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A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS

RELATION OF THIS BOOK WITH THE OTHER BOOKS IN OUR-EXISTENCE.NET

    This "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS" can be called "This Book". This book is on the basis of "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". Accordingly, if possible, please read this book after you read that book. However, we will try to write this book so that it can be read even if that book is not read. "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", this book, and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" can be called "These Books". These books can also be looked upon as chapters composing a book. Accordingly, these books can be called "PSYCHOLOGIES OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES OR MORE" as a book. These books, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "SEPARATING EACH STATE POWER INTO THE TWO SYSTEMS OF THAT OF THE RULE OF LAW PROTECTING LIBERAL RIGHTS AND THAT OF THE HUMAN RULE SECURING SOCIAL RIGHTS", and "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS" can be called "All the Books in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET" or "These Books".
    In this book, the words of material things, living things, bodies, animals, human beings, nervous systems, neuronal groups, functions, living functions, bodily functions, animal functions, human functions, nervous functions, neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions, their existing and functioning, things appearing as mental phenomena, things appearing as images, images, images' sources, sensations, memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on designate the same things as in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". Anyway, nervous systems are included in bodies, they are included in living things, they are included in material things, nervous functions are included in bodily functions, they are included in living functions, and they are included in (material) functions. Nervous functions include sensations, memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on.
    In "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" and "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", because their species are important, the words of animals and human beings usually designated their species. In contrast, in these books, because their individuals are important, those words usually designate their individuals.

VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS, PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS, SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS, AND AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS

VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS

    Unitary voluntary movements and complex voluntary movements which will be explained below can be called "Voluntary Movements".
    The movements of the parts of a body which are caused by some neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and striated muscle groups' excitements and contractions from the motor area on frontal lobe of cerebrum (to spinal cord and motor nerves) or (to cranial nerves) to striated muscles and which are inseparable can be called "Unitary Voluntary Movements". Unitary voluntary movements include bending and stretching of joints, upward, downward, rightward and leftward movements and bending and stretching of tongues, opening and closing and tensing and relaxing of vocal cords, upward, downward, rightward, and leftward movements and whirl of eyeballs, and tensing and relaxing of parts of faces.
    A movement which consists of more than one unitary voluntary movement can be called a "Complex Voluntary Movement". For example, a human being's walking upright on two legs is a complex voluntary movement consisting of more than one unitary voluntary movement like bending forward of left shoulder joint, bending backward of right shoulder one, bending backward of left hip one, bending forward of right hip one, and so on. Vertebrates' complex voluntary movements include walking, running, swimming, flying, uttering cries, and so on. Human beings' complex voluntary movements include walking upright on two legs, running alike, swimming crawl, butterfly, and so on, pronouncing syllables and short words, and so on. By the way, speaking long words, phrases, clauses, sentences are included in synthetic functions which will be explained later. That is because we are speaking them while perceiving the words spoken by ourselves, confirming whether or not they are correct, and thinking of their contents. Writing words and operating typewriters, computers, and other machines are included in synthetic functions, too.
    Voluntary movements are included in intentional functions which will be explained later.

PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS

    The functions consisting of some sensations or some recollections of images and containing no voluntary movements can be called "Pure Mental Functions". Pure mental functions include sensations, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, egos, and thinkings.
    Recollections of images, perceptions, associations, feelings, egos, thinkings, and so on contain some recollections of images. Sensations, pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives contain no recollections of images.

SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS

    Functions consisting of some pure mental functions and some voluntary movements can be called "Synthetic Functions". Human beings' synthetic functions include speaking words, writing words, talking with other human beings, playing, studying, working, and interpersonal functions. For example, human beings' speaking words is to perceive the words spoken by themselves, to confirm whether or not they are correct, to think of their contents, and to move their mouse, tongue, larynx, and so on, and it contains at least perceptions, thinkings, and voluntary movements. Accordingly, it is a synthetic function.

INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONS

    Synthetic functions concerned with some other human beings such as talking with, playing with, studying with, working with, keeping company with, breaking up with, fighting with, being conciliated with them, escaping them, and so on can be called "Interpersonal Functions". They are the most important of all human functions for human beings to exist. For this very reason, there is some interpersonal anxiety. Every human being has more or less interpersonal anxiety.
    Facing up or confrontation and escaping will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". Interpersonal functions include interpersonal facing up or confrontation and interpersonal escaping. Simply, keeping company with people even with interpersonal anxiety is interpersonal facing up or confrontation. In contrast, escaping people because of interpersonal anxiety is an interpersonal escape. Fighting with people is not in the least the same as interpersonal facing up or confrontation. Please do not forget that. Fighting with people is often an interpersonal escaping rather than interpersonal facing up or confrontation. Being reconciled is often an interpersonal facing up or confrontation. There are complicated interpersonal escaping and simple interpersonal escaping. For example, not going to school or office because of interpersonal anxiety is simple interpersonal escaping. Talking only superficial things or pretending to be unapproachable are a complicated interpersonal escape.

MENTAL FUNCTIONS

    Pure mental functions and synthetic functions can be called "Mental Functions".

AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS

    The bodily functions which do not involve any sensations, recollections of images, or voluntary movements can be called "Autonomic Functions".
    Autonomic functions include the contraction and expansion of the heart, blood vessels, and lungs, digestive organ's movement, digestion, and absorption, endocrine, exocrine, immunity, and discharges (excluding evacuation from rectum and urination from bladder). By the way, at least in human beings and higher mammals, evacuation from rectum or urination from bladder is not a complete autonomic function. That is because they can put off it to a degree.

SITUATIONS

    The word of the "situation" for a material thing or function were defined in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". This section will complement the definition. With the word, we usually imagine that for an individual. However, as far as a part of an individual's body and its functions is concerned, a part of that part's situation is in the individual, and the other part is out of it. For example, when an individual has interpersonal anxiety and when he or she thinks how to escape an interpersonal relation, the main situation of such thinking is that anxiety, and it is in the individual. If that anxiety is enhanced by certain persons, they are a part of the situation for that anxiety and that thinking, and it is out of the individual. As far as the situation for a part of an individual and its functions is concerned, the part within the individual can be called the "Internal" Situation or Bodily Situation, and the part out of the individual can be called the "External" Situation. In the above example, that anxiety is the main part of the internal situations for that thinking, and those persons are a part of the external situation for that anxiety and that thinking.
    In biology, psychology, and medicine, because each part of an individual and its functions often matters, the distinction between internal and external situations matters the most in science. However, in general, the words of material things or material functions designate those excluding bodies or bodily functions, and the word of situations designate those excluding internal situations. Accordingly, such usages are sometimes done also in these books.

OBJECTS AND MEANS

    Most functions have objects, means, and situations as properties. For example, as for interpersonal functions, general human beings are their objects, spoken words, written words, telephones, mails, and so on are their means, offices, schools, and so on are their external situations, and interpersonal anxiety, desire, and so on are their internal situations.

EMOTIONS

EMOTIONS

    Pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions which will be explained in this chapter can be called "Emotions".

PLEASURE AND DISPLEASURE SENSATIONS

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", things appearing on an olfactory sensation, things appearing on a balancing sensation, things appearing on a taste sensation, things appearing on a somatic sensation, or things appearing on an autonomic sensation which have pleasure or displeasure as properties can be called "Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Sensation" in general, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Olfactory Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Balancing Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Taste Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Somatic Sensation, and Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Autonomic Sensation in particular. In things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure sensation, a spatial and temporal part where pleasure is comparatively dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Pleasure Sensation", and a spatial and temporal part where displeasure is comparatively dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Displeasure Sensation". In addition, the nervous function which is premised to cause things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure sensation, things appearing on a pleasure sensation, or things appearing on a displeasure sensation can be called a "Pleasure and Displeasure Sensation", a "Pleasure Sensation", or a "Displeasure Sensation".
    The pain, itch, hotness, and coldness in the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendons are included in things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure somatic sensation. Palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, and so on are included in things appearing on pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations.
    Excluding visual sensations and auditory sensations, sensations are pleasure and displeasure sensations. Visual sensations and auditory sensations are not pleasure or displeasure sensations. For example, the pain of the eyes or that of the ears is a somatic sensation, autonomic sensation, or metaphor for mental pain.
    Directly and indirectly, most pleasure and displeasure sensations cause not only pure mental functions like memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on but also various autonomic functions spreading over the nervous system, above all, autonomic nervous one, endocrine one, immune one, and so on. For example, the pain on the skin causes not only the perception of that pain but also palpitation, sweating, and so on indirectly through the autonomic nervous system and endocrine one.

DRIVES

    A bodily function which has the following properties can be called a "Drive".

(d1) It contains some pleasure and displeasure sensations.
(d2) When the function peculiar to it is not caused, some displeasure sensations peculiar to it are caused.
(d3) When the function peculiar to it is caused to a degree, the displeasure sensations explained in (d2) are reduced, and some pleasure sensations peculiar to it are caused.
(d4) When the function peculiar to it is caused excessively, some displeasure sensations peculiar to it are sometimes caused.
(d5) The above are repeated.

    First, it is clear that hunger and thirst are included in drives, and the former can be called an "Eating Drives", and the latter can be called a "Water Drinking Drive". Second, though not so clear as they are, sexual urges are included in drives, and can be called "Sexual Drives". Third, there may be some gathering drives, controlling drives, defending drives, and so on.
    In (d1)-(d5), (d2) can be called a drive's "Dissatisfaction" or Being Dissatisfied, (d3) a drive's "Satisfaction" or Being Satisfied, and (d4) a drive's "Satiation" or Being Satiated.
    Pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are functions which have been generated in evolution, and they have already become suitable functions for individuals and species to exist. For example, the pain on skins which are included in pleasure displeasure somatic sensations prevent injuries from reaching vital organs deeper than skins. Palpitation and dyspnea which are included in the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations prevent us from overworking. Eating and water drinking drives prevent malnutrition and dehydration. Sexual drives, above all, is decisive functions for the existence of the species of most animals.

REVIEW OF "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES"

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, taste, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, images, ideas, and so on can be called "Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena)".
    Things appearing as mental phenomena are divided into things appearing on sensations and images ( = things appearing as images). Things appearing on sensations are divided into things appearing on visual sensations, things appearing on auditory sensations, and so on.
    In contrast, simply, things occurring to me and things remembered, expected, imagined, thought, and so on are images. Out of images, those which are inseparable any more and which are unitary can be called "Individual Images" or Things appearing as individual images.
    More than one individual image which appears spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images or things appearing on sensations can be called a "Complex Image", a Thing Appearing as a Complex Image, an Image, or a Thing Appearing as an Image. Ways, functions, general things, abstract things do not appear as individual images but appear as complex images. Accordingly, the word "images" usually designate complex images in these books.
    Strictly, things appearing as images, things appearing on perceptions, and things appearing on associations are distinguished. However, it is complex images that are important in them. In addition, when they are always distinguished, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, things appearing on perceptions and things appearing on associations are included in things appearing as complex images, and they are called images or things appearing images in these books.
    The things in themselves which are premised to cause things appearing as mental phenomena by making themselves sources can be called their "Sources", and in particular, those which are premised to cause images by making themselves sources can be called the Image's Sources. However, when images and images' sources are always distinguished, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, images' sources are sometimes called images in these books. That is, the word "images" can designate not only images but also their sources in these books.
    Though roughly, the nervous function which is premised to cause some images can be called the "Recollection" of the Images(' Sources), the Recollection, the Images' (sources') Being Recollected, or the things' Being Recollected as Images. Though the word "recollection" often designate remembering some past events in daily life, the word designate not only remembering some past things but also thinking of some present things, expecting some future things, imagining some unreal things, dreaming, and so on in these books.
    Though roughly, some properties which a part of the sensation's source has are recognized, the part is cut, and an individual image's source is generated and thereafter memorized and stored. At once, more than one individual image's source is generated, memorized and stored while going through a diverging neuronal group and while classified on the basis of similarity. Each individual image's source generated in such a way is memorized and stored in a unitary neuronal group in the diverging neuronal group. There are a lot of neuronal ways among such unitary neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources. Such neuronal ways among them can be called "Neuronal Ways among Individual Images' Sources" or "Image to Image Neuronal Ways". When they need to be contrasted with image to emotion neuronal ways, image to function neuronal ways, or function to function neuronal ways, they can be called Image to Image Neuronal Ways. By their excitements and transmissions, those individual images' sources arise and are recollected spatially and temporally close, and, after all, complex images are recollected. As neuronal ways among individual images' sources, there are (1) neuronal ways on the basis of recognition and similarity and (2) neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness. (1) are in the memorial neuronal group diverging one after another and make it possible for individual images' sources to arise on the basis of recognition and similarity. Above all, general things can be recollected as complex images in advance of particular things by (1). For example, general beasts' can be recollected as images and can be perceived by (1), and we instantly know that they are dangerous and can evade them. (2) are among neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources widely beyond each kind of memory. The neuronal ways among the individual images' sources which are generated, memorized, and stored temporally close are activated. Next time some of those individual images' sources excite and transmit, those activated neuronal ways excite and transmit, and the others excite and transmit. After all, the individual images' sources generated temporally close arise and are recollected temporally close, and complex images are recollected. Some of the things caused temporally close are causes and effects. The recollections of complex images by (2) make it possible for us to think of cause and effect. In such a way by (1) and (2), things are recollected as complex images, perceived, and associated.
    The activities of (1)(2) occupy considerable part of the tendencies, abilities, or habits of recollections of images, perceptions, associations, egos, thinkings, and so on. However, most of (1) are innately activated and cause little difference of their tendencies, abilities, or habits among individuals. In contrast, (2) are activated acquiredly in the above way, make some difference of their tendencies, abilities, or habits among individuals, and are important.
    Because the neuronal group from those memorizing and storing individual images' sources to the replay converges and because the sources which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center make the others disappear, at once, a limited number (N) of complex images are recollected. However that limited number (N) fluctuate depending on its situation. For example, when a complex image is recollected very intensely, the number (N) get smaller. Accordingly, recollections of images are limiting functions.

COMPLEX IMAGES' SOURCES

    Only by sensations' being repeated, as was explained earlier, individual images' sources are generated or renewed and memorized and stored, and image to image neuronal ways are activated, and complex images' sources are generated or renewed. Accordingly, empiricism is partially right.
    However, also by egos' manipulations of images and thinkings, which will be explained later, image to image neuronal ways are activated on the basis of temporal closeness, and complex images' sources are formed or reformed.
    The generations and renewals of complex images' sources by sensations and the formation and reformation of them by egos can be called Formation (or Reformation) of Complex Images(' Sources).
    Complex images formed in such ways are used in recollections of images, perceptions, mental emotions, egos, manipulations of images, thinkings, and synthetic functions. Without complex images, they and their tendencies, abilities, or habits could not exist or function. In short, complex images are the most fundamental for mental functions.

AUTONOMIC SENSATIONS

    The sensations which contain some autonomic nerves can be called "Autonomic Sensations". Autonomic nerves are distributed, histologically, to smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, mucous membranes, and so on, anatomically, to hears, blood vessels, lungs, digestive tracts, and so on. Accordingly, autonomic sensations transmit the internal situations of the contraction and expansion of hearts, blood vessels, and lungs, the movement of digestive tract, the inflammation of mucous membranes, the osmotic pressure, the concentration of oxygen and glucose in blood, and so on. They appear on autonomic sensations as palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, abdominal pain, headache, and so on.
    As was explained earlier, most pleasure and displeasure sensations cause not only some memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on but also various autonomic functions spreading over the nervous system, above all, autonomic nervous one, endocrine one, immune one, and so on. For example, the pain on the skin included in pleasure and displeasure somatic sensations causes palpitation, dyspnea, and so on included in pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, sweating included in exocrine secretions, secretion of epinephrine included in endocrine secretions, and so on.
    Moreover, some parts of the autonomic functions caused by pleasure and displeasure sensations are sensed on autonomic sensations as palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, and so on. That is, most pleasure and displeasure sensations cause some autonomic sensations.
    Moreover, most autonomic sensations cause some other autonomic sensations. For example, dyspnea, nausea, abdominal pain, and headache cause palpitation.
    After all, because every emotion contains some pleasure and displeasure sensations including autonomic sensations, most emotions cause some autonomic sensations. Please do not forget this.

DISPLEASURE AUTONOMIC SENSATIONS AND PLEASURE ONES

That there are some displeasure sensations and drives' dissatisfactions is that the existence of the individuals or the species is in danger. For example 1, that there is some pain on the skins caused by the attacks by some animals of the same or different species is that the injuries can reach their deeper organs and that the individual's existence in danger. For example 2, that there are some hunger and thirst, that is, some eating and drinking drives' dissatisfactions is that the individual's existence is in danger. For example 3, that there are some animals' dissatisfactions of sexual drives is that the species' existence is in danger. In such a case, autonomic functions prepare individuals to cause the functions to prevent danger like counterattack, escape, defense, eating, drinking, sexual behavior, and so on. For example, they increase heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate and prepare for supplying oxygen which will be consumed by voluntary movements. Those autonomic functions are sensed as displeasure on autonomic sensations, and displeasure autonomic sensations are caused as if they were warning animals of danger. For example, palpitation and dyspnea are caused. In such a way, in general, displeasure sensations and drives' dissatisfaction cause displeasure autonomic sensations.
    However, if the functions preventing danger and the autonomic functions preparing for those functions were always caused, animals including human beings would be exhausted and could not exist. In the absence of displeasure sensations or drives' dissatisfactions, autonomic functions prepare animals to rest or sleep and recover fatigue. For example, they decrease heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate and prompt digestive organs' movements, digestion, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Those autonomic functions are sensed as pleasure on autonomic sensations, and pleasure autonomic sensations are caused as if they were canceling warning. For example, moderate palpitation and moderate hunger are caused. In such a way, the absence of displeasure sensations or drives' dissatisfaction can cause pleasure autonomic sensations. Of course, pleasure sensations and drives' satisfaction can cause pleasure autonomic sensations.
    In addition, only reducing displeasure sensations can cause pleasure autonomic sensations. For example, when fierce pain is only reduced, some pleasure autonomic sensations can be caused.
    Moreover, displeasure autonomic sensations can cause displeasure ones, and pleasure ones can cause pleasure ones. For example, palpitation and dyspnea cause more intense palpitation and dyspnea and nausea. It is as if they were warning animals of danger doubly or as if they were canceling warning doubly.
    As will be explained later, feelings, desires, complex emotions contain some autonomic sensations. As was explained above, pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives can cause some autonomic sensations. Accordingly, emotions contain or can cause some autonomic sensations.

IMAGE TO EMOTION NEURONAL WAYS

    There are (1) some neuronal ways from the neuronal groups which some things' images' sources go through to the neuronal groups causing some autonomic sensations. They have not been activated innately. When a thing is perceived and recollected as images and recognized, when that thing's images' sources are generated or renewed, memorized, and stored, and when that thing cause some emotions and some autonomic sensations intensely, continuously, or continually, the neuronal ways from the neuronal groups which that thing's images' sources go through to the neuronal groups causing those autonomic sensations are acquiredly activated on the basis of temporal closeness. Next time that thing is perceived or recollected as images and recognized, those activated neuronal ways excite and transmit, and those autonomic sensations are caused. This is the feelings which will be explained later. Such neuronal ways can be called the "Image to Emotion Neuronal Ways" from the neuronal groups which that thing's images' sources go through to the neuronal groups causing those autonomic sensations. In addition, the words of "the neuronal groups which that thing's images' sources go through" are sometimes simplified into those of "that thing's images' sources", those of "the neuronal groups causing those autonomic sensations" are sometimes simplified into those of "those autonomic sensations", and they are sometimes called Image to Emotion Neuronal Ways from that thing's images' sources to those autonomic sensations in these books.

FEELINGS

    Again, when a thing is perceived or recollected as images and recognized, when its images' sources are generated or renewed, memorized, and stored, and when that thing cause some emotions and some autonomic sensations intensely, continuously, or continually, the image to emotion neuronal ways from the neuronal groups which that thing's images' sources go through (that thing's images' sources) to the neuronal groups causing those autonomic sensations (those autonomic sensations) are acquiredly activated on the basis of temporal closeness, and those activities are retained. Next time that thing is perceived or recollected as images and recognized, those activated image to emotion neuronal ways excite and transmit, and those autonomic sensations are caused. In this, the recognition of that thing and the excitements and transmissions of those image to emotion neuronal ways and those pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations can be called the "Feeling" of, about, for, at, or against that thing. In addition, that thing can be called the object of the feeling.
    For example, in the body, above all, the neuronal system of a baby who are battered around by its mother,
(1) Its mother is perceived or recollected and recognized, and its mother's images' sources are generated or renewed and memorized, and stored.
(2) Some displeasure autonomic sensations like palpitation and dyspnea are caused by its skin's pain's being caused by its being hit by its mother.
When (1)(2) are temporally closely caused again and again, the image to emotion neuronal ways from its mother's images' sources to those autonomic sensations are activated. Next time its mother is perceived or recollected as images and recognized, those activated image to emotion neuronal ways excite and transmit, and those displeasure autonomic sensations are caused. This is the feeling of the anxiety about or fear of a certain person or general human beings. In contrast, when a baby has hunger and thirst and when its mother hugs and nurses it again and again, in the baby's body, the generation or renewal of its mother's images and the reduction of hunger and thirst and moderate palpitation and dyspnea are simultaneously caused, and the pleasure autonomic sensations are caused when its mother are recollected. This is the feeling of expectation for or ease to a certain person or general human beings.
    Feelings include anxiety, fear, expectation, ease, admiration for other things, admiration for the self, disgust at other things, disgust at the self or self-hatred, loneliness, feeling of being alienated, feeling of being persecuted.
    Some feelings are the substance of some parts of what is called "conditioning". For example, it is probable that even Pavlov's dogs had some expectations for food. It is possible that not only human beings but also some evolved mammals at least have some feelings. In addition, like the examples taken earlier, human babies have some simple feelings. Of course, human beings after infant period have various and complicated feelings.
    Objects causing feelings are spread wider and wider in the following ways.
    A feeling consists of (Ⅰ) the perception or recollection and recognition of a thing, (Ⅱ) the excitements and transmissions of image to emotion neuronal ways caused by (Ⅰ), and (Ⅲ) autonomic sensations caused by (Ⅱ). First, an association often intervenes between (Ⅰ) and (Ⅱ), and (Ⅰ), an association, (Ⅱ), and (Ⅲ) sometimes seem to be a feeling. For example, Not only (Ⅰ)the perception and recognition of the interpersonal relations at office or school causes (Ⅱ)(Ⅲ) directly but also the perception and recognition of its building causes an association, and in the association, the recollection and recognition of the interpersonal relations there are caused and causes (Ⅱ)(Ⅲ). While those are repeated, the neuronal ways from the images' sources of its building to displeasure autonomic sensations are activated, and (Ⅰ) the perception and recognition of its building come to cause (Ⅱ)(Ⅲ) directly without any associations. This is a feeling. First in such a way, the objects of feelings spread. Moreover, the seeming feeling of (Ⅰ), an association, (Ⅱ), and (Ⅲ) are called Feelings and included in feelings in these books. In this case, the objects of feelings spread through associations.
    In contrast, when a feeling is caused by an object and when another thing is perceived or recollected necessarily or by accident again and again, the object of the feeling also spread to the latter without associations.
    While their objects are spread in those ways, feelings themselves are strengthened and weakened in the following ways. As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the activities of neuronal groups or ways are increased or retained by long-term intermittent repetitions and are decreased without them. That is true to image to emotion neuronal ways. Accordingly, feelings are strengthened or retained by their repetitions and are weakened without them. For example, if battering, bullying, alienation, and so on is repeated and if interpersonal anxiety is repeated, it is strengthened or retained, and if it is not caused for months or years, it is sometimes weakened. From the beginning, if feelings were only spread and strengthened and were not weakened, our life would be too hard to live.
    Such objects' being spread, strengthened, and weakened are also true to desires, which will be explained later. Some explanations of them will be omitted in the section "DESIRES".
    The feelings where pleasure autonomic sensations are dominant can be called Pleasure Feelings, and the contrary can be called Displeasure Feelings. The distinction between them is seemingly vague. However, it can distinguish them whether or not they cause any functional impulses which will be explained later. Pleasure feelings include expectation and ease, and displeasure feelings include anxiety, fear, disgust at other persons, disgust at the self or self-hatred, loneliness, feeling of being alienated, and feeling of being persecuted.

INNATE FORMATION AND ACQUIRED FORMATION

    This is the best place where general innate formation and general acquired formation are explained.
    In order to define innate formation, it is presupposed that the external and internal situations for a certain part or function or the whole of a certain individual are general ones for the species which it belong to. For example, it is excluded to suffer physical disorder or mental traumas in some war or disaster. It is not excluded to be involved in some war or disaster and to suffer no physical disorders or mental traumas. Though it is a pity, we cannot help saying that some war is one of the general situations for human being.
    In such general situations, by genes and the material things like protein directly produced by genes, that intracellular organelles, cells, tissues, organs, bodies, and their functions come to have their necessary properties can be called their "Innate" Formation.
    In contrast, that those which are formed innately in the above way are changed by the general or special situations other than genes or material things directly produced by genes can be called their "Acquired" Formation.
    Having been formed at the delivery is not the same as innate formation, and being changed after the delivery is not the same as acquired formation. For example, though children grow also after delivery, bodies are formed almost innately. If a child's growth is retard because of malnutrition and lack of exercise, such retardation is formed acquiredly. If a child goes fat because of excessive nutrition and lack of exercise, such obesity is formed acquiedly.
    In such a way, most part of a intracellular organelle, cell, tissue, organ, or body, or its function is formed innately, and the other is formed acquiredly. In such a sense, all living things and their functions are formed both innately and acquiredly.
    Some neuronal groups have the activities enough to cause their necessary functions innately. Most of the neuronal groups like sensory groups, sensory nerves, and so on whose necessary functions are sensations have the activities enough to cause the necessary functions of sensations innately. In addition, most of the neuronal groups in the autonomic nervous system whose necessary functions are autonomic functions like the regulation of heart rate, respiration rate, and blood pressure have the activities enough to cause them innately. That neuronal groups have the activities to cause their necessary functions innately can be called their Being Activated Innately.
    In contrast, some neuronal groups do not have the activities enough to cause their necessary functions, and when they are activated to a degree, they acquire such activities. That neuronal groups acquire such activities when they are activated to a degree can be called their Being Activated Acquiredly.
    Neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources and neuronal ways among them on the basis of temporal closeness, which were explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", are activated innately. Accordingly, images' sources' generations, renewals, memorizations, storages, and so on can be called Acquired ones. That is, we can say that images' sources are acquiredly generated, renewed, memorized, stored.
    In addition, image to emotion neuronal ways, which were explained in this chapter of this book, are activated acquiredly. In addition, image to function neuronal ways and function to function neuronal ways, which will be explained in a below chapter of this book, are activated acquiredly.
    Those acquired activations of neuronal groups are important for the formation of mental functions' tendencies, abilities, or habits. For the formation of vertebrates' functions' abilities, the contractile force of striated muscles are important, too. Not a small part of it is formed acquiredly. Accordingly, not a small part of the abilities of unitary voluntary movements are formed acquiredly. For example, muscle training is made much of. In contrast, that of smooth muscles and heart muscles are mostly formed innately. Accordingly, most of the abilities of the involuntary movement of digestive organs, hearts, and so on are formed innately.
    In such ways, all the intracellular organelles, cells, tissues, organs, and bodies, and their functions are formed both innately and acquiredly.However, there are things which could not function without acquired formation. Images' sources could not function without acquired formation. Accordingly, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, feelings, desires, egos, thinkings, and so on containing them could not function without acquired formation. In contrast, the other living functions function in some ways without acquired formation. For example, hearts palpitate to a degree without acquired formation. Accordingly, the living functions which could not function without acquired formation can be called "Acquired Functions", and the others "Innate Functions". Acquired functions include recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and feelings which have been explained so far and desires, complex emotions, egos, and thinkings, intentional functions which will be explained from now on. Innate functions include sensations and autonomic functions which have been explained so far. When we look through them, we find that human beings are the animals which have developed acquired functions the most of all the animals on the earth.
    Innate functions are formed
(1) in the situation common to the species
(2) in the time of a lot of generations through genes' spontaneous mutations and natural selections
(3) with little difference among individuals in the species.
In contrast, acquired functions are formed
(1') in the situation particular to individuals
(2') in the time of one generation
(3') with much difference among individuals in the species.
    Let us go back to the definition. The functions which could not function without acquired formation can be called acquired functions. Nonetheless, all living functions are formed both innately and acquiredly. For example, feelings do not function without acquired generation of images. Nonetheless, feelings are formed both innately and acquiredly. Some persons have (1) generally intense anxiety, some have (2) intense interpersonal anxiety, and some have (3) intense anxiety about being alone. (2) and (3) are formed comparatively acquiredly. Feelings are also affected by subtypes of neurotransmitter and receptor, and those subtypes are formed mainly innately. (1) is formed comparatively innately.

MAKING USE OF THE PLEASURE AND DISPLEASURE OF THE PAST, INCREASING OR MAINTAINING THE PLEASURE AND DECREASING THE DISPLEASURE IN THE FUTURE, AND SECURING EXISTENCE

    When some objects caused intense, continuous, or continual displeasure emotions in the past, those emotions caused some displeasure autonomic sensations, and the image to emotion neuronal ways from the images' sources of those objects to those displeasure autonomic sensations were activated. Next time those objects are perceived or recollected as images and recognized, their images' sources cause the excitements and transmissions of those activated image to emotion neuronal ways and those displeasure autonomic sensations. This is the feeling of anxiety about or fear of those objects. The animals including human beings which have such feelings get rid of those objects in advance. The objects which cause intense, continuous, or continual displeasure emotions are usually dangerous for the existence of animals' individuals and species. For example, such attacks by other animals as cause the pain on the skin can reach organs deeper than the skin and can be vital. When animals have some feelings and when they have experienced some pain in the past, they can feel afraid of such dangerous objects and can run away as soon as they perceive them. Animals having feelings get rid of the danger to their existence in advance. In such a way, feelings are functions which make use of the pleasure and displeasure of the past, increase or maintain the pleasure and decrease the displeasure in the future, and secure animals' existence.
    A lot of things explained in the previous section and this are true in desires, complex emotions, egos, and thinkings.

IMMINENCE OF OBJECTS

    The objects of feeling have imminence as properties. Not only their objects but also their imminence are recognized, and the more imminent their objects are, the more intense feelings get. For example, the more imminent the war is, the more intense the anxiety about being involved in it gets.

DESIRES

    Some things bring some pleasure emotions to the animals which get, have, or have something to do with those things. Such things can be concrete, abstract, material, or mental ones for human beings. For example 1, getting and having money brings about eating and drinking drives' satisfaction, and so on. For example 2, winning prizes bring about honor. For example 3, making a boy or girl friend brings about not only sexual drives' satisfaction but also various pleasure emotions. By the repetition of such pleasure emotions, the image to emotion neuronal ways from the images' sources of getting, having, and having something to do with a thing to some pleasure autonomic sensations caused by those pleasure emotions are activated. Next time, getting, having, or having something to do with that thing is perceived or recollected as images and recognized, those activated image to emotion neuronal ways excite and transmit and those pleasure autonomic sensations are caused. In this, the recognition of getting, having, or having something to do with that thing, those image to emotion neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, and those pleasure autonomic sensations can be called the "Desire" for that thing or to get, have, or have something to do with that thing. In addition, that thing can be called the Object of that desire. In addition, the image of the objects of desires can be called Objective Images.
    When we can get, have, or have something to do with the object of a desire, some pleasure emotions are caused. This can be called the desire's satisfaction. When we cannot, some displeasure feelings like regret, grief, and anxiety are caused. This can be called the desire's dissatisfaction. When we can do so excessively, some displeasure feelings like being bored or empty are sometimes caused. This can be called the desire's satiation.
    Not only concrete and material things but also abstract and mental things and human relations and situations can be the objects of desires. For example, not only power, money, food, water, sexual objects, and so on but also honor, glory, prizes, qualifications, abilities, skills, humanity, personality, jobs, friends, boy or girl friends, partners, families, homes, hobbies, urban life, rural life, and so on can be the objects of desires.
    The relation between desires and drives will be explained here. Desires are on the basis of pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives. For example, in order for us to satisfy our eating drive, drinking drive, and sexual drive, we need to gain power and money to a degree, and the desire for money and power is formed. In such a way, drives are innate functions, and desires are acquired ones.
    Though desires are included in feelings, Feelings excluding desires are called Feelings (in a narrow sense) in these books.
    Some desires are the substance of some parts of what is called "conditioning".
    Because objective images' generations, memorizations, storages and the activations of image to emotion neuronal ways are caused acquiredly, desires are acquired functions. For example, when we carry out some interpersonal functions and when they caused pleasure emotions again and again, some interpersonal desires are formed. After all, feelings and desires are acquired functions. In contrast, pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are innate functions. Accordingly, all human beings have some pain on skins, palpitation, dyspnea, eating drives, water drinking drives, and sexual drives.
    As was explained earlier, feelings (in a narrow sense) are acquired functions where the difference among individuals is large and are functions fit to make use of the past, to foresee the future, and to prevent danger in advance. So are desires. For example, the desires to work prevent starvation, those to play prevent overwork, and those for marriage and family prevent the extinction of the species.

DEVIATIONS OF OBJECTS OF DESIRES TO MEANS

    The objects of desires not only extend in the same way as feelings do but also deviate from fundamental objects to concrete means. However, from the beginning, it is difficult or impossible to determine what is fundamental as objects of desires. From the viewpoint that pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are elementary of all emotions, reducing displeasure and securing pleasure and satisfying eating and drinking drives and sexual ones are fundamental. From that of evolution, the existence of individuals and species are fundamental. From that of ethics, religion, and so on, the true, the good, the beautiful, the eternal, and so on would be fundamental. Anyway, objects of desires deviate to the means which are far from fundamental objects. For example, also in human children, though power and money are the means to exist, they become objects themselves by the age of 6. Moreover, though strong power and much money are the means to rule others, they become objects themselves by the age of 12. It can be said that such deviation of desires' objects to means reflects the reality of the human society. In other words, the deviations of desires' objects to means are our daily life. We need to work to exist, we need to acquire some abilities and qualifications to work, and desires for them are formed.

COMPLEX EMOTIONS

    Drives contain some pleasure and displeasure sensations, and feelings and desires contain some autonomic sensations caused by recognizing objects.
    A function which consists of more than one kind of pleasure and displeasure sensation, drive, feeling, or desire and whose main component is a feeling or a desire can be called a "Complex Emotion".
    What is called "love" is a complex emotion which consists of the anxiety about loneliness, some interpersonal desires, the admiration at some properties of a certain person, the desire for eternity, some sexual drives, gathering drives, and so on. What is called "will to power" is a complex emotion which consists of the desire to control or rule, the desire for power and money, the desire for eternity, the drive to control or rule, and so on.
    However, since a complex emotion contains a feeling or a desire as a main component, the complex emotion can be called with the words of the feeling or the desire. For example, what is called "will to power" can be called the desire to control or rule. In addition, the complex emotion's object can be called with the words of the object of the feeling or the desire. For example, the object of what is called "will to power can be called controlling or ruling.
    The complex emotions where pleasure feelings or desires' satisfactions are dominant can be called Pleasure Complex Emotions, and the contrary can be called Displeasure Complex Emotions. For example, the love where the anxiety about loneliness, and interpersonal desires' dissatisfactions are dominant is displeasure love.

PLEASURE AND PAIN

    Pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called "Emotions".
    Pleasure sensations, drives' satisfactions, pleasure feelings, desires' satisfactions, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Pleasure Emotions or Pleasures. Displeasure sensations, drives' dissatisfactions and satiations, displeasure feelings, desires' dissatisfactions and satiation, and displeasure complex emotions can be called a Displeasure Emotion, Displeasures, or "Pain". The word of "pain" as an uncountable noun designates both physical and mental pain. In addition, the word of pain is used more often than that of displeasure in our daily life. Accordingly the former is often used also in these books.
    Pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives can be called "Physical Emotions". Pleasure sensations and drives' satisfactions can be called Physical Pleasure, and displeasure sensations and drives' dissatisfactions and satiations can be called Physical Displeasures or Physical Pain.
    Feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called "Mental Emotions". Pleasure feelings, desires' satisfactions, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Mental Pleasures, and displeasure feelings, desires' dissatisfactions and satiations, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Mental Displeasures or a Mental Pain.

OBJECTS OF EMOTIONS

    The objects of feelings, desires, and complex emotions whose main components are feelings or desires have already been defined in those sections.
    As for pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, and other complex emotions, they form some feelings or desires directly or indirectly. For example 1, some pain on the skins directly form the fear of human violence, diseases, accidents, natural disasters, and so on which cause it. For example 2, eating drives directly form some desires for food. For example 3, what is called "love" directly forms some desires for particular persons or general human beings. The objects of the feelings or desires which they form directly can be called their Objects.

MEANS

    As was explained earlier, objects of desires deviate to means. Moreover, means sometimes become more dominant than human beings and their functions.
    Human beings do not destroy themselves, other living things, and the nature only by their bare body and bodily functions. They destroy them including themselves on a large scale using means like tools, weapons, science and technology, and so on. Above all, the human means of the manipulations of atomic nuclei and genes are the most serious. When that needs to be emphasized, the human beings, human functions, and the means which they make and use are called "Means" in these books. Above all, "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" uses the word of means in this sense.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

FUNCTIONAL IMAGES AND INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    At least in each individual of higher mammals including human beings, some functions can be caused by their images' neuronal sources just recollected though some functions intervene between them, that is, though indirectly. Such functions can be called "Intentional Functions", and such images' can be called "Functional Images". In addition, functional images' sources can be called Functional Images. Simply, functional images are the images of what are called "ways" or "how to". For example, when we bend our elbow joints while we are intending to do so, doing so is being recollected as functional images.
    Images' sources are all generated, memorized, and stored acquiredly. So are functional images' sources. Accordingly, babies where the images of "elbows", "joints", "stretching and bending", and "right and left" have not been generated yet cannot bend the right elbow joint if they are told to do so.
    Bending and stretching joints are included unitary voluntary movements, which were explained earlier. First, unitary voluntary movements are included in intentional functions.

IMAGE TO FUNCTION NEURONAL WAYS AND FUNCTIONAL NEURONAL GROUPS

    In cerebrums, two neuronal groups (IF)(F) intervene between functional images' sources and intentional functions.
     The first (IF) run from the neuronal group in the occipital, temporal, or parietal lobes which functional images' sources go through via the cerebrum medulla to F. IF can be called "Image to Function Neuronal Ways" from the neuronal groups which functional images' sources go through to F. The words of "the neuronal groups which functional images' sources go through" can be simplified into those of "functional images' sources", and IF can be called Image to Function Neuronal Ways from functional images' sources to F.
    The second (F) run from the frontal lobes to the nervous system lower than the cerebrums or some other parts of the cerebrums. F can be called "Functional Neuronal Groups". They are the closest to intentional functions in the cerebrums.
    In the nervous system lower than the cerebrums, spinal chords and motor nerves or cranial nerves intervene between F and striated muscles which directly cause voluntary movements.

ACQUIRED GENERATIONS OF FUNCTIONAL IMAGES' SOURCES AND ACQUIRED ACTIVATIONS OF IMAGE TO FUNCTION NEURONAL WAYS

    Images' sources are all generated or renewed and memorized and stored acquiredly. So are functional images. First, other persons' intentional functions are sensed and perceived and their functional images' sources can be generated or renewed and memorized and stored. For example, when a baby sees its parents walking, the functional images' sources of the complex voluntary movement of walking upright on two legs are generated or renewed and memorized and stored. Simply, this is the beginning of imitation. Second, the self's intentional functions are sensed, perceived and their images' sources can be generated or renewed and memorized and stored more firmly than other persons'. For example, we cannot master any skills if we only see them done by others without doing them ourselves.
    Moreover, when an intentional functions is caused again and again, its functional images' sources are generated or renewed and memorized and stored, and the image to function neuronal ways from those functional images' sources to functional neuronal groups causing that intentional function are activated acquiredly on the basis of temporal closeness. For example, when a baby sees its parents walking upright on two legs and when it tries to do it again and again, the functional images' sources of doing it are generated or renewed and memorized and stored, and the image to function neuronal ways from those functional images' sources to the functional neuronal groups on the frontal lobes which can cause the unitary voluntary movements of limbs that compose doing it are activated.
    Moreover, when functional images' sources are recollected and recognized, the image to function neuronal ways activated in the above ways sometimes excite and transmit. For example, when the functional images' sources of walking upright on two legs are recollected and recognized, the image to function neuronal ways which were exemplified above sometimes excite and transmit.
    After all, as far as cerebrums concerned, intentional functions are usually caused by (1) functional images' sources just recollected, (2) image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, and (3) functional neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions. Again, it is as far as cerebrums are concerned and usually that intentional functions are caused by (1)(2)(3). As will be explained later, beyond cerebrums, emotional systems intervene between (1) and (2).
    Moreover, as far as cerebrums are concerned, some intentional functions are sometimes caused by some functions replacing (1)(2) and by (3). For example, an adult's sucking milk is caused by (1)(2)(3), and it is an intentional function. In contrast, newborns' doing it is caused by some innate functions replacing (1)(2) and by (3). By the way, tendon reflexes are always caused without (1)(2)(3), and so they are not intentional functions. Though imitating tendon reflexes is an intentional function, imitating them is different from true ones.

ACQUIRED INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS AND PARTIALLY INNATE ONES

    As was explained earlier, the functions which could not be caused if no images' sources are generated can be called acquired functions. In human beings, a lot of intentional functions are acquired intentional functions, which could not be caused if no functional images were generated. In contrast, as far as cerebrums are concerned, some intentional functions like sucking milk are sometimes caused by some functions replacing (1)(2) and by (3). They can be called Partially Innate Intentional Functions or Partially Acquired Intentional Functions.
    There are intentional functions at least in higher mammals including human beings. In them, the intentional functions essential for newborns like unitary voluntary movements reducing displeasure sensations and satisfying drives and complex voluntary movements like standing and walking on four legs, sucking milk, crying are partially innate intentional functions. In contrast, in human beings, the functions beginning from walking upright on two legs, pronunciation other than crying or laughing are acquired ones, and, of course, speaking words, writing words, and so on are acquired ones.

UNITARY AND COMPLEX INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    The intentional functions which are inseparable into smaller ones like unitary voluntary movements can be called "Unitary" Intentional Functions. In contrast, the intentional functions consisting of more than one unitary one can be called "Complex" Intentional Functions. For example, walking upright on two legs consists of unitary intentional functions (unitary voluntary movements) like bending and stretching of knee, hip , elbow, and shoulder joints, and so it is included in complex intentional functions (complex voluntary movements). In such a way, complex voluntary movements are included in complex intentional functions.

FUNCTION TO FUNCTION NEURONAL WAYS

    As far as cerebrums are concerned, a unitary intentional function can be caused by one functional image's source, the excitement and transmission of one image to function neuronal way and one functional neuronal group. In contrast, a complex intentional function cannot be caused so simply. In order for complex intentional functions to be caused, it is necessary (1) that the images' sources of the unitary intentional functions composing a complex intentional function be all recollected, (2) that image to function neuronal ways diverge, or (3) that there be neuronal ways among functional neuronal groups. Maybe, the mixture of (1)(2)(3) exists and functions.
    At the stage of the formation of a complex intentional function, mainly (1) functions. For example, when we learn a new manual labor, we should remember all its procedure. While (1) is repeated again and again, the neuronal ways in (2)(3) are activated, and (2)(3) come to function. As a result, even if not all the functional images' sources of the unitary intentional functions composing a complex one is recollected, the complex one comes to be able to be caused. For example, even if we do not think that the right arm ahead, the left one back, the right leg back, the left one ahead, and so on, we can walk and can think something like tomorrow's schedule other than walking while walking.
    Now, the neuronal ways in (1) and those before divergence in (2) can be called an Image to Function Neuronal Way again, and those after divergence in (2) and those in (3) can be called "Function to Function Neuronal Ways". In addition, the functional neuronal groups causing unitary intentional functions can be called "Unitary" Functional Neuronal Groups, and the unitary neuronal groups and the function to function neuronal ways causing complex intentional functions can be called "Complex" Functional Neuronal Groups. In addition, when they do not need to be distinguished, they can be called Functional Neuronal Groups.

REDEFINITION OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    When image to function neuronal ways, function to function neuronal ways, and unitary functional neuronal groups are distinguished in such a way as was explained in the above section, we find the following. Image to function neuronal ways are concerned with which intentional function to cause. In contrast, function to function neuronal ways are concerned with how well that intentional function is caused, that is, its ability. It is function to function neuronal ways above all that are activated by complex intentional functions' being caused again and again, and it is by the activations of them above all that form the abilities of complex intentional functions. For example, in order to walk upright on two legs well, the function to function neuronal ways among the unitary functional neuronal groups causing the right arm ahead, the left one back, the right leg back, the left one ahead, and so on need to be activated.
    Accordingly, intentional functions can be redefined in the following way. The functions which are caused by the excitements and transmissions of unitary neuronal groups can be called Unitary Intentional Functions, those which are caused by those of complex functional neuronal groups, that is, unitary functional neuronal groups and function to function neuronal ways among them can be called Complex Intentional Functions, and both of them can be called Intentional Functions. The borderlines between intentional functions and the other functions in cerebrums is between image to function neuronal ways and functional neuronal groups (unitary ones or complex ones).
    Anyway, image to function neuronal ways and function to function neuronal ways need to be clearly distinguished from image to image neuronal ways, that is, the neuronal ways among individual images' sources which were explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", and image to emotion neuronal ways which were defined earlier.

FORMATION OF ABILITIES OF UNITARY VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS

    As was explained earlier, a lot of intentional functions of human beings are acquired ones, which could not function if no functional images were generated. In contrast, unitary voluntary movements are partially innate intentional functions which could be caused if no functional images were generated. For example, even a newborn bends some joints when there is some pain stimulation. In addition, out of complex intentional functions, crawling, sacking milk, crying, laughing, and so on are partially innate ones.
    Unitary intentional functions are caused at least by the excitements and transmissions of unitary functional neuronal groups. Unitary functional neuronal groups, which cause unitary intentional functions, which are partially innate intentional functions, are activated innately. That is, in cerebrums, the abilities of unitary intentional functions are formed innately. In the whole of the body of an individual, the abilities of unitary voluntary movements contain the contractile force of striated muscle and the flexibility of joints, and they are formed partially acquiredly. Accordingly, the abilities of unitary voluntary movements are formed both innately and acquiredly.

FORMATION OF ABILITIES OF COMPLEX VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS

    Complex intentional functions are caused at least by the excitements and transmissions of unitary functional neuronal groups and function to function neuronal ways among them. As was explained earlier, the former are activated innately. In addition, in partially innate complex intentional functions, the latter are fundamentally activated innately. However, it is fundamentally that the latter are activated innately. For example, though there is little difference among individuals in human newborns' way to cry, there is much difference in adults' like doing so as if they appealed something or as if they bottled up doing so or doing so frankly. That is because the latter are activated partially acquiredly. In addition, the abilities of complex voluntary movements contain the contractile force of striated muscle and the flexibility of joints, and they are formed innately and acquiredly like those of unitary ones. Accordingly, the abilities of partially innate complex voluntary movements are formed both innately and acquiredly.
    In contrast, in acquired complex functions, the latter are all activated acquiredly. Accordingly, the abilities of acquired complex voluntary movements are formed mostly acquiredly.
    Intentional functions are classified into voluntary movements, synthetic functions, manipulations of images, and thinkings. Synthetic functions contain some manipulations of images and thinkings by egos. Accordingly, the abilities of synthetic functions will be explained after they are explained.
    However, before they are explained, an example of the formation of the ability to walk upright on two legs as a complex voluntary movements will be enumerated again. It is a hard job for animals not only to speak and write words, to think, and so on but also to do it in the following way. In a human baby, other persons like its parents' walking upright on two legs and its trial and error of doing it are sensed, perceived, and the images' sources of doing it are generated and renewed and memorized and stored. While it crawls, pulls to stand, tumbles, and crawls again, through trial and error, the functional images' sources of doing it are generated and renewed and memorized and stored, and simultaneously the function to function neuronal ways among the functional neuronal groups causing unitary intentional functions like the bending and stretching of its knee, hip, elbow, shoulder, and so on's joints composing doing it and the image to function neuronal ways from the functional images' sources of doing it to those neuronal groups and ways are activated on the basis of temporal closeness. Simultaneously, it grows and its constitution, above all, the contractile force of the striated muscles is formed both innately and aquiredly. While it repeats those again and again, the fundamental abilities to do it are formed. Moreover, while it grows, while it sees various adults and actors, models, or players on television or screen doing it, and while it imitates them and do it through trial and error, the abilities to do it in various ways like stepping, striding, marching, sneaking, roaming, walking fast anyway, and walking a long distance anyway are formed. Such formation is a hard job which takes each individual years. When we look over them in such a way, we find that while the innate formation takes the whole of the species energy, it is each individual that acquired formation takes energy.

EGOS

IMPULSES

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", sensations and memories are caused by neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions from the sensory organs to sensory nerves to sensory areas in a broad sense, and so on which are in order. In addition, image to emotion neuronal ways, image to function ones, and function to function ones explained in this book are not as in order as them but more in order than the following.
    Every emotion, which contains some pleasure and displeasure sensations, causes various functions spreading over the nervous system, above all, autonomic nervous one, endocrine one, immune one, and so on. For example, the pain on the skin causes palpitation, dyspnea, and sweating.
    Moreover, some emotions cause neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions which go through neuronal groups different from those causing sensations and memories, diffuse toward cerebrums, and influence cerebrums' functions in some ways. Such neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions which influence cerebrums' functions can be called "Impulses". They are different from neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions in order which cause sensations and memories, and they diffuse toward cerebrums. For example, furious feelings like anger or fear sometimes disturb thinking. In such a case, it can be thought that they cause impulses, and they influence thinking.
    More than one emotion can be caused at once. For example, the pain on the skin and the anxiety about its continuing or gaining can be caused simultaneously. Even the anxiety about and the expectation for a thing can be caused simultaneously. Accordingly, more than one impulse can arise, that is, can begin to be caused by more than one emotion at once. However, even if a lot of impulses arise at once, in one nervous system of one individual, because impulses diffuse toward one pair of cerebrums, and because some of them that excite and transmit the earliest and the most continuously, at the highest density, the widest, and the closest to the center make the others disappear, a limited number of them reach the pair, that is, are caused. Impulses' exciting and transmitting the earliest and the most continuously, at the highest density, the widest, and the closest to the center can be called their being intense. When it is defined so, it is said that when a lot of impulses arise, the most intense ones are caused at once. Accordingly, impulses and the functions dealing with them are a limited function, and each impulse is a limited function.

FUNCTIONAL IMPULSES

    Some of the functional images('sources) just recollected cause the excitements and transmissions of image to emotion neuronal ways and some autonomic sensations. Moreover, some of those autonomic sensations cause impulses. The impulses which are caused by functional images indirectly in such a way can be called "Functional impulses".
    Such functional impulses as are caused by some functional images, which are the images' sources of some intentional functions, become the "motivation" to cause those intentional functions.
    Let us review the generation of autonomic sensations again. Feelings, desires, complex emotions contain or cause some autonomic sensations. Pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives cause some autonomic sensations. Accordingly, emotions contain or cause some autonomic sensations. Pleasure emotions contain or cause some pleasure autonomic sensations, and displeasure emotions contain or cause some displeasure autonomic sensations. In addition, even while displeasure emotions are being caused, if they are reduced, pleasure autonomic sensations are sometimes caused. Emotions' containing or causing some autonomic sensations can be called their Causing some autonomic sensations.
    Now, when an intentional function is caused and when it causes some pleasure emotions or reduces displeasure emotions, and causes some pleasure autonomic sensations intensely, continuously, or continually, the functional images of that intentional function are generated or renewed, memorized, and stored, the image to emotion neuronal ways from them to those pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, and those activities are retained for a while. Next time those functional images are recollected, they cause those activated image to emotion neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, cause those pleasure autonomic sensations, and can cause some functional impulses. In such a way, only when functional images just recollected cause pleasure autonomic sensations, they can cause functional impulses. When they cause some displeasure ones, they cannot cause any functional impulses.
    In such a way, functional impulses are potent functions which refer to pleasure and displeasure in the past and can secure pleasure and prevent displeasure in the future. However, it is not easy to know whether pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations are caused and whether or not functional impulses are caused. For example, though extreme, when we are on board a burning ship only with life jackets, it is dangerous both to stay on board and to jump into the sea. If we have even the slightest expectation for jumping in the midst of the physical and mental pain on board, we will have functional impulses to jump. In such a way, in the midst of a lot of anxiety or fear, even the slightest expectation can cause functional impulses.

LIMITING FUNCTIONS

    There are F, f, LS, and so on like the following at least in higher mammals including human beings.
The set of functions (F = (f1,f2,…)) can arise in a certain situation (S), and
in another situation (LS) which limits F which are caused in a time (this time being a limiting time (LT)) to not more than a number (N), which fluctuate in another situation (FS),
in the case where not more than N of F arise (this case being C1),
all of them are caused with F's simple tendencies to be caused (these tendencies being ST),
and in the case where more than N of F arise (this case being C2),
N of them which have the largest tendencies to be caused containing those to exclude others in LS (these tendencies being TEO) are caused with TEO.
In those, the set of functions (F), the situation (LS) which limits F, and the other functions which treat (F) can be called the "Limiting Function" (LF) in S, elements of the set (f1,f2,…) can be called the "Limited Functions" (lf) belonging LF, the situation (LS) can be called LF or lf's "Limiting Situation", and the tendencies in C1 (ST) can be called lf's "Simple tendencies (to be Caused)", and those in C2 (TEO) can be called lf's "tendencies (to Be Caused) Containing those to Exclude Others".

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the neuronal ways from the neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources to the replay converge. In addition, though a lot of images' sources arise at once, a certain number (N) of them which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center make the others disappear in the converging neuronal ways, reach the replay, and are recollected. Accordingly, recollections of images including those of functional ones are limiting functions, and each complex image's source including each functional image's source which can be recollected is a limited function.
    In addition, as was explained earlier, because impulses diffuse toward the cerebrums, those which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center make the others disappear and reach the cerebrums. Accordingly, impulses including functional ones and the functions treating them are limiting functions, and each impulse including each functional impulse is a limited function.
    Those functions which contain some limiting functions inevitably are themselves limiting functions. Egos which will be explained later contain inevitably the limiting functions of recollections of functional images and those of impulses and the functions treating them. Accordingly, egos are themselves limiting functions.

EGOS' SITUATIONS

    Simply, egos cause intentional functions in situations. Egos mediate between situations and intentional functions. The input is situations, the output is intentional functions, and the black box is egos. Ego's situations are those where intentional functions need to be caused. For example, a situation where I need to cause some interpersonal functions, more concretely, where somebody is knocking at the door or where the telephone is ringing is an ego's situation. If I pretend that I am not at home, it is an interpersonal function, and an intentional function.
    As was explained earlier, situations are divided into external ones and internal ones. The door's being knocked and the telephone's ringing in the above example are external situations. In external situations, the present things are sensed, perceived, and recognized, and egos can be caused.
    Things recollected, associated, and thought and emotions can be recognized and can be egos' internal situation. For example 1, because what have to be done tomorrow are recollected, that is, anticipated, an ego intends to prepare for them. This can be looked upon as the ego's responding to its present internal situation of images just recollected directly and its future external situation indirectly. For example 2, because its own past shameful behavior is recollected as images, an ego intends to escape from the images of those behaviors in such a way as will be explained later. This can be looked upon as the ego's responding to its present internal situation of images just recollected directly and its past external situation and the self indirectly. In such ways, egos respond not only to the present and to external situations but also to the internal situations and to the future, the past, and the self.
    In addition, emotions can be recognized and become egos' internal situations. For example 1, when there is some thirst, it is recognized, and egos intend to drink water. For example 2, when there is some anxiety or fear, it is recognized and egos intend to escape from its cause.

EGOS

    At the beginning of an ego, the situation is recognized, as was explained in "a psychology of animals having memories", on the basis of recognition and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neuronal ways, some images of intentional functions, that is, functional images arise, and some of them are recollected. Simply, some ways to respond with situation are recollected and proposed. For example, the situation where somebody is knocking at the door is recognized, the functional images of pretending not to be at home, making sure who it is and then opening the door, opening the door and then making sure who it is, and so on are recollected.
    It is thinkable that only functional images' sources just recollected and image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions cause functional neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions. That is, it is thinkable that only

(1) RATIONAL SYSTEM:
Recognitions of the situations → recollections of functional images → recollected functional images' sources → activated image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions

cause functional neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions. (1) does not involve any emotions or impulses, and so (1) can be called "Rational Systems". Only such rational systems' causing intentional functions is seemingly more rational and efficient than only emotions' or both rational systems and emotions' causing them.
    However, rational systems are too weak to cause intentional functions by themselves. They need emotions and impulses' support to cause intentional functions. That was often felt to be real through the daily thought that, no matter what a good idea occurs to us, we cannot carry out it without any motivation.
    Above all, even in the time of a second, more than one functional image is usually recollected and proposed. Who or what decide which of those several proposals to adopt?
    It is the fittest for individuals and species to exist to refer to whether or not each intentional function caused some pleasure emotions, did not cause any displeasure ones, or reduced some displeasure ones when it was caused in the past, to foresee whether or not it will in the future, and to decide whether or not to adopt it.
    Accordingly, the above (1) rational system, the following (2) emotional system, and the promotion of (1) by (2) cause the intentional function which is recollected as functional images in (1).

(2) EMOTIONAL SYSTEM:
(functional images' sources just recollected→) activated image to emotion neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions → pleasure autonomic sensations → functional impulses

    Only by (1) alone, it is hard for the image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions in (1) to go through, and they disappear at some synapses. With (2), the functional impulses in (2) change the intra-extra-cellular voltages and lower the thresholds at those synapses and help those excitements and transmissions go through. That is, the functional impulses promote the image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions in (1). Though impulses are rough and cannot make their original functions, they can promote other neuronal groups or ways' excitements and transmissions.
    Metaphorically, (1) rational system proposes some "ways" or "how to do", and (2) emotional system decide which of them to adopt. When a proposal by (1) causes displeasure, (2) reject it. When a proposal by (2) causes pleasure, (2) adopt it. Whether it causes pleasure or displeasure stands on the individual's experience. (1) and (2)'s collaboration is a exquisite function which has evolved in struggles for existence and natural selections.
    From the beginning, rational systems are neutral, and so they cannot decide by themselves whether anything is good or bad. As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", in recollections or associations on the basis of temporal closeness, cause and effect can be recollected as complex images. However, in them, whether the result is good or bad cannot be recollected or judged. However, nobody or nothing has what can judge it directly and absolutely. It can be decided only indirectly and relatively only by whether something is pleasure or displeasure.
    At least in the neuronal system of an individual of higher mammals, (1) rational system, (2) emotional system, and the promotion of (1) by (2) cause the intentional function recollected as functional images in (1). (1) rational system, (2) emotional system, and the promotion of (1) by (2) can be called an "Ego". That is, a certain situation is recognized, some functional images' sources are recollected, some of them cause some activated image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions. Simultaneously, some of the functional images' sources just recollected cause some activated image to emotion neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, and some of them cause some pleasure autonomic sensations. Then, some of them causes some functional impulse. Finally, the most intense of them reach the cerebrums or their periphery and promote image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions and cause some functional neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and the intentional functions recollected as those functional images. In this, the recognition of a certain situation, the recollections of functional images' sources, the functional images' sources just recollected, the image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, the image to emotion neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, the pleasure autonomic sensations, the functional impulses, and the promotion of the image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions by the functional impulses can be called an "Ego".
    Such an ego is the substance of what is called "I" in our daily life. That is, we call what can cause intentional functions "I" or so. In contrast, we call what causes autonomic functions or spontaneous pure mental functions as will be explained later not "I" or so but "my body", "my mind", or so. For example 1, if arrhythmia is caused in the autonomic function of the heart's beat, it is referred to as "a disorder of my body". For example 2, if we suffer depression and if general feelings and desires as spontaneous pure mental functions get deflated, we refer to it as "a disorder of my mind". In contrast, if we steal and if we confess, we say not "my body (or mind) did it" but "I did it". Accordingly, an ego can be called "I", Each of Us, Human Being, Intending to Do an Intentional Function, and so on.

ANOTHER DEFINITION OF FUNCTIONAL IMAGES AND INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    After egos are defined in the above way, functional images and intentional functions can be defined in the following ways, too. The images whose sources can cause the excitements and transmissions of some image to function neuronal ways and those of some image to emotion neuronal ways can be called Functional Images, and the functions which can be caused directly by some egos can be called Intentional Functions.

LIMITING EGOS AND LIMITED EGOS

    Such an ego as was explained in the above section is a limiting function. Let us examine it closely.
    Again, there are F, f, LS, and so on like the following at least in higher mammals including human beings.
The set of functions (F = (f1,f2,…)) can arise in a certain situation (S), and
in another situation (LS) which limits F which are caused in a time (this time being a limiting time (LT)) to not more than a number (N), which fluctuate in another situation (FS),
in the case where not more than N of F arise (this case being C1),
all of them are caused with F's simple tendencies to be caused (these tendencies being ST),
and in the case where more than N of F arise (this case being C2),
N of them which have the largest tendencies to be caused containing those to exclude others in LS (these tendencies being TEO) are caused with TEO.
In those, the set of functions (F), the situation (LS) which limits F, and the other functions which treat (F) can be called the "Limiting Function" (LF) in S, elements of the set (f1,f2,…) can be called the "Limited Functions" (lf) belonging LF, the situation (LS) can be called LF or lf's "Limiting Situation", and the tendencies in C1 (ST) can be called lf's "Simple Tendencies (to be Caused)", and that in C2 (TEO) can be called lf's " Tendencies (to be Caused) Containing those to exclude Others".

(lf) Limited egos
    Each of the functional images' sources which arise in a certain situation can cause a rational system, an emotional system, and the promotion of the former by the latter. Each of them and those which can be caused by it can be looked upon as a function (f). In addition, each of them can be looked upon as an inevitable part of such a function (f). In addition, not only each of the functional images' sources which have arisen but also each of those which have been recollected, the excitements and transmissions of image to function neuronal ways, those of image to emotion neuronal ways, and so on can be looked upon as an inevitable part of such a function (f). In addition, we can make a set (F = (f1, f2, …)). Moreover, when a lot of F arise (C2), F is limited by the limiting situation of limiting recollection and by that of impulses. Accordingly, each of F is a limited function and can be called a "Limited Ego".
(S) Egos' situations
    They were roughly explained in the section "EGOS' SITUATIONS". They will be defined here. Situations can expand endlessly. For example, in an individual, when interpersonal anxiety, which can be recognized and can be an ego's internal situation, it can expand from it to the present interpersonal relations to its past interpersonal relations to the process of the formation of its habits from the baby period, and so on. Though the formation of tendencies, abilities, or habits is the most important, we had better not designate it with the word "situation". It had better be designated with the direct words "the formation of tendencies, abilities, or habits". Accordingly, an ego's situation is defined as the things which can cause egos directly in these books. When it is defined in such a way, in the above example, the ego's situation is only the interpersonal anxiety. Though the formation of the habit of interpersonal anxiety and the egos responding to it is the biggest problem, we will approach to it not as egos' situations but as habits of emotions and egos.
(LS) Limited situation of limited egos
    In order for the whole of a Limited ego is caused, it need to overcome, first, LS1 in the rational system, and second, LS2 in the emotional system.
(LS1) The limiting situation in recollections of functional images, that is, that the complex images' sources which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center make the others disappear in the neuronal ways converging toward the replay, reach the replay, and are recollected is the limiting situation in the rational system.
(LS2) That impulses diffuse toward the cerebrums, those which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center make the others disappear and reach the cerebrums is the limiting situation in the emotional system.
The above LS1 and LS2 are the limiting situation of limited egos.
(LT) The limiting time of egos
    It is a time of seconds. As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", that of recollection of images was milliseconds. It is probable that no limited egos are caused in such a short time. It is probable that no egos are seemingly caused in a time of more than ten seconds when egos are lost in thought. However, egos are causing intentional functions of thinkings one after another then. Accordingly, the limiting time of egos is a time of seconds.
(FS) Situations where N fluctuates
    However, the limited number (N) fluctuate depending on another situation (FS). First, as for recollections of functional images, when one of them is recollected intensely, the others are recollected faintly or not recollected even if they arise, and N gets small. Second, as for functional impulses, when an intense pleasure autonomic sensation is caused and cause an intense functional impulse, the others are hard to reach the cerebrums or their periphery, and N gets small. As a whole, when an intense limited ego is caused, N gets small and sometimes becomes one. For example, when the limited ego intending to escape a very dangerous thing, the others are not caused and becomes one. By the way, somebody may think that it is usually one. However, it is usually more than one because there are inertial egos, which will be explained later. However, excluding inertial ones, it is usually one.
(LF) Limiting egos
    The set of limited egos (F), limiting situations of egos (LS), and the other functions which treat F are a limited functions. They can be called a "Limiting Egos".
    However, if limiting egos and limited egos are always distinguished and if those words are always used, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when it is clear from the contexts which of them the word means, limiting egos or limited egos are called egos in these books.

THE WHOLE OF A LIMITING EGO FROM THE FORMATION OF ITS HABIT

    A Limited ego needs completely to climb the following stairs in order for them to be caused. (1)-(3) of the following are preliminary stages, that is, the stage of the formation of egos' habits.
(1) An intentional function is sensed and recognized, its functional images(' sources) are generated or renewed, memorized, stored.
(2) The image to function neuronal ways from those functional images to the functional neuronal groups causing that intentional function are activated, and their activities are retained.
(3) That intentional function cause some pleasure emotions or reduce some displeasure emotions and cause some pleasure autonomic sensations, the image to emotion neuronal ways from those functional images to those pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, and their activities are retained.
(1)-(3) are repeated.
(4) The situation is recognized, and on the basis of recognition and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neuronal ways, those functional images arise.
(5) Those functional images not only arise but also are recollected.
(6) Those functional images just recollected cause those activated image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions.
(7) The functional images just recollected cause those activated image to emotion neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions, cause those pleasure autonomic sensations, and cause the most intense functional impulses.
(8) Those functional impulses promote those image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmissions.
(9) Those image to function neuronal ways' excitements and transmission reach the functional neuronal groups causing that intentional function.
    When it climbs the whole of (1)-(9), the whole of the limited ego and the intentional function are caused. The most important of them is (7) and, when we trace back to the preliminary stages, (3). The reason will be explained in the section "FORMATION OF HABITS OF EGOS".

AROUSALS OF A LOT OF LIMITED EGOS IN ONE SITUATION

    In one situation, usually, a lot of functional images' sources arise, but a limited number of them are recollected. Moreover, even if a functional image's source is recollected, if it does not cause the most intense functional impulse, it does not cause the whole of the limited ego and does not cause the intentional function. Metaphorically, even if the rational system proposes an intentional function, the emotional system rejects it. In such a way, though a lot of limited egos usually arise in one situation, a limited number (N) of them is caused in a limiting situation (LS).
    For example, when a limiting ego with interpersonal anxiety is in the situation of interpersonal relations where it needs to cause some interpersonal functions, the following limited egos can be caused. By the way, limiting egos' situation in this case contains not only the interpersonal relations but also interpersonal anxiety. In such a way, egos' situations contain not only external situations but also internal ones, as was explained earlier.
    For example, the functional images of interpersonal escapes are recollected (1). However, the necessity to cause some interpersonal functions is recognized, and those functional images cause some displeasure autonomic sensations and do not cause the most intense functional image. Then, the functional images of interpersonal facing up or confrontation are recollected (2). However, those functional images increase that interpersonal anxiety and do not cause the most intense functional impulse. After all, the functional images of vague interpersonal functions which are seemingly facing up to something but actually escaping interpersonal relations are recollected, cause some ease, cause the most intense functional impulse, and cause such an interpersonal function. Those take place in a few seconds.
    However, actually, a lot of concrete and detailed limited egos as follows, for example, arise also in each of (1)(2)(3).
(1-1)Not going to office or school
(1-2)Though going to office or school, escaping the interpersonal relations
(1-3)Faking sickness and being absent
(2-1)Though with interpersonal anxiety, going to office or school and entering the interpersonal relations
(2-2)Improving the interpersonal relations when they are thought to be abnormal
(3-1)Behaving lightly
(3-2)Exhibiting one's appearances which other persons are hard to come close to
However, those, too, are no more an example, actually, more limited egos arise. In addition, limiting egos containing such limited egos function as long as animals having egos are awake. That is, egos are not temporary or special functions but continuous and fundamental ones. Accordingly, egos are different from what is called "conflict" or "hesitation". While the former are continuous and fundamental functions, the latter is temporary and special functions. In addition, egos are different from thinking, which will be closely explained later. Simply, it is egos that decide what to think, what to think of, and how to think. However, egos sometimes manipulate functional images just recollected, think of them and involve thinkings. It will be explained later.
    Usually, the number of the egos being caused at the then present is usually two or three including inertial egos explained later, and excluding them, one. Such egos being caused at the then present can be called "Current" Egos.
    From the beginning, images shift one after another rapidly. So do functional images. So do pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and functional impulses, corresponding to them. In addition, so do situations. Moreover, intentional functions caused by egos change situations. For example, the intentional function of speaking caused by an ego changes the situation of an interpersonal relation and sometimes do so greatly. Accordingly, current egos shift one after another rapidly. Such rapid shifts are not temporary and special states but continuous and fundamental ones.
    If limiting egos, limited ones, and current ones are always distinguished, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when the distinction is clear in the context or is unnecessary, limiting egos, limited ones, and current ones are called Egos in these books.

SUBTLETY OF PLEASURE AND DISPLEASURE AUTONOMIC SENSATION CONTAINED IN EGOS

    If the functional images cause some displeasure autonomic sensations, no functional impulse is caused, the limited ego is not caused, and it end up only with an arousal. However, it is vague whether pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations are caused. For example, when none of the thinkable ways seem to break the deadlock, an only a little better way can cause some pleasure ones like expectation. For example, though extreme, when none of the thinkable way to appeal seem to prevent heavy penalties, the way to prevent the maximum one can cause some hopes. In this way, only a little reduction of pain sometimes cause pleasure autonomic sensations and the whole of the limited ego.
    However, it is an extreme example. Egos are usually not so dramatic but daily ones. For example, when we are about to be late for something, we think that we will be in time if we take a taxi, and an expectation is caused. However, we think that it cost too much, and some anxiety is caused. Then, we compare the cost of being late and that of taking a taxi. If the latter is larger, we think that it is not so bad to be late, and we feel easy. At last, we are late for it. Usual egos are such daily ones.

CONTINUITY OF CURRENT EGOS

    Including such light and heavy egos, egos taking steps, and inertial egos which will be explained later, as long as we are awaken, some current egos are being caused continuously. An example of shifts of current egos will be taken below. A daily example will be taken in order to exemplify that those shifts are continuous and fundamental ones. For example, intending to going out, intending to get up, intending to go to the bathroom, intending to wash myself, intending to dress myself, intending to take the key, wallet, cell phone, and so on, intending to make sure whether I have got everything, intending to go to the door, intending to lock up, intending to make sure whether it has been locked, intending to think how to go, and so on.

EGOS TAKING STEPS

    For example, even if an ego intends to see its boy or girl friend, it cannot do that at once. Some egos need to call him or her, to arrange when and where to meet, to take a shower, to make up, to dress up, and to lock the door of his or her house. Some egos intend to get on a train, but they needs to walk to the station to do that. Walking, some egos should stop at some traffic signals or ignore them. In this case, some egos need to function to stop at them, and some need to function more intensely to ignore them than to stop. While walking some egos think what to do after they get to his or her house. If a thinking finished in vain, another ego needs to start another thinking. After getting to the station, some egos need to get a ticket and in order to do that, a lot of egos need to get to the vending machines, to take his or her purse out of his or her pocket or bug, to take some coins, bills, or a card out of it, to put them into the slot of the machine, to take the change, and to head for the gate. In this way, a lot of egos functions before seeing his or her girl or boy friends and even before getting on a train. In such a way, most intentional functions are steps, egos need to take steps in situations, and most of our daily life is steps.
    Anyway, as long as we are awaken, some current egos are being caused continuously.

OUTLINES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS AND LIMITED EGOS

    Including intentional functions, most things are recognized, and their images sources are generated or renewed, memorized and stored, and while going through memorial neuronal groups diverging one after another, they are classified into some groups. In some of those groups, not only the things belonging to them but also those groups are recollected as images. Closely, some groups are recollected in the background, and the detailed and concrete things belonging to them are recollected in the foreground in detailed and concrete situations. For example, the relations with general human beings are recollected in the background in our daily life, and those with certain persons are recollected in the foreground according to tomorrow's schedule.
    There are such groups (OIs) as are classified and recollected in the above ways in intentional functions, too. For example, escaping is recollected in the background, and detailed and concrete ways to escapes like running away and hiding are recollected in the foreground in concrete situations.
    Moreover, some groups of intentional functions (OIs)' images' sources are classified and recollected in the background in the above ways, the functional images of the intentional functions belonging to them are recollected in their images' foreground, and can cause the limited egos containing those functional images and can cause the intentional functions belonging to them. For example, it is possible that escaping is recollected in the background, that the functional images of running away, hiding, and so on are recollected in the foreground, that escaping's image's sources causes the ego intending to hide and causes the intentional function of hiding.
    Temporarily, such OIs can be called "Outlines" of intentional functions. In addition, the groups of limited egos containing such OIs can be called Outlines of (limited) egos.
  Moreover, the functional images' sources of the intentional functions belonging to an outline cause the excitements and transmissions of the same or the same kind of image to emotion neuronal ways and cause the same or the same kind of autonomic sensations. Accordingly, the tendencies of the limited egos belonging to an outlines are formed together. That is, they are formed while making their outlines units. For example, there is showing off the self as an outline of limited egos. Mostly its tendency is formed by his or her mother's thin love, alienation, and so on in the baby and infant period and is formed together. Though its details are various like talking too much of the self and putting on unique appearance, all of them give other persons the same impression. Accordingly, out of the outlines of limited egos defined above, those whose limited egos' tendencies are formed together can be called Outlines of limited egos again. In addition, the groups of intentional functions which are caused by such outlines of egos can be called Outlines of intentional functions again.
    Some of such outlines can classify intentional functions and limited egos beyond individuals, societies, species, and situations. For example, facing up or confrontation, escaping, and waiting and seeing are the most fundamental outlines of intentional functions and limited egos not only in human beings but also mammals at least. For example, even carnivores escape from natural disaster. Herbivores' escaping instantly from carnivores sometimes increases the risk that the former are found and caught by the latter, and waiting and seeing is sometimes fit for individuals and species to exist. In human beings, facing up or confrontation is different from fighting. For example, not fighting but talking is sometimes facing up.

USAGE OF THE WORD OF OUTLINE

In our daily life and psychology, egos and intentional functions are usually argued making their outlines units. For example 1, this book enumerated the example of facing up, escaping, waiting and seeing again and again, and they are outlines of egos and intentional functions. For example 2, such a usage of words as "he or she is sticky." is often made in our daily life, stickiness is one of outlines of egos and intentional functions. In addition, when the words of "the outline of" or so are always used, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, unless necessary above all, they are omitted in these books. In addition, when the outlines of egos and those of intentional functions are always distinguished and when the words of "of egos" and "of intentional functions" are always used, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, they will be omitted when it is clear which is designated from the context.

SUBGROUPS OF OUTLINES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    It is not the abilities of intentional functions but the tendencies of limited egos that are formed while making outlines units. The abilities of intentional functions are formed while making subgroups in outlines units. For example, in the outline of interpersonal escape, there are subgroups of (1) escaping straightly, (2) escaping stealthily, (3) keeping only superficial interpersonal relations, (4) creating an atmosphere hard to approach, and so on, and their abilities are formed separately. Above all, the ability of (3) and that of (4) rarely coexist.

FUNCTIONAL IMAGES IN EGOS, EGOS' OUTLINES, OBJECTIVE IMAGES IN DESIRES

    It may be thought that functional images in egos resemble objective images in desires. However, from the beginning, functional images can directly cause both the excitements and transmissions of image to function neuronal ways and those of image to emotion ones. In contrast, objective images in desires can directly cause only the latter. Simply, objective images are not linked to intentional functions directly. As a result, while functional images are contained in egos, objective images are not. From the beginning, while functional images are generated by the perceptions of intentional functions themselves directly, objective images are generated through those of not only intentional functions but also their object, means, and so on.
    While the objective images in desires are general and abstract ones, the functional images in egos are particular and concrete ones. For example, the objective images in desires to work consist of the images of making his or her or his or her family's living, gaining experience, and so on. In contrast, the functional images in egos to work consist of the images of meeting certain persons in a certain place at a certain time, drawing up this document now, and so on.
    It may be thought that the images of outlines of intentional functions resemble objective images in desires in another way. It is true that both of them are abstractive. However, outlines of intentional functions can classify intentional functions. In addition, though both outlines of them can cause functional images indirectly, the latter do so more indirectly.
    Accordingly, these books included the images of outlines of intentional functions in functional images and in egos.
    Functional images, images of outlines of intentional functions, egos, egos' outlines, egos' habits are more difficult to recognize in an individual and to talk about among individuals than objective images and desires are. There are facing up or confrontation, escaping, waiting and seeing, adherences, showing off the self, and so on as outlines of egos, there are desire to work, desire to play, interpersonal desires, and so on as desires, and the former will be less familiar than the latter in our daily life or science. Accordingly, the former have rarely been picked up as problems. However, egos' habits are the most important in the personality.
    However, functional images or images of outlines of intentional functions in egos are sometimes recollected from objective images in desires and sometimes cause the pleasure autonomic sensations similar to those in desires, and so desires are important as internal situations of egos together with feelings. For example, in those who have intense desire to play, the egos intending to play are often caused. Of course, if we do not have any time or money, we cannot play. Then, we cannot help being in desires' dissatisfaction. In such a way, situations may be the most important. However, it is egos that change situations and make time and money.

GENERAL IMPULSES AND FUNCTIONAL ONES

    For example, when we are stunned by some sudden changes of the situation, our egos hardly function, and such an impulse needs to be distinguished from functional impulses in egos. It can be thought that such an impulse diffuses into the first half of the rational system, confuse it, and forces the ego hardly to function.

THE PHYLOGENESIS AND ONTOGENESIS OF EGOS

    In human ontogenesis, in general, the human beings in the adolescent period or later have the most clear and intense egos. However, there are some immature egos in the pre-adolescent, infant, and baby period. Though it may be unthinkable that fetuses have any egos, it would be no wonder if they had. For example, they might intend to go out of here.
    In animal phylogenesis, it is probable that such higher mammals as apes, dogs, cats, and so on have some immature egos.

EGOS' HABITS

TENDENCIES FOR LIMITED EGOS TO BE CAUSED

    As was explained earlier, in the case where not more than N of limited egos arise (this case being C1), all of them are caused with simple tendencies to be caused (these tendencies being ST), and in the case where more than N of limited egos arise (this case being C2), N of them which have the largest tendencies to be caused containing those to be caused while excluding others in LS (this LS consists of LS1 and LS2)(these tendencies being TEO) are caused with TEO. A limited ego's tendency is ST in C1 and TEO in C2.
    When the words of limited egos' tendencies "to be caused" are always used, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, with the words of "to be caused" omitted, they are also called merely limited egos' tendencies in these books
As was explained earlier, limited egos can be classified into some outlines, and their tendencies are formed while making their outlines units. Moreover, we can theoretically quantify an outline's tendency as the sum of the tendencies of limited ego belonging to it multiplied by their frequencies. In addition, it is impossible to quantify a countless number of limited egos' tendencies even in an individual, and it make no sense. Accordingly, not the tendencies of limited egos but the tendencies of their outlines are argued from now on. However, if the words of "outlines of" or "' outlines" were always used, the sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, with those words omitted, limited egos' outlines' tendencies are also called their tendencies in these books. For example, tendency of the outlines of adhering, showing off the self, controlling are called tendencies to adhere, to show off the self, and to control.
    However, it is impossible for anybody to identify which neuronal groups and ways store which functional images or which image to emotion neuronal ways stretch from which functional images to which autonomic sensations. In addition, it is impossible to measure the activities of those neuronal groups or ways in living things. Accordingly, their quantification cannot help depending on observing visible intentional functions, measuring measurable autonomic functions, what is called psychological tests, and so on.
    With them, it is possible to evaluate the tendencies of limited egos' outlines which can arise in a certain situation in the form of five-stage evaluation.

EGOS' HABITS

    In addition, the tendencies of limited functions' outlines which can arise in a situation can be made into a matrix. For example, those which can arise in an external situation of interpersonal relation and an internal situation of intense interpersonal anxiety will be (interpersonal facing up, escaping, waiting and seeing) = (2, 5, 3), and after all, escaping will be caused.
    The matrix of tendencies of limited egos' outlines which can arise in a certain situation can be called the "Habit" of limited egos(' outline) in the situation.
    Moreover, the set of the egos' habits in all the situations possible for an individual can be called Egos' Habit (in or of the individual).
    What is called an individual's personality consists of intelligence, knowledge, the habits of mental emotions, intentional functions' abilities, and egos' habit. Egos' habit is the most important of them. Intentional functions' abilities, for example, interpersonal functions' abilities seem to be the most important. However, for example, when the tendency of limited egos' outline of interpersonal escapes is large, egos rarely cause the intentional function of interpersonal function, and interpersonal functions' abilities stay immature more and more. In contrast, when the tendency of interpersonal escapes is reduced, interpersonal functions' abilities start to be developed again. In addition, the habits of mental emotions, for example, the tendency of interpersonal anxiety sometimes seem to be the most important. However, when egos do not cause interpersonal functions in the internal situation of interpersonal anxiety, that anxiety goes more and more intense. In contrast, when egos enter the interpersonal relations which suit the self and cause interpersonal functions, that anxiety is reduced.

FORMATION OF TENDENCIES OF LIMITED EGOS' OUTLINES

  The tendency of an outline of limited egos' getting larger can be called their Formation or Being Formed, and the contrary can be called their Reduction or Being Reduced. In addition, that, in or out of egos' habit (in or of an individual), the tendencies of some of limited egos(' outlines) of egos' habits in some situations are changed can be called egos' habit's "Reformation" or Being Reformed.
    In order to explain the formation of limited egos' outlines, the following are necessary.
    First, a part of the tendency of each limited ego('s outline) is formed innately, and the other part is formed acquiredly in the same way as the other functions' tendencies, abilities, or habits. In the same way as the others', because the part formed innately causes little difference among individuals, acquired formation and the part formed acquiredly is important. Accordingly, we need to concentrate on the part formed acquiredly.
    Second, the limited egos which have the largest tendencies containing those to exclude the others are caused in C2. Accordingly, it is the difference among the tendencies of limited egos(' outlines) in each individual that matters. Components' tendencies, abilities, or habits, whether they are formed innately or acquiredly, which cause little or no difference among them are not important. We need to pay attention to not only the difference among individuals but also that among limited egos(' outlines) tendencies. Those which cause the former but do not cause the latter are not so important.
    Third, each limited ego consists of a rational system, a emotional system, and the promotion of the former by the latter. Accordingly, each limited ego's tendency contain their tendencies. Accordingly, we needs to explain each of their tendencies before each limited ego's tendency is explained.
    Fourth, their tendencies need to be researched while divided into the two cases of C1 and C2.
    Fifth, the changes of their tendencies in innate and acquired disorders and growing and aging need to be explained to a degree.

INNATE FORMATION AND ACQUIRED FORMATION

    It is acquired formation that are important for limited egos' tendencies. However, it is not that no parts of them are formed innately, but that innate formation causes little difference among individuals and among limited egos' outlines, and that it is not so important.
    From the beginning, neurotransmitters, receptors, their activities, neurons in themselves, neuronal groups and ways themselves, their primary activities before activation, their capabilities of being activated, and the value of threshold are mostly formed innately. However, some of them of some neuronal groups cause considerable difference among individual. In addition, some of them of some neuronal groups contained in limiting and limited egos do so. Above all, some of them of the neuronal groups which cause autonomic sensations and functional impulses contained in emotional systems of egos do so. From the beginning, some of them of the neuronal groups which cause autonomic sensations contained in general mental emotions do so. For example, some persons have not interpersonal anxiety or that about solitude but general anxiety, and such a tendency, ability, or habit of general anxiety is formed mostly innately. However, though the innate formation of tendencies, abilities, or habits of emotional systems and emotions cause some difference among individuals, they cause little difference among the tendencies of limited egos' outlines in each individual. For example, those who have general anxiety are cautious in doing anything, and are cautious in both escaping and facing up. In addition, they are cautious not only in interpersonal relations but also in doing anything by themselves.
    In contrast, image to emotion neuronal ways are acquiredly activated, and such formation causes the difference among not only individuals but also the tendencies of limited egos(' outlines). For example, when a child is alienated in interpersonal relations, not general but interpersonal anxiety is formed, the tendency of interpersonal escapes is formed, and being alone cause some ease.
    In contrast to emotions and emotional systems, rational systems of egos, and general memories, perceptions, association, and thinkings are as follows.
    Complex images' sources are all generated, renewed, memorized, and stored acquiredly. Their storages are important as what is called "experience" or "knowledge" in general memories, perceptions, associations, and thinkings and rational systems of egos. They cause much difference among individuals and among the tendencies of limited egos(' outlines). For example, though it is a pity, we cannot help saying that the children who are brought up in a destructive group get intense tendencies to destroy. That is also because a lot of destructive intentional functions by others are intensely perceived and because a lot of their functional images are intensely generated. In addition, that is also because they are praised for much destruction and are blamed for little destruction.
    In contrast, the neurotransmitters, receptors, their activities, neurons in themselves, neuronal groups and ways themselves, their primary activities before activation, their capabilities of being activated, and the value of threshold are formed mostly innately. However, they cause considerable difference of what is called "intelligence" among individuals in associations, thinkings, and so on. For example, what is called "IQ" causes the difference among individuals which ranges from 80 to 160 even within the normal range. Though it is a pity, we cannot help saying that they cause considerable difference among individuals in scholastic performance.
    In contrast, there is no evidence that intelligence cause any difference among the tendencies of limited egos(' outlines). In those who have low intelligence, it is not that these or those tendencies of rational systems' outlines are low, but that they are low in general.
    From the beginning, in contrast to general images' sources, functional images' sources can cause the excitements and transmissions of image to function neuronal ways and image to emotion neuronal ways, and they are generated in the situations different from those where general complex images' sources are generated. Those situations is closer to daily life and reality than scholastic ones. Accordingly, the tendencies of limited egos containing rational systems are little affected by scholastic knowledge or intelligence and are formed originally. Limited egos' tendencies and egos' habits, which are the matrices of them, are distinct from scholastic knowledge or intelligence. The former are the tendencies or habits to exist in daily lives and interpersonal relations. The latter are those to perform technical work. Accordingly, those who are excellent in the latter do not always cope with the interpersonal relations at home and office.

INNATE OR ACQUIRED DISORDERS

    The innate disorders, the disorders in the prenatal period, and those at delivery in central nervous systems bring the retardation of tendencies of rational systems as well as the tendencies, abilities, or habits of memories, perceptions, associations, thinkings, and so on. In addition, natural aging reduces their tendencies, abilities, or habits slowly, dementia do so rapidly, and head injuries and cerebrovascular diseases do so suddenly.
    However, there is no evidence that they cause any difference among the tendencies of rational systems or limited egos(' outlines).
    In contrast, the tendencies, abilities, or habits of emotions and of emotional systems of egos are less affected by the above disorders. Simply, emotions and emotional systems are strong against them. However, in depressive episode, chronic phase of schizophrenia, and so on, those of emotions and emotional systems are reduced in general. However, it is in general that they reduce those of emotions and emotional systems, and they do not cause much difference among the tendencies of limited egos(' outlines).

TENDENCIES OF RATIONAL SYSTEMS

    First, if no functional images' sources are generated, memorized, or stored, no limited egos are caused. If there are no abilities of the generations, renewals, memorizations, and storages of functional images' sources, no functional images' sources are generated. Those abilities are those of memorial neuronal groups diverging. However, as was explained earlier, their abilities are formed mostly innately, as long as there are no disorders as were mentioned earlier, they make little difference among individuals. Above all, they treat any functional images' sources equally and cause no difference among the tendencies of rational systems or limited egos(' outlines). What is important for this stage is not their abilities but which intentional functions of others persons and the self are perceived how often and which functional images' sources are generated and renewed how intense. Metaphorically, it is not memorial neuronal groups converging as forms but the contents which are accumulated in them. It results in the activities of the neuronal groups and ways explained later.
    Second, if no situations are recognized, no limited egos are caused. However, their abilities are formed mostly innately, as long as there are no disorders as were mentioned earlier, they make no difference among individuals. Above all, they cause no difference among the tendencies of rational systems or limited egos(' outlines).
    Third, if no functional images' sources arise from recognitions of situations, no limited egos are caused. What results in the tendencies of their arousals is (1) the activities of neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual functional images' sources and (2) those of the neuronal ways among them. (2) can be divided into (2-1) those of neuronal ways among them on the basis of recognition and similarity and (2-2) those of neuronal ways among them on the basis of temporal closeness. Neuronal ways in (2-1) are activated mostly innately, and make no difference among individuals, as long as there are no disorders as was mentioned earlier, and result in little difference among the tendencies of rational systems and limited egos(' outlines). (1)(2-2) result in the difference among individuals and that among the tendencies of rational system and limited egos(' outlines) according to which of them are activated how much. Temporarily, (1) and (2-2) are important.
    Fourth, if there are no abilities of the neuronal groups which the functional images' sources that have arisen go through and those of the replay which they reach, no functional images' sources are recollected. It is memorial neuronal groups converging toward the replay that they go through. However, their abilities are formed mostly innately, as long as there are no disorders as were mentioned earlier, they cause no difference among individuals. Above all, it is impossible that they tend to let certain functional images' sources go through or to replay certain ones. They treat any sources equally, and cause no difference among the tendencies of rational systems or limited egos(' outlines).
    Fifth, the neuronal groups which the functional images' sources that have arisen go through converge and contain the limiting situation (LS1). This is the question. Here we need to divide cases into C1 where not more than N of limited egos arise and C2 where more than N of them arise in rational system. In C1, as was explained in the fourth paragraph, all of the functional images' sources that have arisen are recollected. In C2, those which have the largest tendencies to excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the widest, and the closest to the center (TEO) make the others disappear, reach the replay, and are recollected in the converging neuronal group. What result in TEO is the above (1)(2-1)(2-2). However, (1)(2-1) have nothing to do with the earliness, density, wideness, and closeness to the center. Accordingly, what decide TEO is (2-2), that is, the activities of neuronal ways among individual functional images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness, and that they are activated with a few synapses, at high density, widely, and close to the center.
    Sixth, even if functional images' sources are recollected, if no image to function neuronal ways excite and transmit, no limited egos or intentional functions are caused. In order for image to function neuronal ways to excite and transmit, they need to be activated acquiredly to a degree.
    Image to function neuronal ways are activated by functional images' sources' being generated, renewed, memorized, and stored and simultaneously by intentional functions being caused. In addition, their activities compose not only limited egos' tendencies but also intentional functions'. However, it is the activations of function to function neuronal ways that are the most difficult and important for intentional functions' abilities to be formed. In the internal situations where intentional functions can be caused, they have already been activated. Accordingly, their activities are not so important for limited egos' tendencies.
    On those grounds, what decides the tendencies of rational systems of limited egos(' outlines), is (2-2) the activations of neuronal ways among individual functional images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness and that they are activated with a few synapses, at high density, widely, and close to the center.

TENDENCIES OF EMOTIONAL SYSTEMS

    If no functional impulses in emotinal systems promoted the excitements and transmissions of image to function neuronal ways in rational systems, no limited egos could not be caused. If no functional impulses reached the image to function neuronal ways or their periphery, none of their excitements and transmissions could not be promoted. As was explained earlier, functional impulses are limited by the limiting situations in emotional systems (LS2). That is, in the case where a lot of them arise, the most intense of them make the others disappear, reach the cerebrums, and promote rational systems. The intensities of functional impulses are the most direct tendencies of emotional systems.
    Let us go back to what results in the most intense functional impulses. Pleasure autonomic sensations cause functional impulses. What results in the most intense of functional impulses is the autonomic sensations whose pleasure is the most intense. However, little part of the tendencies, abilities, or habits of autonomic sensations and functional impulses are formed acquiredly and cause any difference among individuals or among the tendencies of emotional systems or limited egos(' outlines).
    Let us go back further. Image to functional neuronal ways are activated acquiredly, and their activities are formed acquiredly and cause some difference among individuals and much difference among the tendencies of emotional systems and limited egos(' outlines). Which image to emotion neuronal ways are activated how much decides the tendencies of emotional systems and limited egos(' outlines).
    Moreover, let us go back to the stage of the formation of tendencies. What decides which image to emotion neuronal ways are activated how much is which emotions and autonomic sensations are caused how intensely by which intentional functions are caused in trials how often.

TENDENCIES OF LIMITED EGOS

    The abilities of emotional systems' promotion of rational systems are formed mostly innately and do not cause any difference among individuals and among limited egos.
    Now what is decisive in the tendencies of limited egos(' outlines). Whether it is the most decisive in rational systems or that in emotional systems.
    As was explained earlier, rational systems propose some intentional functions as functional images, and emotional systems decide which of them to adopt and to carry out with autonomic sensations and functional impulses. In the time of seconds, several intentional functions are proposed as functional images. Such proposals by rational systems include intentional functions common to general human beings. It is emotional systems that decide which of them to adopt and carry out. Accordingly, emotional systems are more important than rational ones in egos. Accordingly, what decides the tendencies of limited ego('s outlines) is which image to emotion neuronal ways are activated how much. When we go back to the stage of the formation of tendencies, what decides which image to emotion neuronal ways are activated how much is which emotions and autonomic sensations are caused how intensely by which intentional functions are caused in trials how often. For example, in the infant period, in a situation of interpersonal relation, when an infant try to cause interpersonal functions, when it is not alienated, when it enjoyed itself, and when those are repeated twice or thrice a week for months, the tendencies of limited egos' outline of interpersonal facing up or confrontation is formed. In contrast, when it was alienated again and again, the tendencies of limited egos' outline of interpersonal escape is formed.
    Again, the tendencies of limited egos are formed while making their outlines units.

FORMATION AND REFORMATION OF EGOS' HABITS

    Again, the matrix of tendencies of limited egos' outlines which can arise in a certain situation can be called the "Habit" of limited egos(' outline) in the situation. Moreover, the set of the egos' habits in all the situations possible for an individual can be called Egos' Habit (in or of the individual). What is called an individual's personality consists of intelligence, knowledge, the habits of mental emotions, intentional functions' abilities, and egos' habit. Egos' habit is the most important of them.
    Again, that, in or out of egos' habit (in or of an individual), the tendencies of some of limited egos(' outlines) of egos' habits in some situations are changed can be called egos' habit's "Reformation" or Being Reformed. Simply, it is personalities' change that some elements belonging to some matrices change.
    In addition, above all, that general tendencies of limited egos(' outlines) get larger before and in the adolescent period can be called egos' habit's Formation, and that it changes after it can be called egos' habit's Reformation.

EGOS' HABITS AND INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS' ABILITIES

    It is egos' habits that decide which intentional function belonging to which outline is caused. In contrast, it is intentional functions' abilities that decide how well or poor that intentional function is caused. For example, even if an ego decides to cause an interpersonal function, if interpersonal functions' abilities are immature, that interpersonal function is clumsy, and some others may ridicule it. However, if a tendency of interpersonal escapes in egos' habits is formed and if egos rarely cause interpersonal functions, interpersonal functions' abilities stay more and more immature.
    As was explained earlier, egos' habits is formed mainly by the activations of image to emotion neuronal ways. In contrast, intentional functions' abilities are formed mainly by those of function to function neuronal ways. Please do not forget that egos' habits are distinct from intentional functions' abilities.
    In addition, please do not forget that the tendencies of limited egos' outlines are elements of matrices, and that egos' habits are matrices.

PURE MENTAL INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS AND SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    Intentional functions will be closely explained before some other things about egos are explained. That is because the understanding of the former will help that of the latter.
    When egos have been defined in the above way, intentional functions are defined as the functions which can be caused directly by egos.
    An ego and the intentional functions caused by it can be called an "Ego and Intentional Function" or Intending to Do Intentional Functions and Doing them.
    When we want to make sure whether or not a function is an intentional function, let us examine whether or not we can do it instantly by intending to do it. For example, we can bend our elbow joints instantly by intending to do so, and so bending elbow joints is an intentional function and is included in unitary voluntary movements which was explained earlier. In addition, not only unitary but also complex voluntary movements are included in intentional functions. For example, though we cannot walk instantly when we sit down, we can stand up instantly, and we can walk instantly after we stand up. Accordingly, standing up and walking are intentional functions. In such a way, voluntary movements including unitary and complex ones are included in intentional functions. However, not only voluntary movements but also the following are intentional functions. For example, when a circle and a square are recollected to us, we can inscribe the former into the latter or inscribe the latter into the former instantly by intending to do so. Doing those are intentional functions and are included in manipulations of images which will be explained later. In contrast, for example, feelings like anxiety and fear cannot be felt instantly by intending to feel, and so they are not intentional functions.
    Intentional functions are divided into voluntary movements and synthetic functions which were defined earlier and manipulations of images and thinkings which will be explained later. Manipulations of images include combining, dissolving, transforming, and so on. Thinkings are divided into ones in a narrow sense, retracings, forecastings, and daydreamings. Human synthetic functions include speaking words, writing words, eating, drinking, sexual functions, studying, working, playing, interpersonal functions, and so on. In human beings, even sexual functions can be looked upon as intentional functions. In human beings, only sexual drives cannot cause sexual functions. They usually need to agree to do it, to take off clothes, to go to the bed, lay themselves on it, and so on, and a sexual function of a human being can be looked upon as an intentional function whose most part consists of those intentional functions.

SPONTANEOUS PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS

    Voluntary movements and synthetic functions are all intentional functions. In contrast, in pure mental functions, sensations, perceptions, associations, feelings, desires, complex emotions are not directly caused by any egos. They are sometimes caused or changed indirectly by egos. For example, when egos escape interpersonal relations, interpersonal anxiety is reduced. However, it is only indirectly that it is changed. They are caused not directly by egos but what is called "spontaneously". Accordingly, they can be called "Spontaneous" Pure Mental Functions.
    In contrast, manipulations of images and thinkings which will be defined later are pure mental intentional functions.

MANIPULATIONS OF IMAGES

    Intentional functions include not only voluntary movements and synthetic functions which were explained earlier but also manipulations of images which will be defined in this section and thinkings which will be defined in the next section.
    The following are caused at least in human beings.
(1)How to manipulate some images just recollected (ri) are sometimes recollected as functional images (fi),
(2)the ego which involve (fi) are caused,
(3)and (ri) are manipulated in the way of (fi).
Such (3) is an intentional function. Such (3) can be called egos' "Manipulation of Images" or Manipulating Images, and (1)(2)(3) can be called an Ego's Manipulating Images.
    More complicated pure mental intentional functions like thinking, retracing, forecasting, daydreaming, and so on consist of some associations and manipulations of images.
    Manipulations of images include the following. Simple examples of them will be taken. Please try.

(1)Combining images
Circumscribing two circles' images which were separated.
(2)Dissolving images
Separating two circles' images which were circumscribed.
(3)Transforming images
Transforming a circle's image into an ellipse's.
(4)Bringing images closer
Bringing a person's face's image closer which was recollected farther.
(5)Taking images farther
Taking a person's face's image farther which was recollected closer.
(6)Switching images
Taking a person's face's image farther or extinct which was recollected closer by bringing another person's face's image closer which was recollected farther.

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", images just recollected have comparative quantity, and they are comparatively "intense or faint". That is, recollections of images have comparative quantity, and they are recollected comparatively "intensely or faintly". However, because such quantity is easy to understand with visual images in the case of manipulations of images, being intense or faint is also called being "Close or Far" visually and metaphorically in these books. Each ego can bring images more intensely (closer) which was recollected more faintly (farther). This can be called Bringing Images Closer, and the contrary can be called Taking Images Farther. However, the latter is harder than the former. Far from that, the harder an ego tries to take images farther, the closer they will get, and the more persistently they will be recollected. That is because the image which an ego intends to take farther are being recollected as a part of the functional image in that ego. From the beginning, it is impossible for each ego to directly make unrecollected images recollected. In addition, it is hard or impossible to directly make images just recollected unrecollected, that is, to extinguish them completely. In addition, a limited number (N) or less of images are recollected at once. When some images are recollected intensely, (N) gets smaller, and the other images are recollected faintly or are not recollected. In addition, recollections of images have not only intensity in a short time but also persistence in a long time. For example, the objects of anxiety will be recollected persistently. On those grounds, it is only by bringing some other images closer that each ego can take some images farther which were recollected intensely and persistently. An Ego's taking some images father which were recollected intensely and persistently by bringing some other images closer can be called the ego's "Switching" images from some images to some other images. It is hard or impossible for each ego to what is called "repress" images. Each ego usually switches images.
    Moreover, when an image is causing an intense displeasure feeling like anxiety, self-hatred, shame, and so on, in order to reduce that displeasure feeling, any trifling image can be what is switched to. For example, any trifling merit of the self's or demerit of others' can be it. An ego's switching from an image causing intense displeasure feeling to others and reducing that displeasure feeling can be called the egos' "Escaping" (from) that image or Escape of that image. The contrary is "Facing Up" to that image. These books never say that we should not escape from anything and never say that we should face up to everything. They explain what we need to face up to.
    Without any manipulations of images by egos, complex images are generated only in memories which was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". However, by egos' combining images, dissolving them, transforming them, combining them again and again, more complicated complex images are generated.
    In addition, the images manipulated by egos are memorized intensely. Simply, what we pay attention to are memorized, and the contrary are not.

UNITARY MANIPULATIONS OF IMAGES AND COMPLEX ONES

    Manipulations of egos are similar to voluntary movements to a degree in the following way.
    The manipulations of images which are inseparable into smaller ones can be called "Unitary" Manipulations of Images. For example, combining and dissolving two images and bringing closer and taking farther one image are included in them.
    In contrast, manipulations of images each of which consists of more than one unitary one can be called "Complex" Manipulations of Images. For example, combining a lot of images is included in them, and they can be called "Construction" of Images. However, construction of complex images is usually done in thinkings. In addition, complicated dissolution of complex images is usually done in thinkings.
    In switching images explained earlier, if images go farther spontaneously by bringing other images closer, it is sometimes included in unitary ones. In contrast, if image are taken farther even a little when other images are brought closer, it is included in complex ones.

FORMATION OF ABILITIES OF MANIPULATIONS OF IMAGES

    Out of the excitements and transmissions of the neuronal groups causing intentional functions, those causing voluntary movements go from functional neuronal groups (unitary or complex ones), which are in the frontal lobes, to the lower part of nervous systems and reach striated muscles. In contrast, it can be thought that those causing manipulations of images, if functional neuronal groups are in the frontal lobes, go back to the occipital lobes, temporal lobes, or parietal lobes or that functional neuronal groups themselves are in the latter. In such a way, while the location of the neuronal cells' bodies of the functional neuronal groups causing voluntary movements have already been specified in frontal lobes, it has not been made clear yet whether or not the location of those causing manipulations of images is in frontal lobes.
    Anyway, the unitary functional neuronal groups causing unitary manipulations of images are innately activated. In addition, the abilities of manipulations of images do not contain the contractile force of striated muscles and the flexibility of joints which are formed innately and acquiredly. Accordingly, the abilities of unitary manipulations of images are formed more innately than those of unitary voluntary movements are. This degree of innate formation is considerable.
    The abilities of complex manipulations of images contain the activities of function to function neuronal ways, and they are acqiredly activated. Accordingly their abilities are formed more acquiredly than those of unitary ones.
    However, the abilities of manipulations of images are formed even if egos do not cause any voluntary movements. Simply, they are formed while we are idle and daydreaming. Accordingly, the abilities of unitary manipulations of images are formed more easily than those of any other intentional functions, and those of complex ones are formed more easily than those of any other complex intentional functions and pure mental ones and any synthetic functions. Accordingly, it is probable that babies who can hardly cause voluntary movements play with manipulations of images. Then they can reduce boredom.
    There is little difference among individuals concerning the abilities of manipulations of images. However, the frequency and intensity of escaping images cause some difference among individuals. However, that difference of frequency and intensity is caused not by that of intentional functions' abilities but by that of the tendency of limited egos' outline of escaping images and by egos' habits. A person whose tendency to escape images is large escapes the self's immaturity and the very tendency to escape images recollected as images and cannot face up to them.
    In contrast, if there were smoothness or clumsiness in escaping image, it would be caused by the ability of the intentional function of escaping images. However, it is not so important.
    Not only while sensations are repeated but also while manipulations of images and thinkings by egos are repeated, complex images' sources are formed, they come to be used in recollections of images, perceptions, associations, mental emotions, egos, manipulations of images, thinkings, and synthetic functions, and they are reformed in sensations, manipulations of images and thinkings.
    While manipulations of images are repeated, image to image neuronal ways are activated on the basis of temporal closeness, and the permutations which were caused by manipulations of images come to be caused in associations and thinkings. However, it is the formation of the abilities of associations and thinkings. That is, manipulations of images contribute to that formation.

THINKINGS

    As was explained earlier, sensations, recollections, perceptions, and associations, are spontaneous pure mental functions, and they are caused without egos. In contrast, manipulations of images and thinkings are not spontaneous ones but intentional ones, and none of them are caused without egos. They can be called "Pure Mental Intentional Functions".
    Human recollections of images, perceptions, associations, egos, manipulations of images, and thinkings almost always contain some lingual images. However, if the phrase of "containing some lingual images" was always used, the sentence would be complicated. Accordingly, it is usually omitted in these books.
    At least in each human being, the repetition of (some spontaneous pure mental functions of recollections of images and associations) and (some pure mental intentional functions of manipulations of complex images recollected in them by egos) sometimes compose one function. Such repetitions can be called "Thinkings". For example, some problems are recollected as complex images, an ego brings closer some of them and propound them, some answers are associated, another ego manipulate some of them, and another ego brings closer some of them and adopt them or take them farther and reject them, and the same problems or some problems related or remaining are recollected, and the same are repeated. Such a repetition is the typical example of thinkings.
    Egos at least bring problems closer and propound them and intend to think of them. Accordingly, thinkings are included in intentional functions and in pure mental ones.
    However, some manipulations of images contained in a larger thinking are often replaced by smaller thinkings. For example, in a larger thinking caused by a larger ego, a smaller ego often causes not only manipulation of images of problems or answers but also thinkings of some of them. In addition, sometimes, such smaller thinking are prolonged and replace the larger thinkings. When a larger thinking contains smaller thinkings, both are called thinkings in these books.
    Here is a multilayer structure where a larger thinking caused by a larger ego contain manipulations of images and smaller thinkings caused by smaller egos. In addition, when egos are paid attention to, there is a multilayer structure of egos where a larger ego contains smaller ones. In addition, when thinkings are paid attention to, there is a multilayer structure of thinkings where a larger thinking contains smaller ones.

EGOS CONTAINING THINKINGS

    To the contrary, sometimes, in a larger ego, smaller egos manipulate or think of functional images just recollected, that is a larger ego contains manipulations of images and thinkings caused by a smaller egos. For example, in the situation where egos need to cause some intentional functions but do not need to cause them at once, smaller egos think of functional images slowly. In addition, it sometimes happen that while a smaller ego is thinking, another situation break out, and the larger ego is replaced by another one. In addition, while a smaller ego is thinking of functional images, a smaller thinking contained in a larger ego sometimes becomes a larger thinking containing smaller egos. For example, while we practically think how the self should do, we sometimes come to philosophically think what the self is.
    Here is a multilayer structure where a larger ego contains manipulations of images and thinkings by smaller egos. In addition, when egos are paid attention to, there is a multilayer structure where a larger ego contains smaller egos. However, it is smaller egos that cause manipulations of images and thinkings differently from that explained above where a thinking contains manipulations of images and thinkings.

CONTINUITY OF THINKINGS AND EGOS

    When we look over those multilayer sructures, both egos and thinkings seem to be continuous. However, strictly, they are caused not continuously but continually or intermittently.

THINKINGS IN A NARROW SENSE, RETRACINGS, FORECASTINGS, AND DAYDREAMINGS

    Thinking where recollections of the real, the past, the future, or the unreal are dominant can be called Thinkings in a narrow sense, "Retracings", "Forecastings", or "Daydreamings" respectively.
    Thinkings include those where manipulations of images or smaller thinkings are dominant and those where associations are dominant. In the latter, thinkings seem to be caused spontaneously. What is called "thinking random things and then coming to oneself" is that the latter change into the former.

MENTAL FUNCTIONS AND LANGUAGE

    Again, images almost always contain some lingual images in human recollections of images, perceptions, associations, egos, manipulations of images, and thinkings. If no language had been generated, no complicated mental functions could have been generated. In contrast to complicated ones, simple ones can be generated. For example, in newborns, who have not acquired a single word, feelings like anxiety, fear, expectation, and so on occur, and their objective images are recollected. In such a way, feelings and desires sometimes contain no lingual images.
    In addition, it seems that thinkings are the most complicated, and that language is the most dominant in them. However, it is not always true. For example, after an ego manipulated lingual images, some words are sometimes recollected according to acquired grammar and usage in associations for seconds. Language can be more dominant in associations than in egos in this case. In addition, it is probable that egos transcend language in manipulations of images and thinkings.

CONSTRUCTIONS, DISSOLUTIONS, BEING FORGOTTEN OF COMPLEX IMAGES

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", without egos, manipulations of images, or thinkings, complex images are generated by the repetition of sensations. As was explained earlier, they are constructed and dissolved also by manipulations of images. However, complicated ones are constructed, dissolved, and reconstructed in thinkings.
    Some complex images are combined, dissolved, or transformed through egos' manipulations of images in a thinking, and memorized, stored, and recollected in a memory, and again combined, dissolved, or transformed, and the same are repeated. In such a way, some complex images get more complicated when combinations are dominant, some get simpler when dissolutions are dominant, and some are simply forgotten in the way that were explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". In thinkings of an individual, a complex image's getting more complicated when combinations are dominant can be called its "Construction" or Being Constructed, its getting simpler when dissolutions are dominant can be called its "Dissolution" or Being Dissolved, and a complex image's being constructed after being dissolved can be called its "Reconstruction" or Being Reconstructed.
    Dissolutions and reconstructions are harder and more important functions than constructions are. For example, the dissolution of the Creation and the reconstruction of evolutionism were hard or impossible for some people in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and even now. However, from the beginning, the complex images which are rarely manipulated or thought by egos are usually not dissolved but forgotten simply.

IDEAS = THOUGHTS

    Some of the complex images' sources are not only constructed, dissolved, and forgotten in each individual in the way that was explained in the above section but also transmitted with spoken words, written words, arts, and so on in the human society and history, some of them are again constructed, dissolved, and forgotten in each individual, transmitted with spoken words, written words, arts, and so on, and the same are repeated. Such complex images constructed, dissolved, forgotten, and transmitted in such a way or their sources can be called an "Idea" or "Thought".
    By being manipulated, thought, and transmitted, an idea's getting more complicated when combinations are dominant can be called its Construction or Being Constructed, an idea's getting simpler when dissolutions are dominant can be called its Dissolution or Being Dissolved, and an idea's being constructed after being dissolved can be called its Reconstruction or Being Reconstructed.
    Dissolutions and reconstructions of ideas in the society and history are harder than those of complex images in each individual. That is because those who have gotten powers and profits through old ideas strive to protect old ones and to destroy new ones. This was typified by the idea of Ptolemaic system against that of Copernican one, the idea of monarchy against that of democracy, and the idea of the Creation against that of evolution.

REALITY

    Without any egos, complex images are all generated only in memories. All the images that have been generated only in memories without any egos are real. More accurately, no reality can be a problem without any egos.
    In contrast, by manipulations of images in thinkings, some unreal images are generated, and the reality becomes a problem. In addition, around the reality, some research, dispute, and so on are caused.
    In addition, human beings construct some unreal complex images intentionally in literature, art, and so on. This is a "Fiction".
    Moreover, human beings construct seemingly real and actually unreal complex images intentionally. This is a "Lie".
    In addition, human beings construct seemingly real and actually unreal images unintentionally. This is close to an "Illusion" or "Misunderstanding".

FORMATION OF ABILITIES OF THINKINGS

    Each thinking consists of recollections of images and associations and manipulations of images and smaller thinkings by egos.
    As was explained earlier, the abilities of manipulations of images are formed mostly innately.
    The major part of the abilities of recollections of images and associations are activities of image to image neuronal ways, above all, those on the basis of temporal closeness and which of them are activated how much. That is, the abilities of associations are formed mostly acquiredly.
    Accordingly, the abilities of thinkings are formed more innately than those of associations are and more acquiredly than those of manipulations of images are.
    However, when some manipulations of images are repeated in or out of thinkings, some image to image neuronal ways are activated on the basis of temporal closeness, and the permutations of the recollections of images which were caused by those manipulations of images comes to be caused by an association. Such permutations of recollections of images is what is called "ways to think", ways of thinkings, or "how to think". Simply, they come to be caused spontaneously without egos' manipulations. Accordingly, the abilities of thinkings are formed mostly acquiredly.
    Such abilities of thinkings are, first, formed through listening to and reading words spoken and written by other persons. Second, they are formed also through manipulations of images caused by individuals by accident. The second are original and makes ideas evolve. However, it is egos in or out of thinkings that evaluate and adopt accidental ones. That is, it is not accidental manipulations of images but egos that make ideas evolve.
    By the way, there are outlines of intentional functions of thinkings of escaping, facing up, and waiting and seeing, and so on. However, they are caused not by abilities of thinkings but by tendencies of outlines of limited egos and by egos' habits. When we look over them, we find that the most important is not thinkings' abilities but egos' habits.

SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS

    Intentional functions are classified into unitary and complex voluntary movements, manipulations of images, and thinkings explained earlier, and synthetic functions explained above. Synthetic functions, as was explained earlier, consist of voluntary movements and pure mental functions. However, those pure mental functions include not only spontaneous ones but also pure mental intentional functions of manipulations of images and thinkings by egos. For example, speaking words is a synthetic function where we perceive our own spoken words, think and confirm whether they are correct, think what to speak, that is, their contents, and speak them. Synthetic functions include speaking words, writing words, calculating, operating machines, and interpersonal functions.
    In addition, a larger synthetic function contains smaller ones. For example, the various interpersonal functions in a group from its meeting to dissolving for hours can be looked upon as a larger interpersonal function.
    A synthetic function contains not only spontaneous pure mental functions of recollections of images, perceptions, and associations without egos but also voluntary movements and pure mental intentional functions of manipulations of images, thinkings, synthetic functions by egos. Here is a multilayer structure where a larger synthetic function caused by a larger egos contains voluntary movements, manipulations of egos, thinkings, and smaller synthetic functions caused by egos. When egos are payed attention to, there is a multilayer structure of egos where a larger ego contains smaller egos.

ABILITIES OF SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS

As was explained earlier, a synthetic function consists of recollections of images, perceptions, and associations without egos and voluntary movements, manipulations of images, and thinkings by egos. Synthetic functions are different from thinkings in that the former contain perceptions and voluntary movements. Accordingly, the abilities of synthetic functions are different from those of thinkings in that the former contain those of perceptions and voluntary movements.
    Perceptions consist of sensations and recollections of images, and the abilities of perceptions consist of those of them. The abilities of recollections of images are mainly the activities of image to image neuronal ways, above all those on the basis of temporal closeness, they are contained in those of associations and thinkings, and they are formed mostly acquiredly. In contrast, the abilities of sensations are formed or disordered innately and acquiredly. Accordingly, though it is pity, if sight or hearing are law through innate or acquired disorder or natural aging and if they are not made up by any other abilities, we cannot help saying that the abilities of synthetic functions are more or less law.
    The abilities of unitary voluntary movements consist mainly of (1) the contractile force of striated muscles and the flexibility of joints, and those of complex voluntary movements consist mainly of (1) and the activities of function to function neuronal ways. (1) are formed innately and acquiredly and are not developed or are reduced through innate or acquired disorder or natural aging. (2) are activated acuiredly are not gained or are reduced if voluntary movements are not caused again and again. Though it is pity, if their abilities are law and if they are not made up by some other abilities, we cannot help saying that the abilities of synthetic functions are more or less law.
    By the way, there are outlines of intentional functions of synthetic functions of escaping, facing up, and waiting and seeing, and so on. However, they are caused not by abilities of synthetic functions but by tendencies of outlines of limited egos and by egos' habits. When we look over them, we find that the most important is not thinkings' or synthetic functions' abilities but egos' habits.
    However, there are some formation of abilities which only synthetic functions enjoy. While synthetic functions are repeated, the neuronal ways between (functional neuronal groups and function to function neuronal ways) and (neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources and image to image neuronal ways among them) are activated, the egos' manipulations of images , and thinkings in synthetic functions, and egos go faint, and synthetic functions come to functions, as it were, semi-automatically. The activities of those neuronal ways are incorporated in synthetic functions' abilities in themselves.
    For example, writing letters like a, b, c,… is a synthetic function. When a child who is learning letters writes them, it confirms whether or not those recollected are correct in thinkings, how to write them is recollected as functional images, its egos function, it writes them through complex voluntary movements, and again they confirm whether or not the written is correct. However, while those are repeated, egos' manipulations and thinkings and egos in writing letters go faint, and it come to proceed half-automatically. The same things happen in speaking and writing words, operating typewriters, computers, and other machines, and so on.
    In such a way, synthetic functions also come close to semi-automatic intentional functions which will be explained later.

SUBGROUPS OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    The subgroups explained in this section and the following section are distinct from the outlines of egos, those of intentional functions, or their subgroups which were explained earlier. Please do not forget it.
    The intentional functions most important for us, human beings, are interpersonal functions, and the abilities most important are those of interpersonal functions. A little more closely, we find that there are special interpersonal functions like serious ones, superficial ones, and businesslike ones and that their abilities are formed separately to a degree. For example, in a person whose ability of serious intentional functions are much developed, those of businesslike ones are often underdeveloped, and his or her work efficiency are low quantitatively, but he or she sometimes does a good job qualitatively.
    When we review them in such a way, we find that, excluding unitary voluntary movements, there are "subgroups" in intentional functions, and their abilities are formed separately to a degree. For example, even the abilities to walk gracefully, with dignity, simply, and so on are formed separately to a degree, and it is hard for those who have walked gracefully suddenly to walk simply.

SUBGROUPS OF THINKINGS

    In the same way as in the other intentional functions, also in thinkings, there are subgroups like mathematical, scientific, legal, economic, daily, political, administrative thinkings, and their abilities are formed separately to a degree. For example, legal and political thinkings are different and are formed separately to a degree. Simply, judges' ways to think and politicians' are very different.

COMPLICATED EGOS

MULTILAYER STRUCTURE OF EGOS

    At first, the egos where their functional images are recollected clearly and intensely and their functional impulses are caused intensely can be called clear and intense egos. To the contrary, the egos where their functional images are recollected vaguely and faintly and their functional impulses are caused faintly can be called vague and faint egos.
    As was explained in the above chapter, there are the following structure concerning intentional functions.

(1) A larger thinking caused by a larger ego contains manipulations of images and smaller thinkings caused by smaller egos.
(2) A larger synthetic function caused by a larger ego contains manipulations of images, thinkings, and smaller synthetic functions caused by smaller egos.
(3) A larger ego contains manipulations and thinkings of functional images caused by smaller egos.

    In (1)(2), when the larger ego starts the larger intentional function, the functional images in the larger ego are recollected clearly and intensely, the functional impulses in it are caused intensely, and the larger ego is caused clearly and intensely. In contrast, when the smaller egos cause the smaller intentional functions, the smaller egos are caused clearly and intensely, and the larger ego is caused vaguely and faintly. Accordingly, such a multilayer structure of egos are possible.
    In (3), when the larger ego starts, the larger ego is caused clearly and intensely. In contrast, when the smaller egos start intentional functions, the smaller egos are caused clearly and intensely, and the larger egos are caused vaguely and faintly. Accordingly, such a multilayer structure is possible.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS AS STEPS OR MEANS

    When the multilayer structures are cleared in the above chapter, we find that the stepping egos which were explained in the chapter "EGOS" are the egos in the structure (1)(2) and that the smaller intentional functions in (1)(2) are steps or means for the larger intentional function. More closely, in (1), the manipulations of images and smaller thinkings which are contained in the larger thinking are steps or menas for the latter, and in (2), the voluntary movements, manipulations of images, thinkings, and smaller synthetic functions contained in the larger synthetic function are steps or means for the latter.
    For example, making up, thinking which dress to put on, and putting it on in order to see her boy friend are steps and means. In addition, so is confirming how much the fare to the destination is and getting the ticket in order to get on the train. So is getting on the train in order to see her boy friend. So is washing tubes for some experiments, and so are some experiments for some researches. When we look over them, we find that most of daily life and science are steps or means.
    Here is the multilayer structure of egos as follows. Functional images from general and abstract ones to particular and concrete ones are recollected, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations from weak and vague ones to intense and clear ones are caused, and functional impulses from broad and weak ones to narrow and intense ones are caused. In addition, the original general and abstract functional images keep recollected as, as it were, backgrounds. For example, going back to the above example, the ego to see her or his boy or girl friends is in the background, the ego to walking to the station and that to going out are in the middle, and the ego to making up and that to dress up are in the foreground.

EGOS INVOLVING THINKINGS

    Sometimes in each of the egos of human being, after functional images are recollected, not pleasure autonomic sensations are recollected soon from those functional images but egos manipulate and think of those functional images and modify them, and those modified functional images cause some pleasure and displeasure sensation, the whole of the ego, and the modified intentional function. Here is a multilayer structure of egos (3) where a larger ego contains or involve manipulations of images and thinkings by smaller egos. Such a large ego can be called an Ego Containing or Involving Thinkings, and such manipulations of images and thinkings caused by smaller egos can be called Thinkings Contained or Involved in Egos.
    Such egos containing or involving thinkings can be caused in the situation where more than one intentional function can be caused and which give us the time enough to think which to select. That time is between tenths of a second and seconds.
    In the situation where more than one intentional function can be caused but which does not give us that time, when an ego containing some thinkings is caused, that ego ends up halfway, and halfway or no intentional functions are caused. Such intentional functions are also experienced in sports.
    When the thinkings involved in egos are prolonged and when their time is exceeding that time, what is called hesitation or irritation is caused.
    When there are that time enough to think but when egos think none or little of functional images, what is called short-circuit is caused.
    In the situation where only one or a few intentional functions can be caused, that is, in that where the choice is few, egos either think none of functional images or, if they think, only confirm them. When egos involving thinkings in the multilayer structure of (3) causes intentional functions in the multilayer structures of (1)(2), the larger intentional functions are being caused, the longer the thinkings involved in egos are, and the shorter intentional functions are being caused, the shorter or nothing they are. That is because the smaller intentional functions are being caused, the more surely they are steps or means and because the more surely they are steps or means, the fewer the choice is.

THINKINGS DEVIATING FROM EGOS

    (1) Some thinkings involved in egos sometimes deviate from the original egos and get independent. Thereafter, (1-1) some of the thinkings come back into the original ego, (1-2-1) some change into other thinkings, and (1-2-2) some go into other egos.
    (1-2-1) sometimes develops into the technical thinkings in science, psychology, philosophy, law, economics, politics, and so on.
    All the same, thinkings are caused by egos and involve manipulations of images and thinkings by egos, and egos are caused mainly by emotional systems. For example, even technical thinkings are more or less penetrated into by the egos intending to get degrees or prizes, to become researchers and get a salary, or so, and at most by the egos intending to reach the love for the truth, that is, "Eros".
    In addition, the problems causing displeasure feelings are rarely thought by egos' escapes of images which were explained earlier. For example, such psychologists as are alienated at home are sometimes unable to research alienation deeply.

EMOTIONS AS INTERNAL SITUATIONS FOR EGOS

    As was explained earlier, in general, the situations of bodily functions in an individual are divided into external situations and internal situations. So are those of egos.
    The most important of egos' external situations are, of course, interpersonal relations. They are important in order to live, to work, to study, and to play.
    The most important of egos' internal situations are the self's emotions.
    Emotions are perceived, egos think how to increase or maintain pleasure and to reduce displeasure in situations, some functional images are recollected from those ways, and egos cause some intentional functions. For example 1, when intense hunger is perceived, of course, egos think how to get and eat some food. For example 2, when we perceive some fear of or anxiety about something, we think how to escape it and prevent danger. Reducing the pain of fear and anxiety is a way to prevent danger, too. Perceiving both external situations and internal ones, above all, to emotions seems to be the fittest function.

EGOS CAUSED BY DESIRES

    As was explained earlier, the pleasure feeling caused by the images of getting, having, or having something to do with a thing is the "Desire" for that thing or to get, have, or have something to do with that thing, and that thing is the object of that desire. In addition, the images(' sources ) of that object is the objective image of that desire.
    Objective images of desires are distinct from functional images of egos. Objective images are more abstract and general. In addition, they do not cause the excitements and transmissions of image to functional neuronal ways or image to emotion neuronal ways directly. However, sometimes, objective image of desire indirectly cause functional images of egos, the pleasure autonomic sensations of desire indirectly cause those of egos and the functional impulses of egos, and after all, desires indirectly cause egos. For example, desires for money indirectly cause concrete egos and concrete intentional functions like working overtime, saving, and gambling.
    In addition, egos hesitate among contradictory desires. In addition, as was explained in the above section, egos are affected by feelings. From the beginning, egos are affected by pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives, which are physical emotions. It is difficult or impossible for egos to resist emotions. From the beginning, the main part of an ego is not the rational system but the emotional system. Simply, egos are on the side of emotions from the beginning, and it is no use telling egos to resist emotions.

EGOS' HABITS AND IMMATURITY OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS' ABILITIES

    Let us take the most important example. When a baby or infant suffers mental or physical pain like violence, neglect, and alienation in its home or its periphery in the infant period, intense interpersonal anxiety continues thereafter. As a result, even if interpersonal functions are recollected as functional images, they cause intense displeasure autonomic sensations similar to interpersonal anxiety. In contrast, when interpersonal escapes are recollected as functional images, they cause slight pleasure ones similar to expectation. When most of the autonomic sensations are intense displeasure, such slight pleasure causes the most intense functional impulse and causes an ego intending to escape interpersonal relations. When such interpersonal escapes are caused continuously or continually, the tendencies of outlines of limited egos of interpersonal escapes are formed. Then, few interpersonal functions other than escapes are caused, the abilities of intentional functions of interpersonal functions are hardly formed, and they remain immature. Then, the child is alienated more and more. Then, interpersonal anxiety increase more and more. Those are repeated. Those are a vicious circle.

ESCAPING IMAGES

    Images just recollected can cause some image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions and some pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations. That is a feeling or a desire in short. In addition, functional images just recollected can do the same. That is a part of an ego. Moreover, egos can switch images in such a way as was explained in the section "Manipulations of images". Surprisingly, egos can switch from images causing displeasure ones to some others and can reduce displeasure ones temporarily. This can be called egos' escaping images or escapes of images. It is not a special one but is a usual intentional function by egos in our daily life. For example, we sometimes try not to think of our own shameful deeds, and it contains escapes of images.
    However, it is only mental pain that can reduce in such a way. Physical pain can never be reduced by manipulating images. From the beginning, egos can change mental emotions, which are caused by images just recollected, only temporarily and indirectly by manipulating images.
    The most serious is that egos escape from the self's falling functions and habits recollected as images, as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". Because the self's falling functions and habits like those of adherence, showing off the self, and so on recollected as images cause intense pain like anxiety, self-hatred, shame, and so on, egos switch from them to those of their powers, appearance, and so on and escape from them. As a result, falling habits are hardly reduced. This is the most vicious circle of all.

INTENSITIES OF LIMITED EGOS

    More than one limited ego (e1, e2, …) is often caused at once. For example, when we are thinking while walking, the limited ego intending to think and that intending to walk are caused at once. In such a case, there are some comparative differences among the intensities and clearnesses of recollections of functional images, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, and functional impulses of (e1, e2,…). For example, when we are thinking of a complicated thing (e1) while walking on a familiar street (e2), those of e1 are caused more intensely and clearly than those of e2. In such a case, e1 can be called an "Intense Limited Ego" and e2 a "Faint Limited Ego".
    Moreover, it is probable that the functional images of e3 are recollected the most clearly and intensely and that the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and functional impulses of e4 are caused the most intensely. For example, when we are walking on a steep path (e3) while we are thinking of changing the route (e4), the functional images of e4 are recollected more clearly and intensely than those of e3, and the pleasure and displeasure sensations and functional impulses of e3 are caused more intensely than those of e4. In such a case e3 can be called a "Limited Ego with Intense Emotion" or an Emotional Limited Ego, and e4 a "Limited Ego with Intense Rationality" or a Rational Limited Ego.
    In addition, the same applies to the limited egos (et1, et2,…) caused one after another in seconds or minutes. For example 1, when we are home (et1) and then are going out on a holiday (et2), the recollections of functional images, the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, and functional impulses of et2 are caused more intensely and clearly than those of et1. In this case, et1 can be called a faint limited ego, and et2 an intense limited ego. For example 2, when we begin to destroy something with fury (et3) and refrain from doing that (et4), the functional images of et4 are recollected more clearly and intensely than those of et3, and the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and functional impulses of et3 are caused more intensely than those of et4. In this case, et3 can be called a limited ego with intense emotion or an emotional ego, and et4 a limited ego with intense rationality or a rational limited ego.
    When there are such differences among outlines of egos which were explained earlier, such differences are caused by habits of egos which were explained earlier, and most of them are formed acquiredly. In addition, when there are such differences among sets of outlines, such differences are caused by falling habits which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS", and most of them are formed acquiredly.
    Not depending on such outlines or their sets, if there are some differences among the intensities and clearnesses of the recollections of functional images, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, and functional impulses of general limited egos, the following (1)-(4) are thinkable.

(1) depends on some functional or organic disorders of the neural system including the ego. For example, drugs abuse.
(2) depends on some natural changes of the neural system including the ego. For example, just after awakening or before falling asleep.
(3) depends on the confusion of the rational system by the intense impulses caused by some intense emotions. An example was taken earlier.
(4) depends on the seeming intensity and clearness by the tendencies of outlines of limited egos intending to represent the self's thinkings and emotions intensely and clearly. This is not the intensity or clearness of egos in themselves.

SEMI-AUTOMATIC INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    For example, egos can think of the way to see a boy or girl friend of theirs, while walking to the station, and while carrying a bag. Thinking (1), walking (2), and carrying (3) are all intentional functions. In such a way, it is possible that more than one ego and intentional function is caused at once. However, (2)(3)'s egos are vague and faint, and (2)(3) can be looked upon as going on as, it were, "automatically". However, such intentional functions as can go on automatically are confined to unitary and complex voluntary movements. Synthetic functions and pure metal intentional functions cannot do so. In the above example, (1) cannot do so. Such intentional functions as can go on automatically can be called "Semi-automatic" Intentional Functions.
    The word "automatic" was modified by the prefix "semi-" for the following reason.
    Egos are functioning actively when they begin even semi-automatic intentional functions and when some great changes concerning the intentional functions are caused in the situation. For example 1, when we are beginning to walk, egos do so while thinking which route to take. For example 2, when the bag is slipping off the hand or shoulder, egos hold it while thinking how to prevent slipping.
    In addition, also when the complex voluntary movements which are being formed are caused, egos are functioning actively. For example, when a baby walks, its immature egos almost always intend to walk. In addition, even in adults, in order to cause semi-automatic intentional functions in difficult situations, egos are almost always functioning. For example, when we are walking noiselessly, our egos are almost always functioning.
    By the way, thinkings often seem to go on automatically. However, thinkings consist of associations and manipulations of images by egos. Though the thinkings where associations are dominant often seem to go on automatically, associations are not intentional functions but spontaneous mental functions. Such spontaneousness and automaticity need to be distinguished. While spontaneousness is spontaneous from the beginning, automaticity was intentional at the beginning.
    However, as was explained earlier, in thinkings, while manipulations of images are repeated, image to image neuronal ways are activated, the permutations of recollections of image which were caused in manipulations of images come to be caused in associations, spontaneousness gets larger, and it sometimes seems that thinkings are caused semi-automatically.
    In addition, synthetic functions contain voluntary movements, and it can be said that synthetic functions contain the semi-automaticity of voluntary movements. Accordingly, when that semi-automaticity gets larger, the synthetic function comes closer to a semi-automatic intentional function. In addition, as was explained earlier, when a synthetic function is repeated, the neuronal ways between unitary functional neuronal groups or complex functional neuronal groups (unitary functional neuronal groups and function to function neuronal ways among them) and image to image neuronal ways are activated, and synthetic functions come closer to semi-automatic intentional functions. For example, it seems that synthetic functions like speaking and writing words and operating machines, while they are repeated, come to be caused semi-automatically.

INERTIAL EGOS

    As was explained in the above sections, when semi-automatic intentional functions are caused and when intentional functions as steps or means are caused, egos which are clear and intense at the beginning but which are vague and faint thereafter are caused. Such egos can be called "Inertial" Egos. Simply, most of our daily life is inertial.

EGOS' LIBERTY

    Now, we find that seemingly free egos indulge themselves with their own habits and inertia and emotions and are not so free. Moreover, egos indulge themselves with their own falling habits which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". However, in the way that will be explained in that same book, egos can decrease their own falling habits. When egos do that, they get the closest to freedom. Please let us go on to "PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS"

References

A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES

A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS

EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY


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