The other complex intentional functions including synthetic functions and their abilities will be explained after egos are explained.

EGOS

IMPULSES

    As was explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES," the sensory groups in sensory organs in a broad sense, the neuronal groups in sensory nerves in a broad sense, and each kind of memorial neuronal groups which directly cause sensations and memories are considerably in good order. In addition, image to image neuronal ways explained in that book and image to emotion neuronal ways, image to function ones, and function to function ones explained in this book are not as in good order as those neuronal groups directly causing sensations and memories but more in good order than the following.
    Every emotion, which contains some pleasure or displeasure sensations, causes various functions spreading over the nervous system, endocrine one, immune one, and so forth. For example, the pain on the skin causes palpitation, dyspnea, and sweating.
    Moreover, some emotions cause neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions which are distinct from those of the neuronal groups or ways causing sensations and memories and which diffuse in the central nervous system, head for a pair of cerebrums, too, and reach at least the periphery of the cerebrums. They influence some of cerebrums' functions in some ways different from those of sensations or memories. Such neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions can be called "Impulses." They sometimes confuse rational functions in cerebrums. For example, furious feelings like anger or fear sometimes disturb thinking.
    More than one emotion can be caused at once. For example, the pain on the skin and the anxiety about its continuing or gaining can be caused simultaneously. Even the anxiety about and the expectation for a thing can be caused simultaneously. Therefore, at once, more than one impulse can arise, that is, can begin to be caused by more than one emotion. However, even if a lot of impulses arise at once, in one nervous system of one individual, because impulses diffuse toward one pair of cerebrums and because some of them that excite and transmit the earliest and the most continuously, at the highest density, the widest, and the closest to the center make the others disappear, a limited number of them reach at least the periphery of the cerebrums. That is, a limited number of impulses which arose are (completely) caused. Impulses' exciting and transmitting early and continuously, at high density, wide, and close to the center can be called their being intense. When it is defined so, it can be said that when a lot of impulses arise at once, a limited number of the most intense ones reach at least the periphery of the cerebrums and are (completely) caused. Therefore impulses and the common process which they go through are a limiting function, and each impulse is a limited function.

FUNCTIONAL IMPULSES

    Some of the functional images('sources) just recollected cause the excitements and transmissions of some image to emotion neuronal ways and some autonomic sensations. Moreover, some of those autonomic sensations cause some impulses. The impulses which are caused indirectly by functional images just recollected thus can be temporarily called "Functional" Impulses. Such functional impulses as are caused by some functional images, which are the images' sources of some intentional functions, can become what is called the "motivation" to cause those intentional functions.
    Feelings, desires, complex emotions contain or cause some autonomic sensations. Most pleasure or displeasure sensations and drives cause some autonomic sensations. Therefore most emotions contain or cause some autonomic sensations. Usually, pleasure emotions contain or cause some pleasure autonomic sensations, and displeasure emotions contain or cause some displeasure autonomic sensations. In addition, even while displeasure emotions are being caused, if they are reduced, pleasure autonomic sensations are sometimes caused. Emotions' containing or causing some autonomic sensations can be called their Causing some autonomic sensations.
    Now, when an intentional function is caused and when it causes some pleasure emotions or reduces displeasure emotions and causes some pleasure autonomic sensations intensely and continuously or continually, the functional images of that intentional function are generated, memorized, stored, and renewed, and the image to emotion neuronal ways from them to those pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, and those abilities are retained for a while. Next time those functional images are recollected, they cause those activated image to emotion neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, cause those pleasure autonomic sensations, and can cause some functional impulses. Thus, only when an intentional function caused some pleasure emotions or reduced some displeasure emotions in the past and only when some pleasure autonomic sensations are caused at present, functional impulses can be caused. Thus, autonomic sensations and functional impulses are potent functions which refer to pleasure or displeasure in the past and can secure pleasure and prevent displeasure in the future.

LIMITING FUNCTIONS

    In general, limiting functions, limited functions, and so on can be defined in the following way.

    There are some sets each of which (F = (f1,f2,…)) has the following properties (1)(2)(3)(4) in each of the individuals of the species of, at least, higher mammals including human beings.

(1) F go through a common process (P).
(2) In a situation (S) and in a time (LT), F arise and can be caused,
(2-1) and in the case (C1) where a number (N) or less of F arise, all of them are caused with their simple tendencies (ST) to be caused,
(2-2) and in the case (C2) where more than N of F arise, N of F which have the largest tendencies (CT) to be caused while competing with one another in the process (LP) which limits F in the process (P).
(3) However, the number (N) fluctuate in an internal condition.
(4) Out of the above, there is some difference between the individuals of the same species and of the same age in those tendencies (ST and CT), and there is little difference in the others.

In the above, the set of functions (F) and the common process (P) which F go through containing the process (LP) which limits F can be called a "Limiting Function" of the individual in the situation (S), the set (F = (f1,f2,…)) can be called the "Limited Functions" belonging to the limiting function, the process (LP) which limits F in the process (P) can be called the limiting function's or the limited functions' "Limiting Process," the time in which F are limited can be called the limiting function's "Limiting Time," a limited function's tendency (ST) to be caused in C1 can be called the limited function's "Simple Tendency (to Be Caused)," and a limited function's tendency (CT) in C2 can be called the limiting function's "Tendency (to Be Caused) (While Competing with One Another)."
    All the same, the tendencies (ST) in C1 were fundamental ones, and tendencies (CT) in C2 always contain ST. Whatever has a small CT has enough ST. In addition, usually, more than N of limited functions arise, and N of them are caused. Therefore, in general, a limited function's tendency (CT) to be caused while competing with one another in C2 can be called the limited function's tendency (to be caused). Practically, more than a limited number (N) of limited functions arise, and N of them which have the largest tendencies are caused. It is the most important thing both in recollections of images which were explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES," and in egos which will be explained in this book.
    As was explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES," the neuronal ways from the neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources to the replay converge. In addition, though a lot of images' sources arise at once, a certain number (N) of them which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center make the others disappear in a converging neuronal group, reach the replay, and are recollected. Therefore recollections of images including those of functional ones are limiting functions, and each complex image's source including each functional image's source which can be recollected is a limited function. A little more closer, each kind of recollection is a "unitary" limiting function. A complex image is composed of some kinds of individual images' sources. Therefore the recollection of complex images is a "complex" limiting function consisting of some unitary limiting functions. In contrast, the following is not.
    As was explained earlier, because functional impulses diffuse toward the cerebrums, those which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center make the others disappear and reach at least the periphery of the pair of cerebrums. That is, (N) or less of the most intense functional impulses reach at least the periphery of the cerebrums. Therefore functional impulses and the common process which they go through are a limiting function, and each functional impulse is a limited function.

EGOS' SITUATIONS

    Though intentional functions are caused in situations, there exist and function some things which mediate between situations and intentional function. Such mediators deserve to be called "egos." Such mediators can be called "Egos." Simply, egos cause intentional functions in situations. Egos mediate between situations and intentional functions. Metaphorically, a situation is the input, an intentional function is the output, and an ego is the computer. Ego's situations are those where some intentional functions need to be caused. For example, a situation where I need to cause some interpersonal functions, more concretely, that somebody is knocking at the door or that the telephone is ringing is an ego's situation. Even if I pretend that I am not at home or office, it is an interpersonal function and is an intentional function.
    As was explained earlier, mental functions' situations are divided into external ones and internal ones. So are egos' situations. The door's being knocked and the telephone's ringing in the above example are external egos' situations. External situations are out of individuals, are the present things, and are sensed, perceived, and recognized, and the recognition becomes the beginning of an ego.
    In contrast, egos' internal situations are in individuals, the present, past, future, or real or unreal things or the present emotions which can be recollected as images and recognized, and the recognition becomes the beginning of an ego. For example 1, because what have to be done tomorrow are recollected, that is, anticipated, an ego intends to prepare for them. This can be looked upon as the ego's directly responding to its present internal situation of images just recollected and indirectly responding its future external situation of tomorrow's job. For example 2, because its own past shameful behavior is recollected as images, an ego intends to escape the images of those behaviors in such a way as will be explained later. This can be looked upon as the ego's directly responding to its present internal situation of images just recollected and indirectly responding to its past external situation and the self. Thus, egos respond not only directly to the present but also indirectly to the future, the past, and the self.
    In addition, emotions can be recognized and become egos' internal situations. For example 1, when there is some thirst, it is recognized, and egos intend to drink water. For example 2, when there is some anxiety or fear, it is recognized and egos intend to escape its objects.

EGOS

    At the beginning of an ego, a situation where some intentional functions need to be caused is recognized, some functional images' sources of such intentional functions are recollected. Simply, some ways to respond to the situation are recollected and proposed. For example, the situation of somebody's knocking at the door is recognized, the functional images of pretending not to be at home or office, making sure who it is and then opening the door, opening the door and then making sure who it is, and so forth are recollected.
    It is thinkable that only functional images' sources just recollected and image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions cause functional neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions. That is, it is thinkable that only

(1) RATIONAL SYSTEM:
Recognitions of situations → recollections of functional images → functional images' sources just recollected → image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions

cause functional neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions. (1) does not involve any emotions or impulses, and so (1) can be called "Rational Systems." Only such rational systems' causing intentional functions is seemingly more rational and efficient than only emotions' or both rational systems and emotions' causing them.
    All the same, rational systems are too weak to cause intentional functions by themselves. They need emotions and functional impulses' support to cause intentional functions. This was often felt to be real through the daily experience that, no matter what a good idea occurs to us, we cannot carry out it without motivation.
    Above all, even in the time of a second, more than one functional image is usually recollected and proposed. Who or what decides which of those proposals to adopt?
    In order for individuals, groups, species, and genes to exist, it is the fittest to refer to whether each intentional function caused some pleasure emotions, whether it did not cause any displeasure ones, or whether it reduced some displeasure ones when it was caused in the past and to decide which to adopt.
    Therefore both the above (1) rational system and the following (2) emotional system cause functional neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions.

(2) EMOTIONAL SYSTEM:
(functional images' sources just recollected→) image to emotion neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions → pleasure autonomic sensations → functional impulses

    By (1) alone, the excitements and transmissions of image to function neuronal ways disappear at some synapses (Y) in image to function neuronal ways or at the synapses (Z) between image to function neuronal ways and functional neuronal groups. Functional impulses in (2) promote the postsynaptic cells in Y or Z, that is, change the intracellular potentials and make it easy for them to exceed the threshold, and make excitements and transmissions go through at Y or Z. Though functional impulses are rough and cannot cause any sophisticated functions by themselves, they can promote neuronal groups or ways' excitements and transmissions causing sophisticated functions. Thus, both (1) rational systems and (2) emotional systems cause the excitements and transmissions of functional neuronal groups and cause intentional functions. Here, functional impulses can be redefined as the impulses which not only can be caused by functional images but also can promote the excitements and transmissions of image to function neuronal ways or functional neuronal groups.
    Out of the emotional system, image to emotion neuronal ways' excitements are not sensed, and functional impulses are hardly sensed, but pleasure autonomic sensations are sensed as thrill, motivation, expectation, and so on. Therefore emotional systems can be called "Motivations," too.
    Metaphorically, (1) rational systems propose some "ways" or "how to do," and (2) emotional system decide which of them to adopt. When a proposal by (1) causes displeasure, (2) reject it. When a proposal by (2) causes pleasure, (2) adopt it. Whether it causes pleasure or displeasure stands on the individual's experience. When an intentional function is caused, when it caused pleasure emotions or reduced displeasure emotions and caused pleasure autonomic sensations, and when these are repeated, the image to emotion neuronal ways from the functional images of that intentional function to those autonomic sensations were activated. Next time the functional images of that intentional function are recollected, those activated image to emotion neuronal ways excite and transmit, they cause those pleasure autonomic sensations, they cause intense functional impulses, and they promote the rational system and cause that intentional function. It can be said that it is a steady way referring to individuals' experience and pleasure or displeasure. Simply, what caused pleasure in the past is likely to cause pleasure in the present, too.
    From the beginning, rational systems are neutral, and so they cannot decide by themselves whether anything is good or bad. As was explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES," in recollections or associations on the basis of temporal closeness, cause and effect can be recollected as complex images. All the same, in them, whether the result is good or bad cannot be recollected or judged. It can be decided only indirectly and relatively only by whether something is pleasure or displeasure in animals including human beings. Then, why do we seek the truth. That is because seeking and finding it is pleasure. The ancient Greeks, too, could not help recognizing this as "Philosophia (loving knowledge)."
    As was explained earlier, what mediate between situations and intentional functions can be called egos. Now, it turns out that those mediators are (1) and (2) (and their collaboration). More closely, (1) the rational system and (2) the emotional system as the mediator between a situation and some intentional functions can be called the "Ego" intending to cause the intentional functions in the situation. More closely, a certain situation is recognized, some functional images' sources arise, a limited number (N1) or less of them are recollected, and some of them cause some image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions. Simultaneously, some of those functional images' sources cause some image to emotion neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, some of them cause some pleasure autonomic sensations, and some of them cause some functional impulses. Then, a limited number (N2) or less of those functional impulses which are the most intense reach at least the periphery of the cerebrums and promote the excitements and transmissions of the image to function neuronal ways or the functional neuronal groups caused by the functional images sources which cause those most intense functional impulses, and the functional neuronal groups excite and transmit. After all, the intentional functions represented by the functional images' sources which caused those most intense functional impulses are caused. In this, the recognition of that situation, the arousals and recollections of those functional images' sources, those functional images' sources just recollected, those image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, those image to emotion neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, those pleasure autonomic sensations, those functional impulses, and the promotion of the excitements and transmissions of the image to function neuronal ways or the functional neuronal groups by the most intense functional impulses can be called the "Ego" intending to cause the intentional functions in the situation.
    Such an ego is the substance of what we call "I" in our daily lives. That is, we call what can cause intentional functions "I" or the like. In contrast, we call what causes autonomic functions or spontaneous pure mental functions as will be explained later not "I" or the like but "my body," "my mind," or the like. For example 1, if arrhythmia is caused in the autonomic function of the heart's beat, it is referred to as "a disorder of my body." For example 2, if we suffer depression and if general feelings and desires as spontaneous pure mental functions get deflated, we refer to it as "a disorder of my mind." In contrast, if we commit a theft which is an intentional function and if we confess, we say not "my body or mind did it" but "I did it." Therefore an ego can be called "I," Each of Us, Human Being, Intending to Do an Intentional Function, and so on.

ANOTHER DEFINITION OF FUNCTIONAL IMAGES AND INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    It is better that functional images and functional impulses are redefined as follows. The images' sources which can cause the excitements and transmissions of both image to function neuronal ways and image to emotion neuronal ways can be redefined as Functional Images(' Sources). In addition, the impulses which can be caused by functional images' sources and can promote the excitements and transmissions of image to function neuronal ways or functional neuronal groups can be redefined as Functional Impulses.
    In addition, after egos are defined in the above way, the functions which can be caused directly by some egos can be called Intentional Functions.

LIMITING EGOS AND LIMITED EGOS

    Such an ego as was explained in the above section is a limiting function. In general, limiting functions, limited functions, and so on can be defined in the following way.

    There are some sets each of which (F = (f1,f2,…)) has the following properties (1)(2)(3)(4) in each of the individuals of the species of, at least, higher mammals including human beings.

(1) F go through a common process (P).
(2) In a situation (S) and in a time (LT), in the case (C1) where a number (N) or less of F arise, all of them are caused with their simple tendencies (ST) to be caused, and in the case (C2) where more than N of F arise, N of F which have the largest tendencies (CT) to be caused while competing with one another in the process (LP) which limits F in the process (P).
(3) However, the number (N) fluctuate in an internal condition.
(4) Out of the above, there is some difference between the individuals of the same species and of the same age in those tendencies (ST and CT), and there is little difference in the others.

In the above, the set of functions (F) and the common process (P) which F go through containing the process (LP) which limits F can be called a "Limiting Function" of the individual in the situation (S), the set (F = (f1,f2,…)) can be called the "Limited Functions" belonging to the limiting function, the process (LP) which limits F in the process (P) can be called the limiting function's or the limited functions' "Limiting Process," the time in which F are limited can be called the limiting function's "Limiting Time," a limited function's tendency (ST) to be caused in C1 can be called the limited function's "Simple Tendency (to Be Caused)," and a limited function's tendency (CT) in C2 can be called the limiting function's "Tendency (to Be Caused) (While Competing with One Another)."
    All the same, the tendencies (ST) in C1 were fundamental ones, and tendencies (CT) in C2 always contain ST. Whatever has a small CT has enough ST. In addition, usually, more than N of limited functions arise, and N of them are caused. Therefore, in general, a limited function's tendency (CT) to be caused while competing with one another in C2 can be called the limited function's tendency (to be caused). Practically, it can be said that more than a limited number of limited functions arise, and that the limited number of them which have the largest tendencies are caused.

Let us examine it closely.

[Limited egos, common processes, limiting processes, limiting egos]

(le1) The functional image's source→the image to function neuronal way's excitement and transmission in the rational system and
(le2) the image to emotion neuronal way's excitement and transmission→the autonomic sensation→the functional impulse in the emotional system
which can cause an intentional function go through
(cp1) memorial neuronal groups converging toward the replay→image to function neuronal ways in the rational system and
(cp2) image to emotion neuronal ways→neuronal groups causing the autonomic sensation→neuronal groups which functional impulses go through
    There are some memorial neuronal groups (lp1) converging toward the replay in cp1. The complex images' sources including the functional images' which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center make the others disappear in memorial neuronal groups converging toward the replay, reach the replay, and are recollected. Therefore, even if a lot of functional images arise, a limited number (N1) or less of them are recollected. There are some neuronal groups (lp2) which functional impulses go through. Impulses diffuse toward cerebrums, and the most intense of them reach at least the periphery of the cerebrums. Therefore, though N1 of functional impulses can arise, a limited number (N2) or less of them reach at least the periphery of the cerebrums, promote image to function neuronal ways or functional neuronal groups, and cause N2 or less of intentional functions.
    On those grounds, le1 and le2 is a limited function and can be called a "Limited Ego." In addition, cp1 and cp2 is the common process which limited egos go through. In addition, lp1 and lp2 is the limiting process which limits limited egos to N2 or less. In addition, the set of limited egos which can arise in a certain situation and the common process including the limiting process is a limiting function and can be called the "Limiting Ego" in the situation.
    Thus there are a double limiting process of lp1 and lp2 in a limiting ego, and limited egos are doubly limited. However, limited egos are finally limited to N1 or less, and so lp2 is more significant.

[Egos' situations]

    Egos' situations were roughly explained in one of the above sections. Here they will be restrictively explained.
    Situations can expand endlessly. For example, interpersonal anxiety can be recognized by an ego, and the ego can cause the intentional function of interpersonal escape, and interpersonal anxiety can be the ego's internal situation. Such a situation can expand from that anxiety to the present interpersonal relations to its past interpersonal relations to the process of the formation of that anxiety's tendency from the baby period, and so forth. Though the formation of abilities or tendencies is the most important, we had better not designate it with the word "situation." It had better be designated with the direct words "the formation of abilities or tendencies." Therefore an ego's situation is defined as that which are recognized by the ego at the present in these books. When it is defined thus, in the above example, the ego's situation is only the present interpersonal anxiety and the present interpersonal relations. Though the formation of egos' tendencies is the biggest problem, it will be designated directly with those words .

[The limiting time of egos]

    It is a time of seconds. As was explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES," that of recollections of images was tenths of a second. In contrast, because egos involve emotional systems, it gets longer than that of simple recollections. However, it sometimes seems that no limited egos are caused for more than ten seconds. For example, it seems when egos are lost in a long thought. All the same, even then, egos are causing intentional functions of smaller thinkings one after another in that larger thinking.

[The number (N) which or less of limited egos are caused]

    A situation is recognized, some functional images' sources arise, a number (N1) or less of them are recollected in lp1, and some of them cause some image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions. Simultaneously, some of the functional images' sources just recollected cause some image to emotion neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, some of them cause some pleasure autonomic sensations, and some of them cause some functional impulses. Then, another number (N2) or less of those functional impulses reach at least the periphery of the cerebrums in lp2 and promote the excitements and transmissions of image to function neuronal ways or functional neuronal groups. After all, N2 or less of limited egos are caused. Thus, the number (N) is N2, and N2 is not more than N1. As will be explained below, the number (N) is sometimes one.

[The internal condition where N fluctuates]

    However, the limited number (N) fluctuates depending on an internal condition. First, concerning recollections of functional images, when one of them is intensely recollected, the others are recollected faintly or not recollected even if they arise, and N1 becomes small. Second, concerning functional impulses, when an intense pleasure autonomic sensation is caused and cause an intense functional impulse, the others are hard to reach at least the periphery of the cerebrums, and N2 becomes small. As a whole, when an intense limited ego is caused, N becomes small and sometimes becomes one. For example, when the limited ego intending to escape a very dangerous situation, the others are not caused, and N becomes one. However, isn't it not sometimes but usually that it is one? All the same, it is usually more than one because there are inertial egos, which will be explained later. Simply, egos can do dexterous thing like doing a thing while doing some others. For example, we can think of today's schedule while walking to the station and while carrying a bag. Then, walking and carrying are caused inertially. Even so, if we do not accept inertial ones as egos, it is usually one. Therefore it is not entirely wrong to assert that N is one. For example, in "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE," inertial egos do not matter, and N is one.

    Thus, limiting egos and limited egos can be distinguished. In short, limiting egos limit limited egos. However, if limiting egos and limited egos are always distinguished and if those words are always used, the sentences will be complicated. Therefore, when it is clear from the contexts which of them is designated, the words of "limiting" and "limited" are omitted in these books.

LIMITING RATIONAL SYSTEMS AND LIMITED RATIONAL SYSTEMS, AND LIMITING EMOTIONAL SYSTEMS AND LIMITED EMOTIONAL SYSTEMS

    When limiting egos and limited egos are distinguished, rational systems are distinguished into limiting rational systems and limited rational systems, and emotional systems are distinguiched into limiting emotional systems and limited emotonal systems. By those distinctions, the metaphor about rational systems and emotional systems become more accurate as follows:

In the limiting ego of an individual, its limiting emotional system proposes various intentional functions which are possible and necessary in a sitution, and its limiting emotional system adopts and carries out the most pleasant of them.

    However, the words of "limiting" and "limited" in them are usually omitted in these books.

EGOS AND, ASSOCIATIONS AND THINKINGS

    An association is sometimes involved in a limited ego in the following way. Often in a limited ego, the recollection of a functional image is prolonged, and it becomes an association. In that association, if a functional image detailed more than the original one is recollected and cause the following process, this is the original limited ego's being prolonged and detailed, and that association is involved in that prolonged limited ego. For example, if the functional image of detailed ways like running away or hiding is associated from the original one of escaping and cause the following process, this is it. In contrast, in that association, if such a detailed functional image is not recollected, this is the original limited ego's arising but stopping and another limited ego's arising. For example, if the functional image of confronting or waiting and seeing is associated from the original one of escaping, this is it.
    A thinking and a smaller limited ego are often involved in a larger limited ego in the following way. A thinking is an intentional function, and a limited ego can start a thinking. Often in a larger ego, while a functional image is being recollected or associated, a smaller ego starts the thinking of that functional image. In that thinking, if a functional image detailed more than that original one is recollected, this is that larger limited ego's being prolonged and detailed, and that thinking and that smaller ego which started it is involved in that larger limited ego. In contrast, in that thinking, if such a detailed functional image is not recollected, this is that larger limited ego's arising but stopping and another limited ego's arising. For example, when we think of the functional images of escaping, if the self's tendency to escape is recollected, this is it. Then, an ego might confront the self's tendency to escape.
    Thus, not only does a limited ego often invlove an association and a thinking, but also a larger ego often involve smaller egos. There is a multilayer structure of ego here. The detail will be explained later.

EGOS AND EMOTIONS

    First (1), as was explained earlier, emotions are recognized and can be internal situations of egos. Sometimes, the whole or parts of emotions are recognized, the functional image of a limited ego is recollected directly or indirectly through associations or thinkings, and that limited ego arises. For example 1, hunger is recognized, and an ego starts to think how to get food. For example 2, interpersonal anxiety is recognized, and an ego starts to think how to escape interpersonal relations. For example 3, interpersonal desire is recognized, and an ego starts to think how to enter interpersonal relations.
    Second (2), sometimes, an emotion is caused by the recognition of a situation before a limited ego is caused, and the objective image of that emotion cause the functional image of a limited ego through associations and not through clear recognition, and that limited ego arises. For example, interpersonal anxiety is caused in an interpersonal relation, the functional image of escaping is associated from the objective image of that interpersonal anxiety of that interpersonal relation, and the ego involving that functional image is caused.
    Third (3), sometimes, the objective image of an emotion is associated from the functional image of a limited ego, and that emotion is caused. For example, sometimes, when an ego is intending to cause an interpersonal function, an interpersonal relation is associated, and the interpersonal desire for that interpersonal relation is caused.
    In any case of (1)(2)(3), sometimes, those emotions promote or restrain the functional impulses of those limited egos. In such a case, those emotions can be looked upon as involved in those limited egos. For example in the case of (3), sometimes, that interpersonal desire promotes that ego intending to cause interpersonal functions.
    However, it is only moderate emotions that can promote or restrain functional impulses. A fierce emotion, whether it is mental one or physical one, causes a fierce impulse different from functional ones and disturbs both the rational systems and the emotional systems of egos, and egos cannot do anything or can only cause unaccountable intentional functions. For example, when we suddenly suffer fierce pain, all that we can do is cry out. Such crying out may be not an intentional function caused by an ego but an instinctive function.

AROUSALS OF A LOT OF LIMITED EGOS IN ONE SITUATION

    Usually in one situation, a lot of functional images' sources arise, but a limited number (N1) of them are recollected. Moreover, usually, a lot of functional images' sources are recollected, but a more limited number (N2) of functional impulses and limited egos are caused. Metaphorically, the rational system proposes a lot of intentional functions which are possible and necessary in a situation as functional images, and the emotional system adopts a few of them with pleasure or displeasure and rejects the others.
    In individuals who live in the human society, the functional images of intentional functions which comply written and unwritten laws, manners and customs, ethics, morality, common senses, and so forth are often recollected and cause some pleasure autonomic sensations. That is because causing such intentional functions have caused some ease and, at least, have not incurred severe blame, retaliation, punishment, and so forth. Simultaneously, functional images of intentional functions contradictory to them are recollected, and lure us. Nonetheless, they also cause anxiety because such intentional functions incur the above. Nonetheless, those functional images arise or are recollected, and the limited egos involving them arise. Thus, there seem to be what is called conflicts on the stage of arousals of limited egos. However, this is not such a dramatic thing as conflict but our daily lives.
    In addition, on the stage of arousals of limited egos, facing or confronting, escaping, and waiting and seeing are intermingled. For example, when a limiting ego is in an internal situation of interpersonal anxiety and in an external situation of hard interpersonal relations, the following limited egos can be caused. The interpersonal anxiety is recognized, and the functional images of interpersonal escapes are recollected (1). However, the necessity to cause some interpersonal functions is recognized, and those functional images cause some displeasure autonomic sensations and do not cause functional impulses. Then, the functional images of interpersonal facing or confronting are recollected (2). However, those functional images increase that interpersonal anxiety and do not cause intense functional impulses. After all, the functional images of half-way interpersonal functions which do enter interpersonal relations but do not confront them are recollected, cause some ease, cause intense functional impulse, and cause such interpersonal functions (3). Those take place in a few seconds.
    However, actually, a lot of detailed limited egos, for example as follows, arise even in each of (1)(2)(3).
(1-1)Not going to office or school
(1-2)Going to office or school, but escaping the interpersonal relations
(1-3)Faking sickness and being absent
(2-1)Though with interpersonal anxiety, going to office or school and entering the interpersonal relations
(2-2)Improving the interpersonal relations when they are thought to be abnormal
(3-1)Behaving lightly
(3-2)Exhibiting one's appearances which other persons are hard to come close to
All the same, those, too, are no more an example, actually, more detailed limited egos arise.

EGOS TAKING STEPS

    For example, even if an ego intends to see its boy or girl friend, it cannot do that at once. Another ego needs to take a shower, to make up, to dress up, and to lock the door of its house. Another ego intends to get on a train, but it needs to walk to the station to do that. Walking, another ego should stop at some traffic signals or ignore them. In this case, it needs to function more intensely to ignore them than to stop at them. After getting to the station another ego needs to get a ticket and in order to do that, another ego needs to get to the vending machines, to take their purses out of their pockets or bugs, to take some coins, bills, or a card out of it, to put them into the slot of the machine, to take the change, and to head for the gate. Thus, a lot of egos function before seeing her or his girl or boy friends and even before getting on a train. Thus, most intentional functions are steps, egos need to take steps in situations, and most of our daily lives are steps.

THE CONTINUITY OF LIMITED EGOS

    From the beginning, images replace one another rapidly, so do functional images. Corresponding to it, though not as rapidly as they do, pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations and functional impulses replace one another rapidly. In addition, so do situations though not as rapidly as they do. Moreover, intentional functions caused by egos change situations. For example, the intentional function of speaking changes the situations of interpersonal relations and sometimes do so drastically. Therefore limited egos replace one another rapidly. This is not temporary states but regular and fundamental ones.
    Including egos taking steps explained above and inertial egos which will be explained later, as long as we are awaken, a lot of limited egos are being caused continuously, replacing one another.

OUTLINES OF LIMITED EGOS AND INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    As was explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES," including intentional functions, most things are, while going through memorial neuronal groups diverging one after another, they are classified into some groups. Concerning some of such groups, not only the elements belonging to them but also those groups in themselves are recollected as images. A little more closely, some groups are recollected in the background, and the elements belonging to those groups are recollected in the foreground. For example, general interpersonal relations are recollected in the background, and particular interpersonal relations in office, school, or home are recollected in the foreground.
    As for the functional images of intentional functions, too, there are such groups as are classified and recollected in the above ways. For example, escaping is recollected as a group in the background, and running away, hiding, and so forth are recollected as functional images in the foreground.
    Moreover, concerning some of such groups of the functional images of the intentional functions, the sources of the elements belonging to the same group, on the basis of similarity, activate the same of similar image to emotion neuronal ways. Therefore the tendencies of the limited egos containing the functional images of the intentional functions belonging to such a group are formed together. The group of limited egos whose tendencies are formed together thus can be called an "Outline" of (Limited) Egos, and the group of the intentional functions which can be caused by them can be called an Outline of Intentional Functions. Tendencies of limited egos are formed with such outlines made units. For example, there is showing off the self as an outline of limited egos. Its tendency is formed mainly in the baby and infant period. Though after the adolescent period, the concrete ways to show off the self go various like talking too much of the self and showing off even the self's defects, we feel that they are not so different. Thus, outlines are sometimes felt more in our daily lives than in psychology.
    Such outlines are just the outlines of (limited) egos, and it is limited egos' tendencies that are formed with outlines made units. Though there are some "seeming" outlines similar to outlines, they are not limited to egos or egos' tendencies. For example, facing or confronting, escaping, and waiting and seeing, even if egos are excluded, are the most fundamental seeming outlines of most animals' functions including intentional functions, autonomic functions, and instinctive functions. Most of their abilities or tendencies are formed innately by genes with not individuals but species made units. For example 1, even carnivores escape from natural disasters. For example 2, herbivores' escaping instantly from carnivores sometimes increases the risk that the former are found and caught by the latter, and waiting and seeing is sometimes fit for their genes, individuals, groups, and species to exist. For example 3, in human beings, facing or confronting is different from fighting. Not fighting but talking is sometimes facing, and fighting is sometimes escaping. All the same, sometimes, some seeming outlines become limiting eogs' outlines. For example 1, some of us often escape the situations or objects of interpersonal relations only, interpersonal escape is an outline of limited egos, and the tendencies of those limited egos are formed with such an outline made a unit. For example 2, as will be explained in "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE," escaping and patching up the images of tendencies falling into a vicious circle is an outline of limited egos, and the tendencies of those limited egos are formed with such an outline made a unit.
    The tendencies of limited egos are not only formed but also reduced or reformed with their outlines made units. This is significant in "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE." Outlines are not only for the classification of limited egos or intentional functions. Again, limited egos' tendencies are formed, reduced, and reformed with their outlines made units. Therefore we can argue the formation, reduction, and reformation of limited egos' tendencies with outlines made units. When an outline of limited egos are causing intense and continuous or continual pain, we can reduce the tendencies of that outline of limited egos in a lump and reduce that pain in a lump.

SEEMING BIPOLAR OUTLINES

    There seem to be some pairs of bipolar outlines of limited egos in which the outlines oppose each other as poles and their tendencies are formed continuously from one pole to another. For example 1, interpersonal confrontation and escape seem to be bipolar outlines. However, including them, causing an interpersonal function at once can be called Interpersonal "Short-circuit," and this and interpersonal waiting and seeing seem to be bipolar outlines. For example 2, controlling anything and submitting oneself to anything seem to be bipolar outlines. Then, what about those who are lions at home and mice abroad? Some lions-mice can be looked upon as being unable to be lions abroad, therefore being lions intensely at home, and having the intense tendency to control anything. Other lions-mice can be looked upon as having another outline of switching lions and mice cunningly. When we look over those thus, we find that there are few clear bipolar or multipolar outlines.

RECOLLECTIONS OF OUTLINES OF LIMITED EGOS

    Recollections of functional images are also limiting functions, and a limited number (N1) or less of functional images are recollected. So are the images of outlines of intentional functions. Usually at first, N1 or less of outlines are recollected. For example, the outlines of facing, escaping, and waiting and seeing are recollected simultaneously or one after another for a moment. Immediately thereafter, one of those outlines goes on being recollected, some detailed functional images are recollected from it, that outline retreats to the background, and those detailed functional images come to the foreground. For example, escaping goes on being recollected, the detailed functional images of running away, hiding, and so forth are recollected from it, escaping retreat to the background, and running away, hiding, and so forth come to the foreground. Such images of outlines may be included in functional images and contained in limited egos. In these books, they are included in fnnctional images and contained in limited egos.

USAGE OF THE WORD OF OUTLINES

    In our daily lives and psychology, egos and intentional functions are usually argued with their outlines made units. For example 1, this book took the example of facing, escaping, waiting and seeing again and again, and they are outlines of limited egos and intentional functions common at least among higher mammals including human beings. For example 2, such a usage of words as "he or she is sticky" is often made in our daily lives, and stickiness is one of outlines of egos and intentional functions. In addition, if the words of "the outlines of" are always used, sentences will be complicated. Therefore, unless necessary above all, such words are omitted in these books. In addition, when the outlines of (limited) egos and those of intentional functions are always distinguished and when the words of "of (limited) egos" and "of intentional functions" are always used, sentences will be complicated. Therefore they will be omitted when it is clear from the context which is designated. For example, the words of the outline of (limited) egos of escaping are simplified into the word of escaping.

SUBGROUPS OF OUTLINES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    It is not in the outlines of intentional functions but in those of limited egos that tendencies matter. It is not tendencies but abilities that matter in intentional functions. Moreover, it is not the abilities of intentional functions but the tendencies of limited egos that are formed with outlines made units. Each outline is classified into some subgroups. The abilities of intentional functions are formed with such subgroups made units. For example, in the interpersonal escape as an outline of intentional functions, there are subgroups of (1) escaping straightly, (2) escaping stealthily, (3) keeping only superficial interpersonal relations, (4) creating an atmosphere hard to approach, and so forth, and their abilities are formed separately. Above all, (3)(4) are rather sophysticated interpersonal functions and rarely coexist.

FUNCTIONAL IMAGES IN EGOS AND OBJECTIVE IMAGES IN DESIRES

    It may be thought that functional images in egos resemble objective images in desires. However, from the beginning, functional images can directly cause both the excitements and transmissions of image to function neuronal ways and those of image to emotion ones. In contrast, it is only indirectly that objective images of desires can cause them.
    The sources of functional images in egos are intentional functions from the beginning to the end, the outlines of limited egos and intentional functions are the properties or attributes of intentional functions like facing, escaping, waiting and seeing, being sticky, and showing off the self. In contrast, the sources of objective images in desire are the things which intentional functions deal with like power and money. All the same, this does not always means that the objects of desires are material. The objects of desires include the abilities of intentional functions like voluntary movements and thinkings and abstract things like love, eternity, and liberty.


EGOS' TENDENCIES

THE WHOLE OF A LIMITED EGO FROM THE FORMATION OF ITS TENDENCIES

    A Limited ego needs completely to climb the following stages in order for it to be caused. (1)-(3) of the following are the stages of the formation of a limited ego's tendency, which can also be said to be preliminary stages.

(1) An intentional function is sensed, perceived, and recognized, and its functional image's source is generated, memorized, stored, and renewed.
(2) The image to function neuronal way from that functional image's source to the functional neuronal group causing that intentional function is activated.
(3) That intentional function causes some pleasure emotions or reduce some displeasure emotions and cause some pleasure autonomic sensations, and the image to emotion neuronal way from that functional image's source to those pleasure autonomic sensations is activated.

(1)-(3) are repeated, and the abilities of the following are retained.

(a-1) the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources composing that functional image's source as a complex image and the neuronal ways among them
(a-2) that image to function neuronal way
(a-3) that image to emotion neuronal way

The above are, as it were, rehearsals, and the following are, as it were, performances.

(4) The situation is recognized, and that functional image's source arises.
(5) It is recollected in the limiting process (lp1).
(6) It cause the excitement and transmission of that image to function neuronal way.
(7) Simultaneously, that functional image's source just recollected causes the excitement and transmission of that image to emotion neuronal way, it causes those pleasure autonomic sensations, and they make a functional impulse arise.
(8) That functional impulse reaches at least the periphery of the cerebrums in the limiting process (lp2).
(9) It promotes the excitement and transmission of that image to function neuronal way or that functional neuronal group.

    When the limited ego climbs the whole of (1)-(9), its whole and the intentional function are caused. The most important of them is (7) and, when we trace back to the preliminary stages, (3). The reason will be explained later.

LIMITED EGOS'(OUTLINES') TENDENCIES AND LIMITING EGOS' TENDENCIES

    As was explained earlier, the tendencies of the limited egos belonging to the same outline are formed together. That is, limited egos' tendencies are formed with their outlines made units. Limited egos' (outlines') tendencies and limiting egos' tendencies or habit are defined as follows.
    In the limiting ego of an individual, the average of the tendencies of the limited egos belonging to each of the outlines which can arise in a situation can be called the (Absolute) Tendency (of the Outline) of Limited Egos of the Individual in the Situation. In addition, its standard deviation value among the individuals of the same species and age can be called the Tendency (Relative (in the Same Species and Age)). In addition, the matrix of such tendencies can be called the (Absolute or Relative) Tendencies or Habit of the (Limiting) Ego of the Individual in the Situation. For example, a limiting ego's relative tendencies (or habit) can be described as

(the tendency to be desperate, the tendency to be sticky, the tendency to show off the self, ...) = (62. 56, 64, ...).

    After they were defined so, it seems that relative tendencies are more significant than absolute ones. However, it is not always. It is which absolute tendency is the largest in an individual's limiting ego that decides which limited ego('s outline) is caused. It is a limited ego belonging to the outline of limited egos whose absolute tendency is the largest in an individual's limiting ego that is caused. It does not matter whether general tendencies (of outlines) of limited egos are large or small. What matters is the difference between absolute tendencies. This can be called "Egos' Being Caused by the Difference between Absolute Tendencies." In addition, absolute tendencies are fit to examine the formation or reduction of limited egos' tendencies and the change, that is, the reformation of the limiting ego's tendencies (habit) in an individual. In contrast, relative tendencies are fit to examine the individuality and its change of an individual in the same species and age.
    Theoretically, limited egos' (outlines') tendencies are quantified through measuring the abilities of the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources composig functional images' and the image to image neuronal ways among them in the rational system and image to emotion neuronal ways in the emotional system, and so forth. However, it is impossible to measure them in living bodies. Therefore it seems that their quantification cannot help depending on observing visible intentional functions, measuring measurable autonomic functions, what is called psychological tests, and so forth.
    Unexpectedly, however, the feelings against other persons and against the self like hatred, boredom, ease, and favorable impression can be accurate than those measures. Above all, the feelings of hatred and boredom are accurate against the tendency of being sticky, showing off the self, destroying anything, and controlling anything. Above all, the hatred and boredom against those of the self are accurate. After all, all that each of us can do is confront the self's egos' tendencies all alone.

THERE IS LITTLE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO SEXES IN EGOS' TENDENCIES

    One of the writers of this book tries to take the differece between the two sexes into account by using the words of the same species, age, and "sex" when he or she defined the standard deviation values of egos' tendencies. However, as far as egos' tendencies are concerned, there is little difference between the two sexes.
    It seems that there is some sexual difference in the tendencies to control anything and to destroy anything. However, there is no evidence for it. For example, the fact that most of the dictators or tyrants in the history have been men only certifies that the opportunities to participate in the struggle for political powers and military forces has been given exclusively to men. If men were superior to women in the ability to struggle for powers, it only certifies that the opportunities to form that ability have been given exclusively to men. Above all, the ability to struggle for powers is some intentional functions' abilities and is not egos' tendencies. Egos' tendencies can influence intentional functions' abilities, but its contrary is rare.
    There is some sexual difference, of course, in such emotions as the desire for children, sexual drive, and sexual desire. However, it is the sexual difference in not egos' tendencies but emotions'. That difference in emotions' can influence that difference in egos'. However, it can as far as such emotions are concerned.
    When we look over those, as far as egos' tendencies are concerned, we find that there is little difference between the two sexes. As will be explained later, egos' tendencies occupy most part of what is called personality. Therefore there is little sexual difference in what is called personality. Therefore these books rarely take that difference into account.

WHAT DECIDES EGOS' TENDENCIES

    If the functional image's source of a limited ego is not generated, is not memorized, is not stored, does not arise, or is not recollected; that limited ego is not caused. Simply, the way which does not occur to us cannot be carried out. If rational systems only composed a limited ego, the tendency of the recollection of its functional image would decide that limited ego's tendency. However, a limited ego is composed of a limited rational system and a limited emotional system, and a limiting ego is composed of a limiting rational system and a limiting emotional system. Again, metaphorically, in an individual the limiting rational system proposes various intentional functions which are possible and necessary in a situation as functional images, and the emotional system decides, with pleasure or displeasure, which of them to adopt and carry out. Here almost all the outlines of intentional functions which are possible and necessary for general human beings in a situation are recollected as functional images and proposed. Therefore what decides which limited ego is caused is not the tendency of the limiting rational system but the limiting emotional system, and what decides egos' tendencies is not the tendencies of limiting rational systems but the tendencies of limiting emotional systems. For example, though it seems that rational systems refrain from crimes, in most individuals in most cases, crimes are recollected as functional images in rational systems, then in emotional systems, displeasure autonomic sensations similar to anxiety are caused, and crimes are rejected. After all, what decides which (outline of) limited ego is caused is the tendencies of the limiting emotional system.
    Let's trace an emotional system retrogradely. As was explained earlier, functional impulses are limited functions, and the most intense one reach at least the periphery of the cerebrums while making the others disappear, promote the excitements and transmissions of image to functional neuronal ways or functional neuronal groups, and cause intentional functions. What cause the most intense functional impulses are the most intense pleasure autonomic sensations. In egos, autonomic sensations are caused by the excitements and transmissions of image to emotion neuronal ways. Therefore what decides the rational systems' tendencies, that is, egos' tendencies is which image to emotion neuronal ways were activated how much in the past. When we trace back them further, what decides egos' tendencies is how often and how much intentional functions caused pleasure emotions in the past. After all, what decides egos' tendencies is the abilities of image to emotion neuronal ways.
    Again let us review the formation of egos' tendencies. In the time from the baby and infant period to the present, in the rational system of an individual, the intentional functions of other persons and the self are recognized, and their functional images are generated, memorized, stored, and renewed. Simultaneously in the rational system, image to function neuronal ways are activated. Simultaneously in the emotional system, emotions are caused by intentional functions' being caused, that emotions cause pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations, and the neuronal ways from those functional images' sources to those pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations, that is, image to emotion neuronal ways are activated. Those are repeated from the baby and infant period to the present, and their abilities are retained. At present, the situation is recognized, functional images are recollected, those activated image to function neuronal ways and those image to emotion neuronal ways excite and transmit, the excitements and transmissions of the latter cause pleasure autonomic sensations and cause functional impulses, and the most intense of them reach at least the periphery of the cerebrums, promote the excitements and transmissions of image to function neuronal ways or functional neuronal groups, and cause the wholes of limited egos and intentional functions. Out of them, what decides egos' tendencies is which image to emotion neuronal ways were activated how intensely and, after all, which intentional functions caused which emotions how intensely and frequently in the past. For example, in the infant period, in situations of interpersonal relations, when an infant try to cause interpersonal functions, when it is not alienated, when it enjoyed itself, and when those are repeated twice or thrice a day for months, the tendency of limited egos' outline of interpersonal facing or confronting is formed.
    However, as was explained earlier, there are some outlines of limited egos like stickiness which are unaccountable for human beings after adolescent period, and it seems that the more unaccountable those outlines are, the more persistent their tendencies are and the more hardly their tendencies are reduced. That is because those tendencies are formed mainly in and before the adolescent period, above all, in the baby and infant period (by the age of 3) and because they reduced pain frequently, though temporarily and faintly. For example, when their mothers' love is sufficient, about the age of three, human children are satisfied by or bored with the love, come apart from them little by little. In contrast, when their mothers' love is thin, babies or infants do go on seeking their love, do not come apart from, and do dangle around their mothers, or do not seek their love and do choose to isolate themselves from their mothers. Thus, the tendencies to be sticky or to isolate themselves are formed. Such tendencies are hard to reduce. That is because they reduced pain frequently, though temporarily and faintly, in the baby and infant period.

INNATE FORMATION OF LIMITING EGOS' FRAMES AND ACQUIRED FORMATION OF LIMITED EGOS' CONTENTS

    The part of a limiting ego excluding limited egos, that is, the common process including limiting process which limited egos go through can also be called Ego's "Frame." It is a series of neuronal groups consisting of memorial neuronal groups and the neuronal ways between their branches, image to function neuronal ways, image to emotion neuronal ways, the neuronal groups causing autonomic sensations, and the neuronal groups which functional impulses go through, and it is formed mainly innately (by genes).
    In contrast, limiting egos and their tendencies can also be called Egos' "Contents." Because functional images contained in limited egos are acqiredly generated, limited egos are generated mainly acqiredly. The tendencies (of outlines) of limited egos are formed by the activations of the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources composing functional images' sources and the neuronal ways among them, image to function neuronal ways, and image to emotion neuronal ways. Therefore, the tendencies of limited egos are formed mainly acquiredly. Therefore egos' contents are formed mainly acquiredly.
    In summary, egos' frames are formed mainly innately (by genes), and their contents are formed mainly acqiredly. That egos' contents are formed mainly innately does not mean at all that genes and evolution can be neglected. Without frames, there would be no contents. It can be said that genes and evolution have formed egos' frames so that their contents can be formed acqiredly in order for animals having egos to adapt themselves to the natural change of their environment and to exist. How the egos of human beings have functioned to such genes and evolution and how they need to function to them from now on will be explained in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" and "DERAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY."
    That egos' frames are formed mainly innately does not mean that they are formed completely at delivery. They are formed innately by genes even after delivery. Above all, the frames of rational systems, above all, those generating, memorizing, storing, and recollecting functional images are formed almost completely as late as around the age of three. In contrast, the frames of rational systems are formed almost completely at delivery. In other words, even newborns have, though irrational, infantile egos as they are. Therefore newborns or babies can imitate and piggyback the instinctive functions like being sticky and showing off the self, and babies can imitate the intentional functions of walking upright on two legs and speaking words.
    By the way, it is certain that such higher mammals as apes, dogs, cats, and horses have some primitive egos' frames, and they are formed mainly innately, too. Their egos' contents, if any, would be formed mainly acquiredly, too.

WHAT IS CALLED PERSONALITY

PERSONALITY

    The most part of what is called personality is composed of

(1) intelligence, that is, the frames of memories
(2) knowledge, that is, the contents of memories
(3) mental emotions' tendencies,
(4) intentional functions' abilities, and
(5) egos' tendencies.

Egos' tendencies (5) occupy the most part of personality, and are the most significant of (1)-(5). It seems (1)-(5) are evenly significant. For example 1, in interpersonal relations, interpersonal functions' ability, one of (4), seems to be essential. However, when the tendency of limited egos' outline of interpersonal escape is large, egos rarely cause interpersonal functions, and interpersonal functions' ability stay immature. In contrast, when the tendency of interpersonal escapes is reduced, interpersonal functions' ability start to develop again. For example 2, again in interpersonal relations, the tendency of interpersonal anxiety, one of (3), seems to be vital. However, when egos do not cause interpersonal functions in the internal situation of interpersonal anxiety, that anxiety goes more and more intense. In contrast, when egos enter moderate interpersonal relations and cause interpersonal functions little by little, that anxiety is reduced little by little. For example 3, in struggles for powers, it seems that the ability to acquire and wield powers, one of (4), and the intense tendency of the desire for powers, one of (3), are essential. However, egos' tendencies to show off the self, to control anything, and to destroy anything form the intense tendency of the desire for powers, and concerning the ability to acquire and wield powers, that which is high is unnecessary.
    As was explained earlier, the tendencies of egos (5) are formed mainly acquiredly, If we look over the other components of personality, as was explained earlier, the abilities of complex voluntary movements, thinkings, and synthetic functions and the tendencies of feelings, desires, complex emotions are formed mainly acquiredly. Therefore personality are formed mainly acquiredly.
    However, most human adults tend to attribute it to inheritance through genes. Why?
    First, (5) which occupy the most part of personality and (3), and their difference between individuals are formed mainly between the baby period and the adolescent period. We do not remember what happened in the baby and infant period including the process of the formation of personality. We tend to attribute the unknown to the inheritance through genes.
    Second, the earlier (5)(3) were formed, the harder they are to reduce or reform. From the beginning, whether they are formed earlier or later, (2)-(5) are hard to reduce or reform. Most adults attribute that hardness to the inheritance through genes.
    Third, it is true that (1)-(5) of parents and children, and brothers and sisters are alike. It is true that (1) are formed mainly innately by genes and that its similarity is due mainly to the inheritance through genes. In contrast, the similarity of (3)(5) is due not mainly to the inheritance through genes but mainly to the fact that children were usually loved more or less and taken care of more or less by the same and almost unchangeable parents in the baby and infant period.

INFLUENCE OF INNATE OR ACQUIRED DISORDERS

    The innate disorders, the disorders in the prenatal period, and those at delivery in central nervous systems decrease the abilities of memories, perceptions, associations, and thinkings in general. Natural aging decrease them slowly. Dementia does so rapidly, and head injuries and cerebrovascular disorders do so suddenly. Even if they affect egos or their tendencies, they mainly affect their rational systems, and egos cannot help being irrational in general.
    In contrast, emotions and emotional systems of egos are less affected by the above disorders. Simply, they are stubborn. However, in depressive episode, chronic phase of schizophrenia, and so on, emotions and emotional systems go faint in general. Therefore egos cannot help becoming faint in general.

PURE MENTAL INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS AND SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS

RE-DEFINITION OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    The intentional functions which have not been explaimed yet will be explained before the other parts of egos are explained. This is because the understanding of the former will help that of the latter. In addition, after pure mental intentional functions are explained, synthetic functions will be re-explained. This is because the latter often contain the former.
    When egos have been defined in the above way, intentional functions are re-defined as the functions which can be caused directly by egos. In contrast to the directness between egos and intentional functions, if egos can cause or change some other functions, it is no more than indirectly that they can. This indirectness is more easy to feel than that directness. For example 1, in order to reduce anxiety or fear included in feelings included in emotions, all that we can do is remove their objects, escape from them, or reduce the tendencies of those emotions. For example 2, in order to reduce palpitation and dyspnea included in autonomic functions, all that we can do is take a rest or see the doctor. Here it may be better to say that what is not indirect is direct.
    Intentional functions are divided into voluntary movements and synthetic functions explained earlier, and manipulations of images and thinkings which will be explained later. Manipulations of images include combining, dissolving, and transforming. Thinkings are divided into thinkings in a narrow sense, retracings, forecastings, and daydreamings.

SPONTANEOUS PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS

    Out of pure mental functions, sensations, perceptions, associations, feelings, desires, complex emotions are not directly caused or changed by any egos, and so they are not intentional functions. They are sometimes caused or changed indirectly by egos. As for feelings, an example has already been taken. An example will be taken here as to sensations. As was explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES," egos need to cause "voluntary movements changing sensations" to change the contents of sensations. They are not caused or changed directly by egos. We feel that they are "spontaneously" caused or changed. Therefore they can be called "Spontaneous" Pure Mental Functions.
    In contrast, the pure mental functions which can be caused directly by egos can be called Pure Mental Intentional Functions. They are divided into manipulations of images and thinkings, which will be explained below.

MANIPULATIONS OF IMAGES

    The following are caused at least in human beings:
(1) How to manipulate some general images just recollected are sometimes recollected as a functional image,
(2) the ego which contains that functional image is caused,
(3) and those general images recollected at first and still being recollected are manipulated in the way that is designated by that functional image.
Such manipulation in (3) is an intentional function. Such manipulation can be called an ego's "Manipulation of Images" or Manipulating Images.
    More complicated pure mental intentional functions like thinking, retracing, forecasting, daydreaming consist of some associations, manipulations of images, and smaller egos.
    Manipulations of images include the following. Simple examples of them will be taken:

(C)Combining images
Circumscribing two circles' images which were separated.
(D)Dissolving images
Separating two circles' images which were circumscribed.
(T)Transforming images
Transforming a circle's image into an ellipse's.
(BC)Bringing images closer
Bringing a person's face's image closer which was recollected farther.
(TF)Taking images farther
Taking a person's face's image farther which was recollected closer.
(S)Switching images
Taking a person's face's image farther or extinct which was recollected closer by bringing another person's face's image closer which was recollected farther.

    Without any manipulations of images by egos, complex images are generated only in memories which was explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES." All the same, by egos' combining images, dissolving them, transforming them, combining them again and again, more complicated complex images are generated.
    Only in spontaneous pure mental functions, images are fleeting, and they are not intensely memorized. In contrast, the images manipulated by egos remain longer in images' field, and they are intensely memorized. Simply, what we pay attention to are memorized, and the contrary are not. Egos' manipulating images can also be called their Paying Attention to (the sources of) those images.

SWITCHING AND ESCAPING IMAGES

    As was explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES," recollections of images have comparative quantity, and they are recollected comparatively "intensely or faintly." However, because such quantity is easy to understand with visual images in the case of manipulations of images, being recollected intensely or faintly is also called being recollected "Close or Far" visually and metaphorically in these books. Each ego can make images which was recollected farther recollected closer. This can be called Bringing Images Closer, and the contrary can be called Taking Images Farther. However, the latter is harder than the former. Far from that, the harder an ego tries to take images farther, the closer they will come, and the more persistently they will be recollected. This is because the image which an ego intends to take farther are being recollected as a part of the functional image in that ego. From the beginning, it is impossible for egos to directly make unrecollected images recollected. In addition, it is hard or impossible to directly make images being recollected unrecollected, that is, to extinguish them. In addition, a certain number (N) or less of images are recollected at once. When some images are recollected closer, the other images are recollected farther or do disappear. On those grounds, egos can take some images farther or extinguish them only by bringing some other images closer. An ego's taking some images father or extinct by bringing some other images closer can be called the ego's "Switching" (images) from some images to some other images. It is hard or impossible for an ego to perform what is called the "repression" of images. Each ego usually switches images.
    Moreover, when an image is causing an intense displeasure feeling like anxiety, self-hatred, and shame, egos can switch images from that image to another. However, in order to reduce that displeasure feeling, what is switched to can be any trifling image and does not matter. For example, when the self's defect is recollected and is causing such pain as self-hatred, in order to reduce that pain, what is switched to can be any trifling merit of the self or demerit of others. An ego's switching from an image causing displeasure feeling to others and reducing that displeasure feeling can be called the ego's "Escaping" (from) that image or Escape from that image. In contrast, an ego's not escaping but manipulating an image causing a displeasure feeling can be called the ego's "Facing" or Confronting that image or Confrontation with that image. These books never say that we should not escape from anything and never say that we should face or confront everything. They explain what we need to face or confront.

UNITARY MANIPULATIONS OF IMAGES AND COMPLEX ONES

    Manipulations of egos are similar to voluntary movements in the aspect where there are unitary manipulations of images and complex ones as follows.
    The manipulations of images which are inseparable into smaller ones can be called "Unitary" Manipulations of Images. For example, combining or dissolving two images or bringing closer or taking farther one image is included in them.
    In contrast, the manipulations of images each of which is composed of more than one unitary one can be called "Complex" Manipulations of Images. For example, combining or dissolving a lot of images is included in them, and it can be called "Construction" or "Resolution" of Images. All the same, the construction or resolution of complicated complex images is usually done in thinkings.
    Concerning switching images including escaping explained earlier, if the images in question go farther by bringing one other image closer, it is a unitary manipulation. If more than one image needs to be brought closer, it can be a complex manipulation. Anyway, switching images including escaping is far easier than constructing complicated complex images. This easiness is the deepest pitfall, as will be explained in "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE."

ABILITIES OF MANIPULATIONS OF IMAGES AND EGOS' TENDENCIES

    It is confirmed that the neuronal groups which cause voluntary movements included in intentional functions begin with functional neuronal groups in frontal lobes, go through lower part of nervous systems and end with motor nerves or cranial nerves. In contrast, the location of the functional neuronal groups causing manipulations of images have not been confirmed yet, but it is one of the following (1)(2). The neuronal groups causing recollections of images are located in the occipital lobes, temporal lobes, or parietal lobes. Either (1) the functional neuronal groups causing manipulations of images are located in those lobes and intervene in the neuronal groups and ways causing recollections of images or (2) the functional neuronal group causing manipulations of images are located in the frontal lobes and do stretch their axon to those lobes and intervene in the neuronal groups and ways causing recollections of images.
    Anyway, the unitary functional neuronal groups causing unitary manipulations of images are activated mainly innately. Therefore the abilities of unitary manipulations of images are formed mainly innately.
    When the unitary manipulations which are to compose a complex manipulation are repeated, the function to function neuronal ways among unitary functional groups composing them are acquiredly activated, the pattern of manipulations are memorized, and the abilities of that complex manipulation are formed.
    Moreover, out of intentional functions, as far as complex manipulations of images and thinkings and the synthetic functions involving them are concerned, the following is possible. The products of manipulations and thinkings are memorized and stored and recollected as complex images, and recycled. Moreover, the patterns of complex manipulations and thinkings are also memorized and stored in the neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness, which are included in image neuronal ways. After all, the abilities of complex manipulations of images are acquiredly formed by the activations of both function to function neuronal ways and a part of image to image neuronal ways, and their abilities are the abilities of those neuronal ways.
    Manipulations of images do not involve any voluntary movements and are not restricted by physical abilities. In addition, directly, they are restricted only by internal situations not by external situations. Simply, there is little resistance to them. Therefore it is probable that even newborns, whose abilities of voluntary movements and synthetic functions are immature, play with manipulations of images. Then, they can reduce boredom.
    Therefore the abilities of both unitary and complex manipulations of images are easily formed both innately and acquiredly. From the beginning, manipulations of images are too easy for their abilities to matter. While most of the other intentional functions are restricted by their own abilities, manipulations of images are not restricted by their abilities. For example, when we intend to walk, if the ability to walk is immature or reduced, we cannot walk. In contrast, it is easy to manipulate the image of walking and to walk in our imaginations.

THINKINGS

    As was explained earlier, out of pure mental functions, sensations, recollections of images, perceptions, and associations, feelings, desires, and complex emotions are not caused directly by egos and are not intentional functions. They can be called Spontaneous Pure Mental Functions. In contrast, manipulations of images and thinkings are caused directly by egos and are intentional functions. They can be called "Pure Mental Intentional Functions."
    Human recollections of images, perceptions, associations, egos, manipulations of images, and thinkings almost always involve some lingual images. However, if the phrase of "involving some lingual images" was always used, the sentences would be complicated. Therefore it is usually omitted in these books.
    At least in each human being, the repetition of perceptions, recollections of images, or associations and manipulations by egos of the images recollected in them sometimes compose a function. The functions composed by such repetitions can be called "Thinkings." For example, some problems are recollected as complex images, an ego brings closer some of them and propound them, some answers are associated, the ego manipulates some of them and brings closer some of them and adopt them or take them farther and reject them, and some problems remaining or related are recollected, and the same are repeated. Such a repetition is the typical example of thinkings. Above all, egos function when they bring closer and adopt a problem or an answer out of those associated. Here, the expectation for some benefits in practical thinkings, the expectation for much consistency and little contradiction in theoretical thinkings, some curiosity in general thinkings, and so forth function as emotional system (motivations). A problem which is not beneficial in a practical thinking and an answer which is contradictory in a theoretical thinking are rejected.
    Egos, by bring problems closer (a kind of manipulations), can start thinkings. In addition, egos, by switching problems (a kind of manipulations), can stop or switch thinkings. Therefore thinkings are included in intentional functions and in pure mental ones.
    When we look at those closer, we find that a thinking started by a larger ego contains at least associations and manipulations of images started by smaller egos and that there is a multilayer structure where a larger ego contains smaller egos. Moreover, sometimes, a larger thinking started by a larger ego contains not only them but also smaller thinkings started by smaller egos. For example, while thinking how to see our boy or girl friends, we decide to go by train, and we start to think how to go to the station. In addition, sometimes, such a smaller thinking is prolonged and replace the larger thinking. For example, while thinking how to go to the station, we start to think how to get a car in the long run. When a larger thinking involves smaller thinkings, both are called thinkings in these books. Here is a multilayer structure where a larger thinking started by a larger ego contain associoations, and manipulations of images and smaller thinkings started by smaller egos. When egos are paid attention to, there is a multilayer structure of egos where a larger ego contains smaller ones. When thinkings are paid attention to, there is a multilayer structure of thinkings where a larger thinking contains smaller ones.
    After all, thinkings can be defined as the pure mental intentional functions which are always composed of associations, manipulations of images, and egos, and sometimes contain smaller equivalents.

EGOS INVOLVING THINKINGS

    In contrast, sometimes, egos completely contain manipulations of images or thinkings. That is, sometimes in a larger ego, smaller egos manipulate or think of functional images just recollected, that is, a larger ego contains the manipulation of or thinking of functional images caused by a smaller egos. Simply, this is thinking "how to do." Above all, in the situation where egos need to cause some intentional functions but do not need to cause them at once, smaller egos think of functional images slowly and steadily. However, when writers think slowly and steadily, they find the following. In the recollections of functional images, outlines are recollected at first. Then, smaller egos manipulate those outlines and think of the details which can be carried out in the external situation, and then larger egos carry out the details. This is what we usually do in our daily lives and no special thing. It is thinking how to do concretely in concrete situations. For example, the outline of interpersonal escape is recollected as functional images, and a smaller ego think whether not to go to school or office, to go there but escape interpersonal relations, or the like. In addition, it sometimes happens that while a smaller ego is thinking of functional images, another situation break out, and the larger ego is replaced by another one. In addition, while a smaller ego is thinking of functional images, that smaller ego and thinking sometimes replace the larger ego. For example, while we think how to escape interpersonal relations, we sometimes start to philosophically or psychologically think what is the self who often escape them.

THINKINGS IN A NARROW SENSE, RETRACINGS, FORECASTINGS, AND DAYDREAMINGS

    Out of thinkings, thinking where recollections of the real and present, the past, the future, or the unreal are dominant can be called Thinkings in a Narrow Sense, "Retracings," "Forecastings," or "Daydreamings" respectively.
    In addition, thinkings seem to be divided into those where manipulations of images are dominant and those where associations are dominant though they continue from one to the other. In the latter, thinkings seem to be caused spontaneously. What is called "thinking ramblings and then coming to oneself" is the latter's changing into the former.

MENTAL FUNCTIONS AND LANGUAGE

    In human beings, spoken words are sensed on auditory sensations and are generated and memorized and stored and recollected as auditory complex images. In addition, written words and signs are sensed on visual sensations and are generated and memorized and stored and recollected as visual complex images. In addition, it is probable that Braille are sensed on somatic sensations and are generated and memorized and stored and recollected as somatic complex images. The images of spoken words, written words and signs, Braille, and so forth can be called "Words Appearing as Images," "Language Appearing as Images," or "Lingual Images."
    We are shown not only words but also the things which they designate by our elders like parents, and it is sometimes clear in situations which things they designate. Therefore, when lingual images are generated or renewed, the images of the things which they represent are also generated or renewed, the neuronal ways among their sources are activated on the basis of temporal closeness. Simply, words and things are linked. As a result, when we hear or see some words, the images of the things which they designate are recollected together with their images. Those which are recollected with them are what are called concepts of words. In addition, when things are recollected as complex images, those complex images usually contain lingual images.
    Common nouns in language represent the sets of general things and have already classified things. Therefore language not only is means of transmission but also facilitates the grasp of not only particular things but also general things and facilitates the classification and systematization of things.
    In addition, some pieces of grammar in language are some patterns of associations and thinkings. For example, some conjunctions and some relations of subjects and predicates designate the relations of cause and effect. Therefore language facilitates and sophisticates associations and thinkings.
    Of course, language is a means of transmission and conservation, too. Through language, complicated complex images, that is, ideas are generated, memorized, stored, and recollected and not only transmitted as spoken words but also transmitted and stored as written words and sighs beyond generations and regions. Thus, complicated ideas like the Ptolemaic system and the Copernican system, the Creation and Darwin's theory of evolution, and monarchy and democracy are constructed in the human history. Some of them are resolved or reconstructed or forgotten in the following way.

CONSTRUCTION, RESOLUTION, RECONSTRUCTION, AND BEING FORGOTTEN, OF COMPLEX IMAGES

    Without egos, manipulations of images, or thinkings, complex images are also generated by the repetition of sensations and memories. All the same, complicated ones are constructed, resolved, and reconstructed through manipulations of images in thinkings.
    Some complex images are combined, dissolved, or transformed through egos' manipulations of images in thinkings, and memorized, stored, and recollected in a memory, and again combined, dissolved, or transformed, and the same are repeated. Thus, some complex images get more complicated when combinations are dominant, some get simpler when dissolutions are dominant, and some are simply forgotten in the way that were explained in "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES." In thinkings or manipulations of images in an individual, a complex image's getting more complicated when combinations are dominant can be called its "Construction" or Being Constructed, its getting simpler when dissolutions are dominant can be called its "Resolution" or Being Resolved, and a complex image's being constructed after being resolved can be called its "Reconstruction" or Being Reconstructed.
    Both in our daily lives and in science, resolutions and reconstructions are harder and more important functions than constructions are. For example, the resolution of the Creation and the reconstruction of the theory of evolution were hard or impossible for some people in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and even now. All the same, from the beginning, the complex images which are rarely manipulated or thought by egos are usually not resolved but forgotten simply.

IDEAS

    Some of the complex images' sources are not only constructed, resolved, reconstructed, and forgotten in each individual in the way that was explained in the above section but also transmitted and conserved with spoken words, written words, arts, and so forth in the human society and history, some of them are again constructed, resolved, and reconstructed, and forgotten in each individual, transmitted with spoken words, written words, arts, and so forth, and the same are repeated. Such complex images constructed, resolved, reconstructed, and forgotten, and transmitted and conserved thus or their sources can be called "Ideas" or "Thoughts."
    By being manipulated, thought, and transmitted, an idea's getting more complicated when combinations are dominant can be called its Construction or Being Constructed, an idea's getting simpler when resolutions are dominant can be called its Resolution or Being Resolved, and an idea's being constructed after being resolved can be called its Reconstruction or Being Reconstructed.
    Resolutions and reconstructions of ideas in the society and history are harder than those in each individual. This is because those who have gotten power and money and stability through old ideas strive to protect old ones and to destroy new ones. This was typified by the idea of Ptolemaic system against that of Copernican one, the idea of monarchy against that of democracy, and the idea of the Creation against that of evolution.
    All the same, in the society and history as much as in individuals, the media of ideas are dissipated and ideas are forgotten.

REALITY

    Without any egos, complex images are all generated only in memories. All the images that have been generated only in memories without any egos are real. More accurately, no reality matters without any egos.
    In contrast, by manipulations of images or thinkings by egos, some unreal images are generated, and the reality becomes a problem. In addition, around the reality, some researches, disputes, and so forth are caused.
    In addition, human beings construct and transmit some unreal complex images intentionally in literature, art, and so forth. This is a "Fiction."
    Moreover, human beings intentionally construct and transmit seemingly real and actually unreal complex images. This is a "Lie."
    In addition, human beings construct seemingly real and actually unreal images unintentionally. This is close to an "Illusion" or "Misunderstanding."

ABILITIES OF THINKINGS

    First, because thinkings contain the manipulations of images whose majority is manipulations of complex images, the abilities of function to function neuronal ways and a part of image to image neuronal ways compose the abilities of thinkings. First, those neuronal ways are acquiredly activated, and the abilities of thinkings are acquiredly formed. A little more metaphorically, while thinkings are repeated, those neuronal ways are activated as the routes of thinkings, and thinkings come to be easily caused.
    Second, thinkings contain associations. Therefore, in the formation of the abilities of thinkings, the activations of a part of image to image neuronal ways come to be dominant.
    Third, complex images including ideas explained earlier which are the products of thinkings are memorized and stored, and recollected. This can be looked upon as knowledge. However, some complex images contain the routes of thinkings. Therefore, in the formation of the abilities of thinkings, the activations of a part of image to image neuronal ways come to be more dominant.
    After all, the abilities of thinkings are the abilities of function to function neuronal ways and those of a part of image to image neuronal ways, and the latter come to be more dominant than manipulations of images.
    After all, thinkings are more complicated than manipulations of images. The abilities of thinkings are more complicated than those of manipulations of images. The formation of the former is not so easy as that of the latter. In addition, the former are formed more acquiredly than the latter.
    In the same ways as the abilities of the other intentional functions, the abilities of thinkings are formed with not outlines but subgroups made units. For example, there are subgroups of thinkings like law, economic, philosophical, physical, biological, and daily thinkings, and few persons are excellent at all of them. Far from that, there are some sub-subgroup in each of those subgroups. For example, few persons are excellent at both social contract theory and utilitarianism.

ABILITIES OF THINKINGS AND TENDENCIES OF EGOS

    First, we need to distinguish technical thinkings in science and technology and in profession on the one hand and daily thinkings in our daily lives on the other.
    Metaphorically, the formation of the abilities of technical thinkings is going through and activating those neuronal ways which predecessors went through. Such activations are done through reading books, hearing lectures, discussion, experiment, observation, and so forth.
    In contrast, though the abilities of daily thinkings in our daily lives are formed through written and unwritten law, ethics, religion, and so forth, most of them are formed through daily experience and in the conversations with familiar persons. Anyway, if experts or elites did not pass through their daily lives, they could not go into professional lives. Also for them, daily lives including daily human relations are vital, and daily thinkings are more important than technical thinkings.
    However, thinkings involved in egos, that is, thinkings about functional images are the most important. Rather, such thinkings are daily thinkings.
    Now, in the same ways as in escapes of images explained earlier, egos sometimes switch from thinkings causing intense pain like anxiety, self-hatred, and shame to safe ones and escape them. Such thinkings are included in escapes of images in these books. When we reach the self's defects in a thinkings or an association, because their images cause intense pain like anxiety, self-hatred, and shame, egos often escape those images. Then, egos can more and more hardly face or confront the self's defects. This is the most vicious circle of ours, human beings'. Such escapes of images are caused not by the abilities of thinkings but by the tendencies of egos.
    On those grounds, it is the tendencies of egos that are more important than the abilities of thinkings and are the most important of personalities.

SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS

    Synthetic functions contain voluntary movements and pure mental functions according to the definition in one of the above chapters. However, those pure mental functions include not only spontaneous ones but also pure mental intentional functions of manipulations of images or thinkings by egos and egos. For example, speaking words is a synthetic function where we perceive our own spoken words, think and confirm whether they are correct, think what to speak, and utter voice. Synthetic functions include speaking words, writing words, calculating, operating machines, playing, working, studying, and interpersonal functions.
    Moreover a larger synthetic function sometimes contains smaller ones. For example, attending a party ca be looked upon as a larger synthetic function of an interpersonal function, and seeing some persons in it can be looked upon as smaller synthetic functions of interpersonal functions.
    Nonetheless, whether they are large or small, synthetic functions are caused directly by egos, and they are intentional functions.
    After all, there is a multilayer structure where a larger synthetic function caused by a larger egos always contains voluntary movements and manipulations of images or thinkings caused by smaller egos and sometimes contains smaller synthetic functions caused by smaller egos.
    After all, synthetic functions can be defined as the intentional functions which are always composed of voluntary movements, pure mental functions including pure mental intentional functions, and egos, and sometimes contain smaller equivalents.

ABILITIES OF SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS

    Synthetic functions are different from thinkings in that the former contain voluntary movements, practically, complex voluntary movements. Therefore the abilities of synthetic functions are (1) those of thinkings, first, (2) the abilities of complex voluntary movements, that is, the contractile forces of striated muscles, the flexibility of joints, and (3) the abilities of function to function neuronal ways, second, plus the abilities of the function to function neuronal ways between the functional neuronal groups and the function to function neuronal ways causing complex voluntary movements on the one hand and those causing thinkings on the other. Therefore it is not that the abilities of synthetic functions are formed completely by forming each of (1)(2) separately. Because the neuronal ways in (3) are considerably complicated, in order to form (3), we cannot help causing the particular synthetic function practically in try and error. Though that is true in the formation of the abilities of all intentional functions, try and error is the most important in the formation of the abilities of synthetic functions. Above all, it is true of the formation of the abilities of interpersonal functions.

COMPLICATED EGOS

MULTILAYER STRUCTURE OF EGOS

    The multilayer structure of egos, and thinkings and synthetic functions, and egos taking steps were explained above. In this chapter, they will be explained in some different ways.
    The limited egos where their functional images are recollected clearly and intensely and their functional impulses are caused intensely can be called Clear and Intense Egos. To the contrary, the egos where their functional images are recollected vaguely and faintly and their functional impulses are caused faintly can be called Vague and Faint Egos.
    As was explained in the above chapter, the following multilayer structures of egos concerning intentional functions are possible.

(1) A larger thinking caused by a larger ego contains manipulations of images and smaller thinkings caused by smaller egos.
(2) A larger synthetic function caused by a larger ego contains manipulations of images, thinkings, and smaller synthetic functions caused by smaller egos.
(3) A larger ego involve manipulations or thinkings of functional images caused by smaller egos.

    In (1)(2)(3), the larger egos or intentional functions are caused earlier than smaller ones by several tenthes of a second or seconds. In addition, when the larger ego starts the larger intentional function, the larger ego is caused clearly and intensely. In contrast, when the smaller egos cause the smaller intentional functions, the smaller egos are caused clearly and intensely, and the larger ego is caused vaguely and faintly. Therefore such multilayer structures of egos are possible.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS AS STEPS OR MEANS

    When the multilayer structures are made clear in the above section, we find that egos which were explained earlier as egos taking steps are the smaller egos in (1)(2), and the smaller intentional functions in (1)(2) are details, steps, or means for the larger intentional functions. For example 1, making up, thinking which dress to put on, and putting it on are steps or means to see her or his boy or girl friend. For example 2, washing tubes are steps or means for some experiments, and experiments are steps or means for some researches. When we look over them, we find that most of our daily lives and science are steps or means.

EGOS INVOLVING THINKINGS

    In a larger ego, sometimes, when functional images are recollected, they do not soon cause pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations, but a smaller ego manipulates or thinks of those functional images and modifies them, and those modified functional images cause some pleasure or displeasure sensations, the larger ego, and the modified intentional function. Here is a multilayer structure of egos (3) where a larger ego involve manipulations or thinkings of functional images caused by smaller egos. Such a large ego can be called an Ego Involving Thinkings, and such manipulations of images or thinkings caused by smaller egos can be called Thinkings Involved in Egos.
    However, it takes an ego the time from tenths of a second to seconds to think. In a situation where there is no such a time, the ego and thinking end up in a half way, and only a half-way intentional function or nothing is sometimes caused. For example, when the traffic signal suddenly starts twinkling before the body enters pedestrian crossing, it sometimes happen that the upper body goes on and that the lower body stops or the contrary.

MORE THAN ONE LIMITED EGO'S BEING CAUSED

    More than one limited ego (e1, e2, …) and intentional function are sometimes caused at once. In such a case, there are comparative differences between the clearnesses and intensities of the recollections of functional images and between the intensities of functional impulses. For example, when we are thinking (caused by e1) of complicated things while walking (caused by e2) on our usual streets, e1's functional image is recollected more intensely and clearly than e2's, and e1's functional impulse is caused more intensely than e2's. In such a case, as was explained earlier, e1 can be called a Clear and Intense Limited Ego and e2 a Vague and Faint Limited Ego.
    Moreover, it is probable that e3's functional image is recollected more clearly and intensely than e4's and that e4's functional impulse is caused more intensely than e3's. For example, when we are walking (caused by e3) on a steep path while we are thinking (caused by e4) of changing the route, it is probable that e4's functional image is recollected more clearly and intensely than e3's and that e3's functional impulse is caused more intensely than e4's. In such a case, e3 can be called a "Limited Ego with Intense Emotion" or an Emotional Limited Ego, and e4 a "Limited Ego with Intense Rationality" or a Rational (Limited) Ego.
    In addition, the same applies to the limited egos (et1, et2,…) caused one after another in seconds or minutes. For example 1, when we are home (caused by et1) on a holiday and then are about to go out (caused by et2), et1 is a vague and faint limited ego, and et2 a clear and intense limited ego. For example 2, when we begin to destroy (caused by et3) something with fury and then refrain (caused by et4) from doing that, et3 is a limited ego with intense emotion or an emotional ego, and et4 a limited ego with intense rationality or a rational limited ego.

SEMI-AUTOMATIC INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    For example, egos can think of today's schedule, while walking to the station, and while carrying a bag. Thinking (1), walking (2), and carrying (3) are all intentional functions. Thus, it is possible that more than one limited ego and intentional function is caused at once. All the same, (2)(3)'s egos are vague and faint, and (2)(3)'s intentional functions can be looked upon as going on, as it were, "automatically." However, such intentional functions as can go on automatically are confined to unitary and complex voluntary movements. Synthetic functions and pure metal intentional functions cannot. In the above example, (1) cannot go on automatically. Such intentional functions as can go on automatically can be called "Semi-automatic" Intentional Functions.
    The word "automatic" was modified by the prefix "semi-" for the following reason.
    Egos are functioning actively when they start semi-automatic intentional functions and when some great changes of the situation concerning the intentional functions are caused. For example 1, when a larger ego is starting walking, smaller egos are thinking how fast I should walk or whether I should walk or run. For example 2, when the bag is slipping off the shoulder, egos hold it tight while thinking how to prevent slipping.
    In addition, also when the complex voluntary movements whose abilities are being formed are caused, egos are functioning actively. For example, the ability to walk simply of those who always walked elegantly is immature. When they try to walk simply, egos are functioning actively and thinking how to do so.
    By the way, thinkings often seem to go on semi-automatically. All the same, thinkings consist of associations, manipulations of images or smaller thinkings by egos. Though the thinkings where associations are dominant often seem to go on semi-automatically, associations are not intentional functions but spontaneous mental functions. Therefore, more accurately, it needs to be said that the thinkings where associations are dominant seem to be go on spontaneously. As was explained earlier, by the repetition of thinkings, a part of image to image neuronal ways are activated. As a result, not only the abilities of thinkings but also tendencies of associations are formed. As a result, associations in thinkings become more dominant, and thinkings seem to go on more spontaneously.
    In addition, synthetic functions contain voluntary movements. The larger the occupation of voluntary movements gets, the closer synthetic functions come to semi-automatic intentional functions. For example, it seems that a synthetic function of operating a machine, while it is repeated, goes on more semi-automatically. Nonetheless, when it is compared with the automaticity of that machine, it is exactly semi-automatic.

INERTIAL EGOS

    When semi-automatic intentional functions are caused and when intentional functions as steps or means are caused, though clear and intense egos function at the beginning, vague and faint egos function thereafter. Such vague and faint egos can also be called "Inertial" Egos. Simply, most of our daily lives is inertial.

EGOS' LIBERTY

    Now, we find that seemingly free egos indulge themselves with their own tendencies, inertia, steps, and emotions and are not so free. Moreover, egos indulge themselves with their own tendencies falling into a vicious circle which will be explained in "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE." All the same, in the way that will be explained in that same book, egos can reform their own tendencies. When egos do that, they get the closest to freedom. Let us go on to "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE," shall we?

References

SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES

FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE

EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY


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