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A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS

THE RELATION OF THIS BOOK WITH THE OTHER BOOKS IN OUR-EXISTENCE.NET

  In this book, this "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS" is also called "This Book". This book is on the basis of "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". Accordingly, if possible, please read this book after you read that. "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", this book, and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" are also called "These Books" in this book. These books can also be looked upon as chapters composing a book. Accordingly, these books are also called "PSYCHOLOGIES OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES OR MORE" as a book in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET. These books, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "OUR-EXISTENCE.NET", "A SEPARATION OF POWERS FOR EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", and "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENRAL THINGS" are also called "All the Books in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET" or "These Books" in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET.
  In this book, the words of materials, living things, bodies, animals, human beings, neural systems, neural groups, functions, living functions, bodily functions, animal functions, human functions, neural functions, neural groups' excitements and transmissions, their existing and functioning, appearing things, things appearing as images, images, images' sources, sensations, memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on designate the same things as in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". Anyway, Neural systems are included in bodies, they are included in living things, they are included in materials, neural functions are included in bodily functions, they are included in living functions, and they are included in (material) functions. Neural functions include sensations, memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on.
  In "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" and "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", because their species are important, the words of animals and human beings usually designated their species. In contrast, in these books, because their individuals are important, those words usually designate their individuals.

VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS, PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS, SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS, AND AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS

VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS

  Unitary voluntary movements and complex voluntary movements which will be explained below can be called "Voluntary Movements".
  Inseparable moving functions which are caused by some neural groups' excitements and transmissions and striated muscle groups' excitements and contractions from the motor area on frontal lobe of cerebrum via spinal cord and motor nerves or via cranial nerves to striated muscles can be called "Unitary Voluntary Movements". Unitary voluntary movements include bending and stretching of joints, upward, downward, rightward and leftward movements and bending and stretching of tongues, opening and closing and tension and relaxation of vocal cords, upward, downward, rightward, and leftward movements and whirl of eyeballs, tension and relaxation of parts of faces.
  A movement which consists of more than one unitary voluntary movement can be called a "Complex Voluntary Movement". For example, a human being's walking upright on two legs is a complex voluntary movement consisting of more than one unitary voluntary movement like bending forward of left shoulder joint, bending backward of right shoulder one, bending backward of left hip one, bending forward of right hip one, and so on. Vertebrates' complex voluntary movements include walking, running, swimming, flying, uttering cries, and so on. Human beings' complex voluntary movements include walking upright on two legs, running alike, doing the crawl, butterfly, and so on, pronouncing syllables and short words, and so on. By the way, speaking long words, phrases, clauses, sentences are included in synthetic functions which will be explained later. That is because we have to perceive the words spoken by ourselves and to think what to speak next. In addition, writing or inputting something on papers or into computers are included in synthetic functions.
  Voluntary movements are included in intentional functions which will be explained later.

PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS

  Functions consisting of some sensations or some recollections of images and involving no voluntary movements can be called "Pure Mental Functions". Pure mental functions include sensations, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, egos, and thinking.
  Recollections of images, perceptions, associations, feelings, egos, thinkings, and so on involve some recollections of images. Sensations, pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives involve no recollections of images.

SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS

  Functions consisting of some pure mental functions and of voluntary movements can be called "Synthetic Functions". Human beings' synthetic functions include speaking words, writing words, talking with other human beings, playing, studying, working, and interpersonal functions. For example, human beings' speaking words is to perceive the words spoken by themselves, to think what to speak next, and to move their mouse, tongue, larynx, and so on, it involves at least perceptions, thinking, and voluntary movements, and so it is a synthetic movement.

INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONS

  Synthetic functions concerned with some other human beings such as talking with, playing with, studying with, working with, keeping company with, breaking up with, fighting with, being conciliated with them, escaping them, and so on can be called "Interpersonal Functions". They are the most important of all human functions for human beings to exist.
  Confrontations and escapes will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". Interpersonal functions include interpersonal confrontations and interpersonal escapes. Simply, keeping company with people even with interpersonal anxiety is an interpersonal confrontation. In contrast, escaping people because of interpersonal anxiety is an interpersonal escape. Fighting with people is not in the least the same as the interpersonal confrontations. Please do not forget that. Fighting with people is often an interpersonal escape rather than an interpersonal confrontation. Being reconciled is often an interpersonal confrontation. Interpersonal confrontations and escapes include complicated ones and simple ones. For example, not going to school or work because of interpersonal anxiety is a simple interpersonal escape. Talking only superficial things or pretending to be unapproachable are a complicated interpersonal escape.

MENTAL FUNCTIONS

  Pure mental functions and synthetic functions are also called "Mental Functions" in these books.

AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS

  Bodily functions which do not involve any sensations, recollections of images, or voluntary movements can be called "Autonomic Functions".
  Autonomic functions include contraction and expansion of heart, blood vessels, and lungs, digestive organ's movement, digestion, and absorption, endocrine, exocrine, immunity, and discharges (excluding evacuation from rectum and urination from bladder). By the way, at least in human beings, it cannot be asserted that evacuation from rectum or urination from bladder is an autonomic function. That is because they walk or run to the nearest bathroom with it or its passage recollected as images.

SITUATIONS

  The words of the "situation" for a material or function were defined in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". This section will complement the definition. With the words, we usually image that for an individual or society. However, as far as the situation for a material or function as a part of an individual's body and its functions is concerned, a part of its situation is in the individual, and the other part is out of it. For example, when I have fractured my leg and cannot walk well, the fracture is the main part of the situation for my walking, and when I have a cold and cannot think well, the cold is the main part of the situation for my thinking, and when I can think only about my boy or girl friend, my drive, feeling, desire and thinking for or about him or her is the main part of the situation for my thinking about the things other than him or her. Of course, in the above examples, such external parts as the accident which caused the fracture, those who transmitted the cold, the boy or girl friend which influenced the drives, feelings, desires, and so on are no less important than the above internal parts are. As far as the situation for a material or function as a part of an individual's body and its functions is concerned, the part within the individual can be called the "Internal" Situation or Bodily Situation, and the part out of the individual can be called the "External" Situation. In the above examples, the fracture, the cold, the drives, feelings, desires, and so on are internal situations, and the accident, those who transmitted the cold, the boy or girl friend are external situations.
  In general, in law, politics, economics, and sociology, individuals, societies, and their situations are important, in biology, bodies, bodily functions, and their internal and external situations are so, and in psychology, mental functions and their internal and external situations are important. Anyway, in biology and psychology, we often need to distinguish internal situations and external ones.
  However, in general, the words of materials, functions, situations, or so designate those excluding bodies, bodily functions, internal situations, or so, and so such usages are sometimes used also in these books.

OBJECTS AND MEANS

  Most functions have objects, means, and situations as properties. For example, general human beings are the objects of interpersonal functions, spoken words, written words, telephones, mails, and so on are means of them, offices, schools, and so on are the external situation for them, and interpersonal anxiety, desire, and so on are the internal situation for them.

INNATE EMOTIONS

  Pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions as will be explained in this chapter can be called "Emotions".

PLEASURE AND DISPLEASURE SENSATIONS

  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", things appearing on an olfactory sensation, things appearing on a balancing sensation, things appearing on a taste sensation, things appearing on a somatic sensation, or things appearing on an autonomic sensation which have pleasure or displeasure as properties can be called "Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Sensation" in general, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Olfactory Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Balancing Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Taste Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Somatic Sensation, and Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Autonomic Sensation in particular. In things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure sensation, a spatial and temporal part where pleasure is comparatively dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Pleasure Sensation", and a spatial and temporal part where displeasure is comparatively dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Displeasure Sensation". In addition, the neural function which is premised on causing things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure sensation, things appearing on a pleasure sensation, or things appearing on a displeasure sensation can be called a "Pleasure and Displeasure Sensation", a "Pleasure Sensation", or a "Displeasure Sensation".
  The pain, itch, hotness, and coldness in the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendons are included in things appearing on pleasure and displeasure somatic sensations. Palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, and so on are included in things appearing on pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations.
  Excluding visual sensations and auditory sensations, sensations are pleasure and displeasure sensations. Visual sensations and auditory sensations are not pleasure and displeasure sensations. For example, the pain of the eyes or that of the ears is a somatic sensation, autonomic sensation, or metaphor for mental pain.
  Directly and indirectly, each pleasure and displeasure sensation causes not only some memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on but also various functions spreading over the neural system, autonomic neural one, endocrine one, immune one, and so on. For example, the pain on the skin causes palpitation, sweating, and so on indirectly through the autonomic neural system and endocrine one.

DRIVES

  A bodily function which has the following properties can be called a "Drive".

(d1) It involves some pleasure and displeasure sensations.
(d2) When a function peculiar to it is not caused, some displeasure sensations peculiar to it are caused.
(d3) When the function peculiar to it is caused to a degree, the displeasure sensations explained in (d2) are reduced, and some pleasure sensations peculiar to it are caused.
(d4) When the function peculiar to it is caused excessively, some displeasure sensations peculiar to it are sometimes caused.
(d5) The above are repeated.

  First, hunger and thirst are clearly included in drives, and the former can be called an "Eating Drives", and the latter can be called a "Water Drinking Drive". Second, though not so clear as they are, sexual urges are included in drives, and can be called "Sexual Drives". Third, there may be some gathering drives, controlling drives, defending drives, and so on.
  In (d1)-(d5), (d2) is also called a drive's "Dissatisfaction" or Being Dissatisfied, (d3) a drive's "Satisfaction" or Being Satisfied, and (d4) a drive's "Satiation" or Being Satiated in these books.
  Pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are functions which have been generated in evolution, and they have already become suitable functions for individuals and species to exist. For example, the pain on skins which are included in pleasure displeasure somatic sensations prevent injuries from reaching vital organs deeper than skins. Palpitation and dyspnea which are included in the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations prevent us from overworking. Sexual drives, above all, is decisive functions for the existence of every species of most animals.

REVIEW OF "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES"

  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, taste, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, images, ideas, and so on can be called "Appearing Things".
  Appearing things are roughly divided into things appearing on sensations and images (=things appearing as images). Simply, things occurring to me, things remembered, things expected, things imagined, and so on are images.
  More than one individual image which appears spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images or things appearing on sensations can be called a "Thing Appearing as a Complex Image", a Complex Image, a Thing Appearing as an Image, an Image. In addition, a thing appearing as an image, a thing appearing on a perception, or a thing appearing on an association is also called a Thing Appearing as an Image or an Image in these books. Particular things which have temporal extent more than seconds, general things, abstract things, the self, and so on appear as images.
  The things in themselves which are premised on causing an appearing thing by making themselves a source can be called the Appearing Thing's "Source", and in particular, those which are premised on causing an image by making themselves a source can be called the Image's Source or an Image. That is, the words of an image can designate the image's source which is included in appearing things' sources or an image which is included in appearing things.
  The neural function which is premised on causing an image can be called the Recollection of the Image, a Recollection, the Image's Being Recollected, or a thing's Being Recollected as the Image. Though the word "recollection" often designate remembering some past events in daily life, the word designate not only remembering some past things but also thinking of some present things, expecting some future things, imagining some unreal things, dreaming, and so on in these books.
  Though roughly, sensory sources and images' sources are grasped, cut, and images' sources are generated, memorized, stored, arise, and a certain number(n) or less of images' sources are replayed and recollected at once.
  The images' sources which have already been recollected and those which have not been recollected yet need to be distinguished. Because, if the latter caused any functions, some of them could be what is called "unconsciousness". An image's source which is recollected is also called a Recollected Image, a Thing Recollected as an Image, a Recollected Thing, or its Source in these books. Moreover, recollected images' sources are also called images' sources or images in these books. That is, the words of an image sometimes designate a recollected image in these books.

IMAGE TO EMOTION NEURAL WAYS

  As was explained earlier, every pleasure and displeasure sensation causes not only some memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on but also various functions spreading over the neural system, above all, autonomic neural one, endocrine one, immune one, and so on. For example, the pain on the skin which are included in pleasure and displeasure somatic sensations cause palpitation, dyspnea, and so on which are included in pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, sweating, endocrine secretion of epinephrine, and so on which are included in the autonomic functions as was explained earlier.
  Above all, most pleasure and displeasure sensations cause some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations like palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, and so on.
  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the neural sources in images' sources are the neural groups' excitements and transmissions or activities. Now, there exist and function some neural ways from the neural groups which the images' neural sources go through to those which cause autonomic sensations, and they have not been activated innately, but can be activated acquiredly on the basis of temporal closeness. Such neural ways from images' neural sources to autonomic sensations is called an "Image to Emotion Neural Way" in these books. It is certain that such neural ways involve some autonomic nerves.

FEELINGS

  Now,
(1) Some images' sources are grasped, memorized, and stored.
(2) Some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are caused by some emotions' being caused.
When (1)(2) are temporally closely caused again and again;
the image to emotion neural ways from the images' sources to the autonomic sensations are sometimes activated.
(3)Next time the images' sources are recollected and grasped;
the activated image to emotion neural ways excite and transmit,
and the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are sometimes caused.
In (3),
the recollection of the image's sources,
the recollected images' sources,
the excitements and transmissions of the image to emotion neural ways,
and the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations
can be called the "Feeling" of, about, for, at, or against the images' sources.
  For example, in the body, above all, neural system of a baby who are battered by its mother,
(1) The mother's sources are grasped, memorized, and stored.
(2) Some displeasure autonomic sensations like palpitation and dyspnea are caused by its skin's pain's being caused.
When (1)(2) are temporally closely caused again and again;
the image to emotion neural way from the mother's sources to the autonomic sensations are activated;
next time the mother's images' sources are recollected and grasped;
the activated image to emotion neural ways excite and transmit,
and the displeasure autonomic sensations like palpitation and dyspnea are caused;
Such is the feeling of the anxiety about or fear of a certain person or general human beings. In contrast, when a baby has hunger and thirst, and when its mother hugs and nurses it again and again; in the baby's body, the generation of the mother's images and moderate palpitation and dysp]nea are simultaneously caused, and the pleasure autonomic sensations are caused when the mother are recollected. Such is the feeling of expectation for or ease to a certain person or general human beings.
  Feelings include anxiety, fear, expectation, ease, disgust at other persons, disgust at Self, and so on.
  Some feelings are the substance of some parts of what is called "conditioning". For example, it is probable that even Pavlov's dogs have some expectations for food. In such a way, it is possible that not only human beings but also some evolved mammals at least have some feelings. In addition, like the examples taken earlier, human babies have some simple feelings. Of course, human beings after the infant period have various and complicated feelings.
  Sources causing feelings usually spread wider and wider. For example, when a person has some anxiety about some other persons in school or office, its buildings, the way to them, and so on come to cause anxiety. This is the substance of what is called "anxiety causes anxiety" and of some parts of "conditioning". Such extensive sources' causing some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations is also included in feelings.
  When some feelings are caused, that is, when some images' sources are causing some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, when some other images' sources are recollected temporally closely to the former, the image to emotion neural ways from the latter are activated, and the latter sometimes cause the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations. This is also included in feelings. That is, some feelings are caused only in pure mental functions, and some are caused by mere means or ways. For example, when a certain person is being recollected and is causing expectations, and when a means or way to meet him or her are recollected, such a means or way sometimes causes some pleasure autonomic sensations. This is included in the expectations for means or ways and is close to a desire which will be explained later. Also in such ways, sources causing feelings spread wider and wider.
  Feeling where pleasure autonomic sensations are dominant can be called Pleasure Feelings, and the contrary can be called Displeasure Feelings. Seemingly, the distinction between them is vague. However, it can distinguish them whether or not they cause indirectly any impulses which will be explained later. Pleasure feelings include expectation, ease, and displeasure feelings include anxiety, fear, disgust at other persons, and disgust at the self.

INNATE FORMATION AND ACQUIRED FORMATION

  This is the best place where innate formation and acquired formation are explained. Neural groups in themselves are formed maily by genes and their functions. Such formation mainly by genes and their functions can be called "Innate Formation" or Being Formed Innately.
  In contrast, the neural groups which memorize and store individual images' sources, the neural ways among them, and image to emotion neural ways which were explained earlier, image to function neural ways which will be explained later, and so on are not activated mainly by genes and their function, that is, innately but are activated depending on situations after the fetal period, above all, after the birth. Such formation can be called "Acquired Formation" or Being Formed Acquiredly.
  All the living things and their fuctions are formed both innately and acquiredly. For example, no neural function could function if no neural groups were formed innately. However, some functions could not function in the least without acquired formation. For example, because images' sources are all formed acquiredly, recollections of images, perceptions, associations involving them could not function in the least without acquired formation. In contrast, the other living functions function in some ways without acquired formation. Accordingly, the living functions which could not function in the least without acquired formation can be called "Acquired Functions", and the others "Innate Functions". Acquired functions include recollections of images, perceptions, associations, complex voluntary movements, synthetic functions, and feelings which have been explained so far and desires, complex emotions, egos, and thinkings which will be explained from now on. Innate functions include sensations, unitary voluntary movements, autonomic functions which have been explained so far.
  Innate functions are formed
(1)in the situation common to the species
(2)in the time of a lot of generations through genes' spontaneous mutations and natural selections
(3)with little difference among individuals.
In contrast, acquired functions are formed
(1')in the situation particular to the individual
(2')in the time of one generation
(3')with much difference among individuals.
  For example, as for the feeling of anxiety, some persons have generally intense anxiety, some have intense interpersonal anxiety, and some have intense anxiety about being alone. The second and the third kinds of anxiety are formed mainly acquiredly. However, as was explained earlier, all the living things and their functions are formed both innately and acquiredly. Feelings also involve subtypes of neurotransmitter and receptor, and subtypes are formed mainly innately. For example, the first (generally intense anxiety) is formed more innately than acquiredly.

MAKING USE OF THE PAST, FORSEEING THE FUTURE, AND PREVENTING DANGER

  When some things caused intense, continuous, or continual displeasure sensations in the past, the image to emotion neural ways from the images' sources of those things to some displeasure autonomic sensations are activated, and the recollection of those things as images causes those displeasure autonomic sensations. This is the feeling of anxiety about or fear of those things. In such a way, feelings appeal to pleasure or displeasure, and are functions to repeat pleasure and not to repeat displeasure. In addition, there are recollections of images in the first parts of feelings, and not only the past things but also the present and future things are recollected as images. Accordingly, feelings are powerful functions which foresee the future and prevent danger. For example, an infant sees sour face of his or her mother, feels anxiety, and stops making a fuss.

OBJECTIVE IMAGES

  At least in human beings, some parts, outlines, objects, means, ways, situations of functions are sensed, perceived, grasped, memorized, stored, and recollected as images. For example 1, some outlines of interpersonal functions like interpersonal confrontations with people, interpersonal escapes from people, and so on are recollected as images. For example 2, general human beings who are the objects of interpersonal functions are recollected as images. For example 3, school, office, or home which is the situation of interpersonal functions is recollected as an image. The images' sources of some parts, outlines, objects, means, ways, situations of a function can be called the function's "Objective Image" or Objective Image's Source.
  Above all, objective images' sources which have already been recollected and those which have not been recollected yet need to be distinguished. That is because, if the latter caused any functions, they could be some parts of what is called unconsciousness.

DESIRES

  Now, when a functions is caused,
(1)the objective images' sources of the function are sometimes grasped, memorized, and stored.
(2)The function sometimes causes, as a result, some pleasure autonomic sensations.
When (1)(2) are temporally close caused again and again,
the image to emotion neural ways from the function's objective images' sources to the autonomic sensations are sometimes activated.
(3)Next time the objective image's source is recollected and grasped,
the activated image to emotion neural ways excite and transmit,
and the pleasure autonomic sensations are sometimes caused.
Simply, when the result of some functions was good, each of us will expect those functions. When the result was bad, he or she has anxiety about the functions.
In (3),
the recollection of the objective image's source,
the recollected objective image's source,
the excitements and transmissions of the image to emotion neural ways,
and the pleasure autonomic sensations
can be called the "Desire" for the objective image's source, the Desire to do the function, or Wanting to do the function.
  For example, when each of us made interpersonal functions in school or office, the result was good, and enjoyed them; he or she will expect the general human beings and interpersonal confrontations. This is an interpersonal desire.
  Desires often include the desires to study, those to work, those to play, the interpersonal desires, those for marriage, and those for home, and sometimes include those for loneliness.
  Though desires are included in feelings and in pleasure feelings, feelings excluding desires and desires need to be distinguished, and so the former are also called Feelings (in a narrow sense) in these books.
  Anyway, in desires, pleasure ones are dominant in autonomic sensations. Simply, each of us does only what we like and does not do what we dislike.
  Some desires are the substance of some parts of what is called "conditioning".
  In each desire, when the objective images' sources cannot be done with, some displeasure emotions are caused. When they have been done with, some pleasure ones are caused. When they have been done with excessively, some displeasure ones are sometimes caused. The first can be called the desire's Dissatisfaction or Being dissatisfied, the second Satisfaction or Being Satisfied, and the third Satiation or Being Satiated.
  Because objective images' generations, memorizations, storages and the activations of image to emotion neural ways are caused after the end of the prenatal period, desires are acquired functions. For example, when we carry out some interpersonal functions and they caused pleasure emotions more than displeasure ones, some interpersonal desires are formed.
  After all, feelings and desires are acquired functions. In contrast, pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are innate functions. For example, all the human beings have some pain on skins, palpitation, dyspnea, eating drives, water drinking drives, and sexual drives.
  As was explained earlier, feelings are acquired functions where the difference among individuals is large and functions fit to make use of the past, to foresee the future, and to prevent danger. So are desires. For example, the desires to work prevent starvation, those to play prevent overwork, and those for marriage and family prevent loneliness. Moreover, desires indicate more concrete objects, ways, and means. For example 1, we need to do a certain business in order to exist, need to acquire certain knowledge and to get certain experience in order to do that, and desires get more and more concrete. For example 2, when there are some meetings, sexual drives or desires for marriage turn into the desires for a certain person sooner or later.

COMPLEX EMOTIONS

  Drives involve some pleasure and displeasure sensations, and feelings and desires involves some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations caused by some recollected images.
  Each of the function which consists mainly of several kinds of emotions that have been explained so far and which necessarily involves some feelings or desires can be called a "Complex Emotion".
  What is called "love" is a complex emotion which consists mainly of some sexual drives, gathering drives, loneliness, interpersonal desires. What is called "will to power" is a complex emotion which consists mainly of some controlling drives, controlling desires, desires to means to control like arms, money, and so on.
  However, a complex emotion which has a main component can be called with the words of that component. For example, what is called "will to power" can be called a controlling drive or desire.
  A complex emotion where pleasure emotions are dominant can be called a Pleasure Complex Emotion, and the contrary can be called a Displeasure Complex Emotion. For example, each love involves some sexual drives and interpersonal desires, and a love where sexual drives' dissatisfactions and interpersonal desires' dissatisfactions are dominant is a displeasure love.

PLEASURE AND PAIN

  Pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called "Emotions".
  Pleasure sensations, drives' satisfactions, pleasure feelings, desires' satisfactions, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Pleasure Emotions or Pleasures. Displeasure sensations, drives' dissatisfactions and satiations, displeasure feelings, desires' dissatisfactions and satiation, and displeasure complex emotions can be called a Displeasure Emotion, Displeasures, or "Pain". The word of "Pain" as an uncountable noun designates both physical and mental pain. In addition, the word of Pain is used more often than that of Displeasure in our daily life. Accordingly the former is often used also in these books.
  Pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives can be called "Physical Emotions". Pleasure sensations and drives' satisfactions can be called Physical Pleasure, and displeasure sensations and drives' dissatisfactions and satiations can be called Physical Displeasures or Physical Pain.
  Feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called "Mental Emotions". Pleasure feelings, desires' satisfactions, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Mental Pleasures, and displeasure feelings, desires' dissatisfactions and satiations, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Mental Displeasures or a Mental Pain.

OBJECTS OF EMOTIONS

  In each feeling, the recollected images' sources can be called its "Objects", and in each desire, the recollected objective images' sources its Objects. For example, not only particular persons but also general human beings are the objects of an interpersonal desire.
  As for pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, and complex emotions, they form some feelings or desires directly or indirectly. For example 1, some pain on the skins directly form the fear of human violence, accidents, natural disasters, and so on which cause it. For example 2, eating drives directly form some desires for food. For example 3, eating drives indirectly form some desires to get money, to work, and so on. For example 4, what is called "love" directly forms some desires for particular persons or general human beings. For example 5, what is called "will to power" directly forms desires to power. As to pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, and complex emotions, the objects of the feelings or desires which they form directly can be called their Objects.

PURPOSES

  In each human being, some objects of emotions are thought and reformed again and again by egos which will be explained later. Then, the objects can be called the human being's "Purposes". For example, supporting his or her family, getting money or power sometimes becomes some persons' purposes. It is quite another problem whether such purposes are good or bad. Anyway, purposes are thought and reformed again and again in each human beings.

MEANS   So far, some parts of functions, objects, means, ways, situations, and so on have been called objects in a plump. However, they sometimes need to be distinguished.
  In human beings, what are primarily means for some purposes to be accomplished or for some drives or desires to be satisfied sometimes become purposes or objects. For example 1, money, which is primarily the means for the satisfactions of eating, drinking, sexual drives, interpersonal desires, and so on sometimes become a purpose. For example 2, power, which are primary the means for the satisfactions of the controlling drives or desires, sometimes become a purpose.
  Human beings do not destroy themselves, other living things, and the nature only by their bare body and bodily functions. They destroy them including themselves on a large scale using means like tools, weapons, science and technology, and so on. Above all, the human means of the manipulations of atomic nuclei and genes are the most serious. When that needs to be emphasized, the human beings, human functions, and the means which they make and use are called "Means" in these books. Above all, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" and "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" uses the word of means in this sense.

HABITS OF EMOTIONS

  Emotions are a kind of function and have habits as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". For example, some persons feel anxiety easily, and it can be said that they have large habits of general anxiety.
  In the habits of emotions, those of pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are formed mainly innately. In contrast, the decisive part of habits of feelings and desires is which image to emotional neural ways are activated. Accordingly, the habits of feelings and desires are formed acquiredly. For example, when interpersonal relations are enjoyed again and again and when the neural ways from the recollected images of general human beings to some pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, interpersonal desires come to be caused easily. In contrast, when interpersonal relations cause pain again and again and when the ways from them to displeasure ones are activated, interpersonal anxiety comes to be caused easily.
  Most emotions are suitable functions for animal individuals and species to exist. However, those of the human beings are exceptions. That will be explained in "OUR-EXISTENCE.NET" and in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS".
  Most animals including human beings have pleasure and displeasure sensations. Vertebrates, and some arthropods, and so on have drives. Some mammals including human beings have feelings, desires, and complex emotions.

EGOS T

IMAGE TO FUNCTION NEURAL WAYS, FUNCTIONAL IMAGES, FUNCTIONAL NEURAL GROUPS

  There exist and function some, actually many, neural ways
from the neural groups which images' neural sources go through
to those which can cause some functions including unitary voluntary movement at least. Such neural ways can be called "Image to Function Neural Ways".
  Images are all generated, memorized, stored, and recollected acquiredly. So are the images of functions. For example, when a baby sees its parents walking, the images of the complex voluntary movement of walking upright on two legs are generated, memorized, stored and recollected acquiredly. Simply, that is the beginning of imitation.
  Moreover, image to function neural ways are activated on the basis of temporal closeness acauiredly when images' sources of functions is generated, memorized, stored, and recollected and when functions are caused again and again. For example, when a baby sees its parents walking upright on two legs and when it tries to do it again and again, the images of doing it are generated, memorized and the neural ways from these images' sources to the neural groups on the frontal lobes which can cause the unitary voluntary movements of limbs that compose doing it are activated.
  In addition, when some images' sources of functions are recollected, they sometimes cause the excitements and transmissions of some of the activated image to function neural ways. For example, when some of the images' sources of walking upright on two legs are recollected, they sometimes cause the excitements and transmissions of some of the neural ways as were exemplified above.
  The images' sources of functions which can cause the excitements and transmissions of some image to function neural ways can be called "Functional Images(' Sources)". In addition, the functional images' sources which are recollected can be called Recollected Functional Images(' sources), a Recollected Function, or a Thing Recollected as a Functional.
  In addition, the neural group which is reached by some image to function neural ways and which can cause a function including a unitary voluntary movement at least can be called a "Functional Neural Group".
  In addition, the function which the excitement and transmission of a functional neural group cause can be called an "Intentional Function". It will be explained closely after the definition of egos. At least, intentional functions include unitary voluntary movements. Simply, for example, each of us can bend and stretch joints intentionally. Intentional functions also include complex voluntary movements such as walking upright on two legs, pronunciations, and so on.
  In each of the neural systems of vertebrates, images' neural sources and the neural groups which generate, memorize, store, and recollect them are in the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes. In contrast, functional neural groups are in the frontal lobes. Image to function neural ways stretches from the former to the latter, and their axons are in the white cortexes. Paying attention to the direction of neural groups' excitements and transmissions, metaphorically, image to function neural ways are forward looking.
  Images' sources including functional images' are all generated acquiredly, and image to function neural ways are all activated acquiredly when some functional images' sources' generation and some intentional functions are caused temporally close. Accordingly, not that intentional functions in themselves are innate or acqauired functions, but that most of them are rarely caused innately. However, some intentional functions are sometimes caused innately by some ways involving none of these ways. For example, a human being's sucking milk is an intentional function, and an adult's doing it is caused through those way, it is possible that newborn's doing it is innately caused directly by eating and drinking drives. Otherwise, human beings could not exist, either.

COMPLEX IMAGE TO FUNCTION NEURAL WAYS, FUNCTIONAL NEURAL GROUPS, AND INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

  One unitary intentional function like a unitary voluntary movement is caused by one unitary functional neural group's excitement and transmission. In contrast, a complex intentional function like a complex voluntary movement is caused more than one unitary functional group's. In the latter case, what kind of neural ways are formed? The following three ways are thinkable.
(1)Each of the functional neural images' sources→each of the image to function neural ways→each of the unitary neural groups.
(2)The functional neural images' sources→the image to function neural way diverging or converging→the unitary neural groups.
(3)The functional neural images' sources→the image to function neural ways→the unitary neural groups and the neural ways among them.
  Not one of (1)(2)(3) but the mixture of them exist and function. Above all, (2)(3) do so. It is thinkable that (1) rarely do so. For example, while walking, if (2)(3) did not exist or function, we would always have to think that the right arm ahead, the left one back, the right leg back, the left one ahead, and so on, and so we could not think anything other than walking like tomorrow's schedule.
  Image to function neural ways are activated acquiredly, and it is thinkable that some of the neural ways among unitary functional neural groups in (3) are activated acquiredly and that the others of them have been activated innately. For example, in human walking, it is thinkable that they have been activated innately so that left hip joint can bend when right one stretches.
  Anyway, the other neural ways among unitary functional groups and image to function to neural ways are activated acquiredly. Accordingly, complex intentional functions including complex voluntary movements are acquired functions. For example, when a human baby sees its parents walking again and again, the images of walking upright on two legs are generated, and when it tries to do it again and again crawling, standing, and tumbling, the image to function neural ways from the images' sources of doing it to the unitary functional neural groups causing the unitary voluntary movements which compose the complex voluntary movement of doing it and the neural ways among the unitary functional neural groups are activated, and it comes to do it about the age of one year.
  However, if such (1)(2)(3) were always explained, important things would be vague. Accordingly, in these books, the explanation of them will be omitted, (1) are included in image to function neural ways, (2) are included in functional neural groups in intentional functions.
  Anyway, image to function neural ways and functional neural groups need to be clearly distinguished from the neural groups and ways causing memories which were explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" and image to emotion neural ways which were defined earlier.
  In addition, intentional functions are distinct from tendon reflexes. That is because the former involve at least the excitements and transmissions of some functional neural group in the cerebrums, and the latter do not.

IMPULSES

]   As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", sensations and memories are caused by neural groups' excitements and transmissions from the sensory organs via sensory nerves to sensory areas in a broad sense, and so on which are in order. In addition, image to emotion neural ways, image to function ones, and functional neural groups explained in this book are not as in order as them but more in order than the following.
  Every emotion that involve some pleasure and displeasure sensations causes various functions spreading over the neural system, above all, autonomic neural one and endocrine one, immune one, and so on.
  Moreover, some emotions cause neural groups' excitements and transmissions
which are different from neural groups' excitements and transmissions which cause sensations and memories,
which diffuse toward the cerebrum,
and which can reach the cerebrums or their periphery.
Such neural groups' excitements and transmissions which diffuse toward the cerebrums and which can reach the cerebrums or their periphery can be called "Impulses".
  More than one emotion is able to be caused at once. For example, the pain on the skin and the anxiety about its going on or gaining are able to be caused simultaneously. Even the anxiety about and the expectation for a thing are able to be caused simultaneously. Accordingly, more than one emotion is able to cause more than one impulse. However, in one neural system of one individual, because impulses diffuse at least to the cerebrums or their periphery, and some of them that excite and transmit earlier, longer, and wider make the others disappear, only a few impulses, usually, only one is caused at once. In such a way, an impulse's diffusing earlier, longer, and wider can be called its Being More Intense. When it is defined so, it is said that the most intense ones of all the impulses that are caused at once reach the cerebrums or theri periphery while making the others disappear.

LIMITING FUNCTIONS

Some functions have the following properties.

The group of functions(f1,f2,…) which can be caused in a certain situation being (F),
a number which fluctuates depending on situations being (n), at once,
when (n) or less of (F) arise, all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (F) arise, (n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others are caused
by a function(lf) limiting (F).
Then, the group of functions(F), the limiting function(lf), and the other properties or functions which treat (F) are also called a "Limiting Function", Each of the functions(f1,f2,…) is also called a "Limited Function", and the function(lf) is also called a "Substantially Limiting Function" in these books.
  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the neural ways from the neural groups memorizing and storing images' sources to the replay converge. In addition, though a lot of images' sources arise at once, a certain number(n) of them which excite and transmit earliest, longest, and broadest make others disappear in the converging neural ways, reach the replay, and are recollected. Accordingly, recollections of images are limiting functions. Accordingly, recollections of images are limiting functions.
  In addition, as was explained earlier, because impulses diffuse toward the cerebrums, those which excite and transmit earliest, longest, broadest make the others and reach the cerebrums or their periphery. Accordingly, impulses are limiting functions.
  In addition, egos, which will be explained later, contain the limiting functions of recollections of images at the beginning and the limiting ones of impulses at the ending, and so they are limiting ones.

EGOS

  Seemingly, it is probable that only recollected functional images' sources and image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions cause functional neural groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions. That is, seemingly it is probable that only
(1)recollections of functional images→recollected functional images→image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions
cause functional neural groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions. (1) does not involve any emotions or impulses, and so (1) can be called "Rational Systems". Seemingly, such rational systems are more rational and efficient than functions involving emotions. However, involving not only such rational systems but also emotions, pleasure and displeasure, and impulses makes use of the past, foresee the future, and prevent danger and is fitter for individuals and the species to exist. When some severe pain is caused again and again by a kind of intentional function's being caused, the functional images' sources of that kind of intentional function are generated, memorized, stored, and the image to emotion neural ways from them to displeasure autonomic sensations are activated. Next time the functional images' sources of that kind of intentional function are recollected, they causes the excitements and transmissions of those activated image to functional neural ways and cause those displeasure autonomic sensations, and that kind of intentional function is not caused but stopped. That is, even if their functional images are recollected, the intentional functions as causes pain and are dangerous are stopped. For example, after a child plays with fire, suffers from a light burn, and is scolded by its parents, it has more anxiety about playing with fire than fire in itself and refrains from the former. At the same time, while it sometimes misuses fire, it learns how to make use of fire safely little by little. Those are fitter for it and its family and sometimes for its village, town, or city to exist than merely knowing how to use fire. In such a way, referring both to reason and to pleasure and displeasure is fitter for individuals and the species to exist than referring only to one of them. More accurately, and metaphorically, though reasons precede, pleasure and displeasure supports or rejects them. More accurately, and more metaphorically, reasons propose some ways, and pleasure and displeasure decide which of them they should adopt. In such a way, at least human beings and higher mammals have evolved.
  When the above example continue, from the beginning, in human beings, the instinct to escape fire and the fear of fire in itself was not so intense or persistent, the images of the ways to make use of it were recollected, and those ways caused anxiety or expectation. In addition, while they used fire little by little, the instinct to escape it degenerated little by little. As a result, they come to make use of it more and more. However, the anxiety about the way to use fire is still caused as in the child, its parents, teachers, and citizens in the above example. As a result, human beings come to use fire more and more safely. In such a way, the emotions which are caused by recollected functional images are those not against objects but against intentional functions, ways, or how to do. Accordingly, human beings seek how to use terrible objects like fire and beasts, too. For example, if they only had feared fire in itself, he could not have used it. In such a way, at least human beings and higher mammals have evolved.
  In addition, emotions cause what is called "will" and make intentional functions intense and persistent. Recollections or associations are changeable, and so intentional functions could not be finished only by them. Metaphorically, they are too capricious to cause intentional functions.
  However, from the beginning, if it had not been for recollections of images or associations, no intentional functions, ways, or how to do could have been proposed. For example, no ways to make or use tools or ways to use or misuse fire could have been proposed, and no human beings could have existed or evolved.
  Moreover, recollections' proposing more than one way and pleasure and displeasure's selecting one is fitter for individuals and the species to exist than their proposing only one. For example 1, when herbivores can be attacked by carnivores, proposing both escaping instantly and hiding temporarily is fit for the former to exist. For example 2, in human beings and interpersonal relations, proposing controlling others, obeying, fighting, escaping, talking, waiting and seeing, and so on is fit both for individuals and for the species of Homo sapiens to exist.
  As a result, usually in human beings and sometimes in higher mammals, both (1)rational systems which were explained earlier and
(2)recollections of functional images→recollected functional images→image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions→pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations→impulses
cause intentional functions. (2) can be called "Emotional systems". In order for such cooperation to be caused, (1) and (2) need to converge somewhere in the neural system. They converge in the cerebrums or their periphery. However, because impulses diffuse, their confluences are not localized. Impulses diffusing in such a way meet and enhance recollected images' sources, image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions, or functional neural groups'.
  Not a large but small part of such an impulse is sensed and perceived on autonomic sensations. Of course, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations causing impulses are sensed and perceived. Such impulses and autonomic sensations are perceived as "will", "motivation", or so in our daily life. Their increase is perceived as "getting motivated", and their decrease is perceived as "loss of motivation" in our daily life and clinically in a depressive episode. In such a way, such emotions and impulses sometimes decrease but never disappear.
  Above all, because pleasure and displeasure, above all, pain is the most urgent for animals, when pleasure and displeasure is caused or changed, they cannot help doing something.
  On those grounds, when some pain is caused intensely, continually, or continuously by a kind of intentional function's being caused, that kind's functional images' sources are generated, memorized, and stored, and the image to functional neural ways from them to some displeasure autonomic sensations are activated. Next time that kind's functional images' sources are recollected, those image to emotion neural ways activated before excite and transmit, and those displeasure autonomic sensations are caused. As a result, the possibility that that kind of intentional function is caused gets smaller. In contrast, when some pleasure emotions are caused intensely, continually, or continuously by a kind of intentional function's being caused, that kind's functional images' sources are generated, memorized, and stored, and the image to function neural ways from them to some pleasure autonomic sensations are activated. Next time that kind's functional images' sources are recollected, those image to emotion neural ways activated before excite and transmit, and those pleasure autonomic sensations are caused. As a result, the possibility that that kind of intentional function is caused gets larger. In addition, in a situation, one or more of functional images' sources are recollected at once, and each of them can cause its own image to emotion neural way's excitement and transmission, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, impulse, image to function neural way's excitement and transmission, and intentional function. When each of them causes its own intentional function, it do that in the following way.
Both (1)a rational system: recollection of a functional image→the recollected functional image→an image to function neural way's excitement and transmission
and
(2)a emotional system: recollection of a functional image→the recollected functional image→an image to emotion neural way's excitement and transmission→a pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensation→an impulse
cause a functional neural group's excitement and transmission and an intentional function. (1) and (2) meet in the following way. The impulse meets and enhances the recollected functional image's source, the image to function neural way's excitement and transmission, or the functional neural group.
  Then, which functional images cause intentional functions after all? First, the functional images' sources which arise and which are not caused do not cause anything after them. If they caused anything, that would be included in what is called unconsciousness, and intentional functions would not be intentional here. As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", though a lot of images' sources arise at once, a certain number(n) of them which excite and transmit earliest, longest, and broadest make others disappear reach the replay, and are recollected. Accordingly, recollections of images are limiting functions. So are recollections of functional ones.
  In addition, as was explained earlier, because impulses diffuse toward the cerebrums, those which excite and transmit earliest, longest, and broadest make others disappear and reach the cerebrums or their periphery. Accordingly, impulses are limiting functions. So are the impulses in (2)emotional systems.
  Accordingly, the functional images' sources which cause the most intense impulses at last cause intentional functions. However, what causes the most intense impulses directly? Out of the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations caused at once in (2)emotional systems, those which have the most pleasure or the least displeasure causes them. For example, in the situation of an interpersonal relation, when both the functional images of interpersonal confrontations and those of interpersonal escapes are recollected, when the former cause some displeasure autonomic sensations like interpersonal anxiety and when the latter cause some autonomic sensations which have less displeasure, the latter cause more intense impulses and interpersonal escapes. After all, the functional images' sources which cause the autonomic sensations which have the most pleasure or the least displeasure causes the most intense impulses and cause intentional functions.
  On those grounds, temporarily, (1)a rational system (recollection of a functional image→the recollected functional image→an image to function neural way's excitement and transmission) and (2)an emotional system (recollection of a functional image→the recollected functional image→an image to emotion neural way's excitement and transmission→some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations→an impulse), and their confluence can be called a "Limited Ego", an Ego, I, a Human Being, or Intending to do an intentional function.
  Again, if the words of images"' sources" were always used, the sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, images' sources are also called Images in these books.
  The functional images, pleasure and displeasure sensations, and impulses in egos are different from general ones, and it can be said that they are peculiar to egos. From the beginning, impulses in egos are those which can cause functional neural groups' excitements and transmissions together with functional images or image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations in egos are those which can cause such impulses, and functional images have been designated with the words different from the objective images in desires and are those which can cause such pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions. As a result, the following can be said.
  While the objective images in desires are general and abstract ones, the functional images in egos are particular and concrete ones. For example, the objective images in desires to work consist of the images of making his or her or his or her family's living, gaining experience, and so on. In contrast, the functional images in egos to work consist of the images of meeting certain persons in a certain place at a certain time, drawing up this document now, and so on. From the beginning, they have already been distinguished with the different words of objective images and functional images. While objective images cannot directly cause image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions, functional images can directly cause them. If any objective images directly caused them, they would be functional images.
  In addition, impulses in egos are able to be caused by the autonomic sensations which have the most pleasure or the least displeasure. Seemingly, they can measure pleasure and displeasure, and are complicated functions, but it is thought that they are unexpectedly simple. However, they need to be distinguished from general impulses. For example, when we are stunned by some sudden change, our egos hardly function, and such an impulse needs to be distinguished from impulses in egos. However, even in what is called a conflict, impulses are able to be caused by the autonomic sensations which have the most pleasure or the least displeasure, and so it can be said that conflicts are the specialty of egos. In addition, in situations like what is called plights, no functional images cause pleasure autonomic sensations. Simply, sometimes, everything is painful, and we have to select one painful function from painful ones. However, impulses are caused by the autonomic sensations which have the least displeasure, and so it can be said that plights are the specialty of egos.
  The things which will cause some misunderstanding will be explained in the following paragraphs.
  Egos change in the time of tenths of seconds or seconds. Such a rapid change in what is called a conflict is easy to understand. However, they changes rapidly also in our daily life. For example, even if an ego intending to see its boy or girl friend, it cannot do that at once. Some egos need to call him or her, to arrange when and where to meet, to take a shower, to make up, to dress up, and to lock the door of his or her house. Some egos intends to get on a train, but they needs to walk to the station to do that. Walking, some egos should stop at some traffic signals or ignore them. In this case, some egos need to function to stop at them, and some need to function to ignore them more intensely. While walking some egos think what to do after they get to his or her house. If a thinking finished in vain, another ego needs to start another thinking. After getting to the station, some egos need to get a ticket and in order to do that, a lot of egos need to get to the vending machines, to take his or her purse out of his or her pocket or bug, to take some coins, bills, or a card out of it, to put them into the slot of the machine, to take the change, and to head for the gate. In this way, a lot of egos functions before seeing him or her and even before getting on a train. In such a way, egos need to take steps in situations, and most of our daily life is steps. Of course, not only in such trivial things but also in what is called conflicts, egos need to decide whether they should confront or escape, and they fluctuate between confrontations and escapes in tenths of a second or seconds.
  In addition, as we can see also through the above example, as long as we are awake, some egos are almost always functioning. Though we can hardly think that some egos are functioning in dreams, it is probable that some egos intending to "awake from such a dream" have been functioning when we have a bad dream and wake up. In addition, it is probable that dreams have its own egos.

LIMITING EGOS AND LIMITED EGOS

  When one functional image source is paid attention to, in a situation, it is able to arise, to be recollected, to cause an image to function neural way's excitement and transmission and an image to emotion neural way's excitement and transmission, to cause a pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensation, to cause an impulse, and to cause an intentional function. These possible
(1)a rational system: recollection of a functional image→the recollected functional image→an image to function neural way's excitement and transmission
and
(2)an emotional system: recollection of a functional image→the recollected functional image→an image to emotion neural way's excitement and transmission→a pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensation→an impulse
can be looked upon as an ego. It is, as it were, a latent ego.
  Anyway, it is a functional image's source that is the origin of (1) and (2). From the beginning, if a functional image's source is not generated, the ego involving it cannot exist. For example, there could not be any egos intending to drive or to get on automobiles in the individuals who lived in the age when there were no automobiles yet. However, that is an extreme example. Most of the functional images' sources of intentional functions which are possible and necessary in a certain situation, society, and age are usually generated, and their number is large. However, some of them arise. However, their number can be large. However, recollections of images are limiting functions, and so a certain number(n) of them are recollected. However, one or more of functional images are recollected.
  However, out of those recollected functional images, those which cause the most intense impulses cause its intentional function at last. That is because impulses are limiting functions and the most intense ones make the others disappear and reach the cerebrums or their periphery. It is the autonomic sensations which have the most pleasure or the least displeasure that cause the most intense impulses. Accordingly, the functional images which cause the autonomic sensations which have the most pleasure or the least displeasure cause its intentional function at last.
  In addition, as for an ego, that its functional images arise but are not recollected, that its impulses arise but do not reach the cerebrums or their periphery, and so on are looked upon as that that ego arise but is not caused.
  On those grounds,
the group of egos(f1,f2,…) which can be caused in a certain situation being (E),
a number which fluctuates depending on situations being (n),
when (n) or less of (E) arise, all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (E) arise, (n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others are caused
by a function(le) limiting (E).
The group of functions(E), the limiting function(le), and the other properties or functions which treat (E) can be called a "Limiting Ego", Each of the functions(e1,e2,…) can be called a "Limited Function", and the function(lf) can be called a "Substantially Limiting Function". That is, limiting egos are included in limiting functions and limited egos are included in limited functions.
  The substantially limiting function of egos involve at least that of recollections of images and that of impulses, that is, that the neural ways from the unitary neural group storing individual images sources to the replay converge and that impulses diffuse toward the cerebrums.
  For example, in the situation of an interpersonal relation, when both the functional images of interpersonal confrontations and those of interpersonal escapes are recollected, when the former cause some displeasure autonomic sensations like interpersonal anxiety and when the latter cause some autonomic sensations which have less displeasure, the latter cause more intense impulses and interpersonal escapes.
  When it is clear whether the words designate limiting ones or limited ones in the context, limiting ones or limited ones can be called Egos.

THE PHYLOGENESIS AND ONTOGENESIS OF EGOS

  In human ontogenesis, in general, the human beings in the adolescent period or later ones have the most clear and intense egos. However, there are some immature egos in the pre-adolescent, infant, and baby period. Though it may be unthinkable that fetuses have any egos, it would be no wonder if they had. For example, they might intend to go out of here.
  In animal phylogenesis, it is probable that such higher mammals as apes, dogs, cats, and so on have some immature egos.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

  Intentional functions will be specified before the important things about egos are explained. That is because the understanding of the former will help that of the latter.
  Egos have been defined in the above way, intentional functions are defined as the functions which can be caused directly by egos.
  An ego and the intentional functions caused by it can be called an "Ego and Intentional Function" or Intending to Do Intentional Functions and Doing Intentional Functions.
  When we want to make sure whether or not a function is an intentional function, let us examine whether or not we can do it instantly by intending to do it. For example, we can bend the elbow joints instantly by intending to do so, and so bending the elbow joints is an intentional function and is included in the unitary voluntary movements as was explained earlier. In addition, not only unitary but also complex voluntary movements are included in intentional functions. For example, though we cannot walk instantly when we sit down, we can stand up instantly, and we can walk instantly after we stand up. Accordingly, standing up and walking are intentional functions. In such a way, voluntary movements including unitary and complex ones are included in intentional functions. However, not only voluntary movements but also the following are intentional functions. For example, when a circle and a square are recollected to us, we can inscribe the former into the latter or inscribe the latter into the former instantly by intending to do so. Doing those are intentional functions and are included in manipulations of images as will be explained later. In contrast, for example, feelings like anxiety and fear cannot be felt instantly by intending to feel, and so they are not intentional functions.
  Intentional functions are divided into voluntary movements and synthetic functions as were defined earlier and manipulations of images and thinkings as will be explained later. Manipulations of images include combining, dissolving, transforming, and so on. Thinkings are divided into ones in a narrow sense, retracings, forecastings, and daydreamings. Human synthetic functions include speaking words, writing words, eating, drinking, sexual functions, studying, working, playing, interpersonal functions, and so on. In human beings, even sexual functions are included in synthetic functions in intentional functions. For example, in human beings, sexual drives cannot cause sexual functions directly. They usually need to agree to do them and to take off their clothes. Even putting on and taking off their clothes are included in synthetic functions in intentional functions.

SPONTANEOUS PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS

  Voluntary movements and synthetic functions are all intentional functions. In contrast, in pure mental functions, sensations, perceptions, associations, feelings, desires, complex emotions are not directly caused by any egos. Though they are sometimes caused indirectly by some egos, they are usually caused without egos what is called "spontaneously". Accordingly, they can be called "Spontaneous" Pure Mental Functions.
  In contrast, manipulations of images and thinkings are pure mental intentional functions as will be defined later.

MANIPULATIONS OF IMAGES

  Intentional functions include not only voluntary movements and synthetic functions as were explained earlier but also manipulations of images as will be defined in this section and thinkings as will be defined in the next section.
  The following are caused at least in human beings.
(1)How to manipulate some recollected images(ri) are sometimes recollected as functional images,
(2)the ego which involve (fi) are caused,
(3)and (ri) are manipulated in the way of (fi). Such (3) is an intentional function. Such (3) can be called a "Manipulation of Images" or Manipulating Images, and (1)(2)(3) can be called an Ego's Manipulating Images.
  More complicated pure mental intentional functions like thinking, retracing, forecasting, daydreaming, and so on consist of some associations and manipulations of images.
  Manipulations of images include the following. Simple examples of them will be taken. Please try.

(1)Combining images
Circumscribing two circles' images which were separated.
(2)Dissolving images
Separating two circles' images which were circumscribed.
(3)Transforming images
Transforming a circle's image into an ellipse's.
(4)Bringing images closer
Bringing a person's face's image which was recollected farther closer.
(5)Taking images farther
Taking a person's face's image which was recollected closer farther.
(6)Switching images
Taking a person's face's image which was recollected closer farther or extinct by bringing another person's face's image which was recollected farther closer.

  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the recollections of an image has comparative quantity, and an image is recollected comparatively "intensely or faintly". However, because such quantity is easy to understand with visual images, being intense or faint is also called being "Close or Far" visually and metaphorically in these books. Each ego can bring images which was recollected more faintly (farther) more intensely (closer). This is also called Bringing images Closer, and the contrary is also called Taking Images farther in these books. However, the latter is harder than the former. Far from that, the harder an ego tries to take images farther, the closer they will get, and the more persistently they will be recollected. From the beginning, it is impossible for each ego to directly make unrecollected images recollected. In addition, it is hard or impossible to directly make recollected images unrecollected, that is, to extinguish them completely. In addition, a certain number(n) or less of images are recollected at once. When some images are recollected intensely, (n) gets smaller, and the other images are recollected faintly or are not recollected. On those grounds, each ego takes some images farther by bringing some other images closer. This can be called an ego's "Switching" images from some images to some other images. It is hard or impossible for each ego to what is called "repress" images. Each ego usually switches images.
  Without any manipulations of images by egos, complex images are generated only in memories as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". However, by egos' combining images, dissolving them, transforming them, combining them again and again, more complicated complex images are generated.
  In addition, the images manipulated by egos are memorized intensely. Simply, the things which we pay some attention to are memorized, and the contrary are not.

THINKINGS

  As was explained earlier, sensations, recollections, perceptions, and associations, are spontaneous pure mental functions, and they are caused without egos. In contrast, manipulations of images and thinkings are not spontaneous ones but intentional ones. They can be called "Pure Mental Intentional Functions".
  Human recollections of images, perceptions, associations, egos, manipulations of images, and thinkings almost always involve some lingual images. However, if the phrase of "including or involving some lingual images" was always used, the sentence would be complicated. Accordingly, it is usually omitted in these books.
  At least in each human being, an ego intends to think about A and proposes A as a theme, some images are recollected in an association from A, the ego manipulates some of the recollected images, modifies A to A', and propose A' as a theme, and the same are repeated. Such collaboration of egos and associations can be called a "Thinking". Egos intend to think of something and think of it. Thinkings are included in pure mental intentional functions. For example, I, the writer of this book, intend to think of the contents of this section and think of them.
  Thinking where recollections of the real, the past, the future, or the unreal are dominant can be called Thinkings in a narrow sense, "Retracings", "Forecastings", or "Daydreamings" respectively.
  Thinkings include those where egos are dominant and those where associations are dominant. In the latter, thinkings seem to be caused spontaneously. What is called "thinking random things and then coming to myself" is that the latter change into the former.

MENTAL FUNCTIONS AND LANGUAGE

  Again, images almost always involve some lingual images in human recollections of images, perceptions, associations, egos, manipulations of images, and thinkings. If no language had been generated, no complicated mental functions could have been generated. In contrast to complicated ones, simple ones can be generated. For example, in newborns, who have not acquired a single word, feelings like anxiety, fear, expectation, and so on occur.
  In addition, it seems that thinkings are the most complicated, and that language is the most dominant in them. However, it is not always true. For example, after an ego manipulated lingual images, some words are sometimes recollected according to acquired grammar and usage in associations for seconds. Language is more dominant in associations than in egos in this case.

CONSTRUCTIONS, DISSOLUTIONS, BEING FORGOTTEN OF COMPLEX IMAGES

  Some complex images are combined, dissolved, or transformed through egos' manipulations of images in a thinking, and memorized, stored, and recollected in a memory, and again combined, dissolved, or transformed, and the same are repeated. In such a way, some complex images get more complicated when combinations are dominant, some get simpler when dissolutions are dominant, and some are simply forgotten in the way that were explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". In thinkings of an individual, a complex image's getting more complicated when combinations are dominant can be called its "Construction" or Being Constructed, its getting simpler when dissolutions are dominant can be called its "Dissolution" or Being Dissolved, and a complex image's being constructed after being dissolved can be called its "Reconstruction" or Being Reconstructed.
  Dissolutions and reconstructions are harder and more important functions than are expected. For example, the dissolution of the Creation and the reconstruction of evolutionism were hard or impossible for some people in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. However, from the beginning, the complex images which are rarely manipulated or thought by egos are usually not dissolved but forgotten simply.

IDEAS=THOUGHTS

  Some of the complex images' sources are not only constructed, dissolved, and forgotten in each individual in the way that was explained in the above section but also transmitted by spoken words, written words, arts, and so on in the human society and history, some of them are again constructed, dissolved, and forgotten in each individual, transmitted by spoken words, written words, arts, and so on, and the same are repeated. Each of such constructed, dissolved, forgotten, and transmitted complex images can be called an "Idea" or "Thought".
  By being manipulated, thought, and transmitted, an idea's getting more complicated when combinations are dominant can be called its Construction or Being Constructed, an idea's getting simpler when dissolutions are dominant can be called its Dissolution or Being Dissolved, and an idea's being constructed after being dissolved can be called its Reconstruction or Being Reconstructed.
  Dissolutions and reconstructions of ideas in the society and history are harder than those of complex images in each individual. That is because those who have gotten powers and profits through old ideas strive to protect old ones and to destroy new ones. This was typified by the idea of Ptolematic system against that of Copernican one, the idea of monarchy against that of democracy, and the idea of the Creation against that of evolution.

REALITY

  Without any egos, complex images are all generated only in memories. All the images that have been generated only in memories without any egos are real. More accurately, no reality can be a problem without any egos.
  In contrast, by egos' manipulating images in thinkings, some unreal images are generated, and the reality becomes a problem. In addition, around the reality, some research, dispute, and so on are caused.
  In addition, human beings construct some unreal complex images intentionally in literature, art, and so on. This is a "Fiction".
  Moreover, human beings construct seemingly real and actually unreal complex images intentionally. This is a "Lie".
  In addition, human beings construct seemingly real and actually unreal images unintentionally. This is close to an "Illusion" or "Misunderstanding".

ABILITIES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

  In the human society, the abilities of intentional functions are so great problems that they seems to be almighty. For example, the abilities to run, to swim, to speak, to write, to memorize, to think, to calculate, to use computers, and to work and interpersonal abilities are problems.
  Intentional functions consist of unitary and complex voluntary movements, synthetic functions, and pure metal intentional functions. The abilities of unitary voluntary movements are actually the powers of striated muscles, and so they seem to be formed innately. However, striated muscles are also weakened when they are not used. Accordingly, some part of the ability of a unitary voluntary movement can be looked upon as being formed acquiredly. As for each of the other kinds of intentional functions, much larger part of it is formed acquiredly.
  As was explained earlier, intensely, continually, or continuously, an intentional function is caused and sensed, its images are generated, memorized, stored, its image to function neural ways and the neural ways among its functional neural groups are activated, and so the ability of that intentional function is formed. The sample of a kind of complex voluntary movement of walking was enumerated earlier.

EGOS U

EGOS' THINKING HOW TO DO AND THEN CARRYING IT OUT

  In our daily life, the most important of the thinkings which were explained earlier is thinking "how to do", that is, ways in situations. Egos often think the ways in situations, functional images are often recollected from the images of those ways, and egos and intentional functions are often caused. That is felt as "thinking how to do and then carrying it out" in our daily life. Such egos are functions fit for individuals and the species to exist, and sometimes seem to be the fittest.
  Moreover, emotions are perceived, egos think how to increase or maintain pleasure and to reduce displeasure in situations, some functional images are recollected from those ways, and egos cause some intentional functions. For example 1, when we perceive abdominal pain, we see doctors or take a rest and prevent aggravation. When we perceive some fear of something, we think how to escape it and prevent danger. Reducing the pain of fear and anxiety is a way to prevent danger, too. In such ways, the reference both to situations and to emotions seems to be the fittest function.
  However, we will see that egos have become slaves of emotions intentionally in the following section.

EGOS' SITUATIONS

  As was explained earlier, in general, the situations of bodily functions in an individual are divided into external situations and internal situations. So are those of egos.
  The most important of egos' external situations are, of course, interpersonal relations. They are important in order to live, to work, to study, and to play.
  The most important of egos' internal situations are individuals' emotions.
  As for emotions' influence on egos and egos' response to emotions, the following can be thought.
(1)Some functional images are recollected from the images of objects or means recollected in mental emotions.
(2)The pleasure and displeasure sensations caused in emotions enhance or chancel those in egos.
(3)Egos think how to do and then carry it out, as was explained in the above section.
(3)The manipulations of images by egos against the images recollected in them.
  As for (1), the objective images recollected in desires are general and abstract ones, and particular and concrete functional images are recollected in egos from such objective images. That is, desires' objective images decide egos' functional images to a degree. For example, one of the desires to work, to play, and for families is sometimes dominant. Some of the egos of those where one of them is dominant almost always think of one of them. However, things are not so simple. For example, it is possible that we are driven to work or play by the alienation from our families, that we are driven to home or play by that from our colleagues, and that we are driven to work or home by that from our playmates. In these examples, seemingly, external situations affect egos more than internal ones do. However, it is possible that such alienation is mainly caused by egos' habits. For example, it is possible that those where the egos' habits of "adherence" which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" are intensely formed are alienated. Anyway, desires decide egos "to a degree".
  Though it seems that the images of objects or means in feelings affect egos, such influence is less than that through (2)(4).
  As for (2), the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations in feelings and desires enhance or cancel those or the impulses in egos, and as a result affect egos. For example, when there are intense interpersonal anxiety, interpersonal escapes are easily caused, and when there are intense interpersonal desires, interpersonal confrontations are easily caused.
  (3) was explained in the above section.
  (4) is the most serious of (1)-(4). Egos switch from images causing pain like anxiety and fear to safe ones in the way as was explained in the section "MANIPULATIONS OF IMAGES". That is true as to functional images. For example, in interpersonal relations, even if functional images of interpersonal functions are recollected, if they cause interpersonal anxiety, egos switch from them to images of interpersonal escapes. In such a way, egos try to be affected by internal situations intentionally and actively. The most serious in (4) is that egos escape from the self's falling habits recollected as images, as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". That is, because the self's falling habits like those of adherence, self-assertion, and so on cause intense pain like self-hatred, shame, anxiety, and so on recollected as images, egos switch from them to those of their powers, appearance, and so on. As a result, falling habits are hardly reduced.

INTENSITIES OF LIMITED EGOS AND LIMITING EGOS

  As was explained earlier, egos are limiting or limited functions. Though one or more of limited egos are caused at once, those which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others are caused. In addition, as was explained earlier than that, those which caused the most intense impulses are caused. Accordingly, their capabilities of being caused while excluding others are those of causing the most intense impulses after all. Accordingly, it is better to define that the intensity of a limited ego is that of its impulse. However, it is the autonomic sensation which has the most pleasure or the least displeasure that cause the most intense impulse. Accordingly, the intensity of a limited ego is the quantity of pleasure or displeasure of its autonomic sensations, too.
  In contrast, the words of the intensity of a limiting ego designate not the quantity or quality of its limited egos but general intensities of recollections of functional images, pleasure and displeasure sensations, impulses. The latter is more close to what is called the intensity of the ego. For example, it is probable that a person where functional images are recollected clearly in general and where impulses are caused intensely in general can insist on anything clearly and can behave him or herself promptly. However, these books will not deal with such a matter.
  In contrast, intentional functions do not have so clear intensities but have clear inertia as will be explained in the following section.

INERTIAL INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

  For example, egos can think of a boy or girl friend of theirs, walking to the station, and carrying a bag. Thinking(1), walking(2), and carrying(3) are all intentional functions. Seemingly, egos can do more than one intentional function at once in such a way. However, (2)(3) can be looked upon as going on as it were, "in inertia" or "automatically". Let us remember. When I was starting to go to the station or when it was necessary to change the destination, route, or transport, there were some egos intending to walk to the station. When I was taking the bag or when it was slipping, there was an ego intending to carry it. In such a way, some intentional functions are caused by egos when they are started or resumed but can go on, as it were, in inertia or automatically otherwise. Such intentional functions can be called "Inertial" or "Semi-automatic" Intentional Functions.
  In general, unitary and complex voluntary movements are inertial intentional functions, and synthetic functions and pure metal intentional functions are not.
  However, the complex voluntary movements which are being formed are not. For example, when a baby walks, its immature egos almost always intend to walk. In addition, even in adults, in order to cause hard inertial intentional functions, egos are almost always functioning. For example, when they are walking in the darkness, their egos are almost always functioning.
  By the way, thinkings often seem to go on in inertia. However, thinkings consist of associations and manipulations of images by egos. Though the thinkings where associations are dominant often seem to go on in inertia, associations are not intentional functions but spontaneous mental functions. Such spontaneousness and inertia need to be distinguished. While spontaneousness is spontaneous from the beginning, inertia was intentional at the beginning.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS AS STEPS OR MEANS

  In real situations, most intentional functions cannot instantly be carried out, they need to take steps. In addition, egos see that, and the functional images of steps or means are recollected and cause intentional functions as steps or means. For example, though it was taken earlier, when I intend to see a boy or girl friend of mine, I cannot see him or her instantly. I need to call him or her and to make an appointment to see him or her. Moreover, in order to go to the appointed place, I need to get on a train. In order to do that, I need to walk to the station. In order to do that, I need to go out. In order to do that, I need to take a shower, to make up, and to dress up, and the same are repeated. Most of our daily life is steps or means in such a way.
  Here can be such a multilayer formation as
functional images from general and abstract ones to particular and concrete ones are recollected,
pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations from weak and vague ones to intense and clear ones are caused,
and impulses from broad and weak ones to narrow and intense ones are caused. In addition, it is possible that the original general and abstract images keep recollected as, as it were, backgrounds.
  Is such a formation close to desires? However, the objective images in desire is more general and abstract than the functional images in egos. For example, while the objective images in desires to boy or girl friends are images of general boys or girls, the functional images in the egos to intend to see him or her involves images of particular boys or girls.
  However, it is possible that more particular and concrete functional images in egos are recollected, that is, associated from more general and abstract objective images in desires. For example, when there are intense solitude and interpersonal desires, the ego intending to see particular persons gets easy to cause. In addition, it is possible that egos form desires. For example, it is possible that desires to escape people are formed when egos escape interpersonal relations again and again.
  However, there are outlines different from such steps or means, as will be explained in the next section.

OUTLINES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

  When intentional functions are caused, the images of them are generated, memorized, and stored, and classified in the way that was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". The groups of intentional functions which are classified in such a way can be called "Outlines of Intentional Functions".
  Intentional functions can be divided into fundamental outlines. The most fundamental of them are confrontations, escapes, and waiting and seeing. Though intentional functions of the strongest carnivores like lions, tigers, and so on seem to be exceptions, they also escape natural disasters. Of course, herbivores run away or hide themselves from carnivores. Hiding is included in escapes. Waiting and seeing is an intentional function fit for individuals and the species to exist. For example, herbivores' running away from carnivores instantly sometimes increase the possibility of being noticed by carnivores and of being caught. Some species of carnivores wait and see until their targets come into their ranges. On the other hand, the herbivores which have come into such ranges and have been attacked run away instantly. However, those which have been caught fight desperately. Human beings escape not only carnivores and natural disasters but also themselves in violence, war, and so on. Confrontations are not the same as fighting, conflicts, and so on. For example, reconciliation is sometimes a confrontation, and going to war is sometimes an escape. Human beings need to confront their own habits to destroy, to control, and so on in order to secure the existence and liberty of living things including themselves. Those are intentional functions fit for individual and the species to exist. The outlines of intentional functions other than confrontations, escapes, and waiting and seeing will be explained closely in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS".

OUTLINES OF EGOS

  While intentional functions are classified into their outlines in the way that was explained in the above section, the images of the outlines of intentional functions come to be generated, memorized, stored, and recollected.
  The images of the outlines of intentional functions in themselves are not functional images, are more general and abstract than functional images, and cannot cause egos or intentional functions by themselves. However, more particular and concrete functional images are recollected from them in situations, and the latter can cause egos and intentional functions. In such a way, the former can indirectly cause egos and intentional functions. In addition, even at that time, the images of outlines are often recollected as, as it were, backgrounds. For example, in interpersonal relations, when boys and girls carry out interpersonal functions and when they cause some pain like neglect or alienation again and again, the images of the outline of interpersonal escapes are recollected, and then more particular and concrete functional images of being alone, going home, or so are recollected from them in the situation.
  The group of limited egos which involve the images of an outline of intentional functions and which can cause an intentional function belonging to that outline can be called an "Outline of egos". For example, there are outlines of egos of confrontations, of escapes, and of waiting and seeing.

EGOS' HABITS

  When intentional functions are caused and when they cause some emotions, while intentional functions are classified into their outlines and while the images of their outlines are generated in the way that was explained in the above section, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images to the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are activated. Moreover, in the limited egos belonging to the same outline, the same image to emotion neural ways are activated, excite, and transmit, and as a result, the same pleasure and displeasure sensations and the same impulses are caused. Accordingly, though, as was explained earlier, in a situation and limiting ego, the limited egos whose capabilities of being caused while excluding others are caused, such capabilities are formed making an outline a unit in a plump. Such capabilities of being caused while excluding others as are formed making an outline a unit in a plump can be called strictly "Habits of Outlines of Limited Egos" and simply "Egos' Habit". Egos' habits are formed making an outline a unit in a plump. For example, when boys and girls carry out interpersonal functions and when they cause some pain like neglect or alienation again and again, general habits of interpersonal escapes are formed, and then, depending on situations, when their home is far, being alone is caused, and when it is close, going home is caused.
  Egos' habits are formed by intentional functions being caused again and again and by their causing some emotions again and again. Out of the formation of ego's habits, the decisive part is the following two.
(1)Concerning functional images, which neural ways among the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources are activated? That is, which functional images are recollected?
(2)Concerning functional images, which image to emotion neural ways are activated? That is, whether pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations are caused? How much is their intensity? After all, how much is impulses' intensity.
  As for (1), though the capabilities of functional images' being recollected while excluding others are directly decisive, it is the activities of the neural ways among the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources that decide them. From the beginning, if a functional image is not generated, the ego involving it cannot be caused. For example, though extreme, in the days when there are no automobiles, the egos intending to drive them cannot be caused. However, on the level of outlines, in almost every individual, almost every functional image is generated responding with almost every situation. For example, the three ways of confrontations, escapes, and waiting and seeing have been prepared for any situation.
  Moreover, more than one functional image is usually recollected. However, only those which cause the most pleasure or the least displeasure autonomic sensations cause impulses and the whole of the ego, and the others do not. For example, even if we see that we should confront something, if that confrontation cause intense anxiety, we will escape it.
  Accordingly, (2) is more decisive than (1).
  As for (2) which is the most decisive, though the capabilities of impulses' being caused while excluding others are directly decisive, it is the activities of image to emotion neural ways that decide them. When some intentional functions cause some emotions again and again, the image to function neural ways from the functional images to the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are activated, and that functional images come to cause that autonomic sensations. The question is the intensity and persistence of those pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and the activity and its duration of those image to emotion neural ways. In human beings, most of the habits of egos are formed by the adolescent period. However, the time from the baby period to the adolescent period is fifteen to eighteen years. The activities of the image to emotion neural ways which have been activated for such a long time are not easily reduced, and nor are the habits of the egos. For example, in a boy or girl who has been battered since the baby period, the functional images of interpersonal functions cause persistent displeasure autonomic sensations, and so its habit of interpersonal escapes can hardly be reduced. That is too severe an example. More general and close examples will be enumerated in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS".
  In such a way, we realize that egos which seemed to be free are bound by emotions and by their own habits and are not so free. However, egos can defeat their own habits in the way that will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". It is when they defeat their own habits that egos are really free. That is, we, human beings, are so at that time.

References

A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES
A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS
EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

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