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SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES
― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES

    This "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" can be called "this book". This book, "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", and "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" can be called "These Books". These books can also be looked upon as a book, and each of them can also be looked upon as a chapter of the book. These books as a book can also be called "A TRILOGY ON PSYCHOLOGY". These books, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "SEPARATING EACH STATE POWER INTO THE TWO SYSTEMS OF THAT OF THE RULE OF LAW PROTECTING LIBERAL RIGHTS AND THAT OF THE HUMAN RULE SECURING SOCIAL RIGHTS", and "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS" can also be called These Books.

THINGS IN THEMSELVES AND THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

THINGS IN THEMSELVES AND THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    Things excluding time and space are completely divided into the two groups of things in themselves and things appearing as mental phenomena which will be explained below. That is, there are no remains or overlaps in this division.
    Material things, material functions, bodies, bodily functions, nervous systems, nervous functions, neurons, neurons' excitements and transmissions, molecules, atoms, nuclei, neutrons, protons, electrons, universal gravitation, electrostatic force, magnetic force, and so on can be called "Things in Themselves".
    In contrast, sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, tastes, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, images, ideas, and so on can be called "Things Appearing as Mental Phenomena", Things Appearing as Phenomena, Things Appearing. They can also be called "Phenomena" or Mental Phenomena. However, we need to distinguish things appearing on sensations, things appearing as images, things appearing to me, things appearing to you, things which appeared in the past, things which will appear in the future, things appearing to me at present, things appearing to each of us at the then present, and so on. We can distinguish them by using the words of "Things Appearing" and so on more easily than by using those of "Phenomena" and so on. Accordingly, they are mainly called "Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena)" in these books. In order to prevent misunderstanding, it is better to add the words of "as mental phenomena". However, when they are always added, sentences will be complicated like "things appearing as individual images as mental phenomena". Accordingly, usually they are not added in these books.
    Things appearing as mental phenomena consist of things appearing on sensations and things appearing as images. Things appearing on sensations include things appearing on visual sensations, things appearing on auditory sensations. For example, a sight is a thing appearing on a visual sensation, and a sound is a thing appearing on an auditory sensation. Things occurring to me, things which are thought, expected, remembered, and imagined are included in things appearing as images. The details of things appearing will be explained in the chapter "THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA."
    In things appearing (as mental phenomena), the time when none of them exist is nothing, and the time when some things appearing existed momentarily jump over that when none exist to that when some other things appearing exist, and the first time and the third are continuous. For example, when we suddenly fall into a deep sleep or loss of consciousness and suddenly wake from it, we feel that its time is nothing or a moment. This is not true when that sleep contains dreams or accompanies nocturnal awakening or when that loss of consciousness accompanies gradual increase or decrease.

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL THINGS AND THEIR PROPERTIES

    That a thing are spatially continuous or is a point, a line, or a plane can be called the thing's being "Spatial", and that a thing is temporally continuous or continual or is a moment can be called the thing's being "Temporal".
    While things excluding the time are completely divided into things in themselves and things appearing (as mental phenomena), things excluding space and time are completely divided into spatial and temporal things and their properties which will be explained below.
    The things which are spatial and temporal, that is, the things which are spatially continuous or are points, lines, or planes and are temporally continuous or continual can be called "Spatial and Temporal Things". For example, material things, bodies, nervous systems, neurons, sights, and sounds are spatial and temporal things.
    Each spatial and temporal thing has some things which are not completely spatial. The things which a spatial and temporal thing has and which are not completely spatial can be called the "Properties" of the spatial and temporal thing, the Properties which the spatial and temporal thing has, the things which the spatial and temporal thing has as Properties, or the Properties attributed to the spatial and temporal thing. For example 1, universal gravitation is not completely spatial and is one of the properties which every material thing has. For example 2, excitement and transmission is not completely spatial and is one of the properties attributed to every neuron.
    The things which every spatial and temporal thing has as properties can be called the properties "Attributed to Every" spatial and temporal thing. Every spatial and temporal thing has spatial relative positions, temporal relative positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes as properties, and so they are some of the properties attributed to every spatial and temporal thing. Moreover, for example, universal gravitation is one of the properties attributed to every material thing, and excitement and transmission is one of the properties attributed to every neuron.
    Spatial positions and temporal positions are only relative. When the relativity do not need to be emphasized, spatial relative positions can be called "Spatial Positions", and temporal relative positions are called "Temporal Positions".
    Moreover, most properties of spatial and temporal things have some things which are not completely spatial. For example, universal gravitation has direction and quantity. Excitement and transmission has frequency and duration. The things which a property of a spatial and temporal thing has and which are not completely spatial can be called the Properties of the property, the Properties which the property has, the things which the property has as Properties, or the Properties attributed to the property. For example, universal gravitation has direction and quantity as properties of the property. A neuron's excitement and transmission has frequency and duration as properties of the property. Moreover, each of the properties (1) of a spatial and temporal thing often has some properties (2), and each of the properties (2) sometimes have some properties (3), and the same are repeated. Then, (1)(2)(3), or so can be called First Properties, Second Properties, Third Properties, or so. For example, universal gravitation is a first property, and its direction and quantity are second properties. Excitement and transmission is a first property, and its frequency and duration are second properties. When spatial and temporal things are looked over, it turns out that most first properties have some second properties. It is often unclear whether a property is a first one, a second one, or so of a spatial and temporal thing. For example, as for the universal gravitation of a material thing, it is also thinkable that its mass is its first property, that its universal gravitation is the property of its mass, and that its universal gravitation is its second property. However, in most cases in both our daily life and science, it does not matter whether a property is a first, second, or so one. Accordingly, without serious problems, first properties, second ones, third ones, or so can be called Properties simply. In addition, the first properties which a spatial and temporal thing has, the second properties which those first properties have, the third properties which those second properties have, and so on can be called the properties which the spatial and temporal thing has.
    Things in themselves and things appearing as mental phenomena include their own spatial and temporal things and their own properties respectively.

spatial and temporal thingsproperties
things in themselvesspatial and temporal things in themselvesproperties of spatial and temporal things in themselves
things appearing
as mental phenomena
spatial and temporal things appearing
as mental phenomena
properties appearing as mental phenomena


    The spatial and temporal things which are included in things in themselves can be called Spatial and Temporal Things in Themselves. Material things, bodies, nervous systems, and neurons are included in spatial and temporal things in themselves.
    The properties of spatial temporal things which are included in things in themselves can be called the Properties of Spatial and Temporal Things in Themselves or Properties in Themselves.
    Every spatial and temporal thing has spatial positions, temporal positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, their changes as properties, and every spatial and temporal thing in itself has them as properties in themselves. They are some of the properties in themselves attributed to every spatial and temporal thing in itself. Moreover, spatial and temporal things in themselves excluding vacuums have mass, universal gravitation, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so on as properties in themselves.
    The spatial and temporal things which are included in things appearing as mental phenomena can be called Spatial and Temporal Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena). For example, sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, tastes, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, images, and ideas are spatial and temporal things appearing. It turns out that the example enumerated earlier was their example. However, properties appearing, which will explained below, are included in things appearing.
    The properties of spatial temporal things which are included in things appearing as mental phenomena can be called the Properties of Spatial and Temporal Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena) or Properties Appearing (as Mental Phenomena). Every spatial and temporal thing has spatial positions, temporal positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes as properties, and every spatial and temporal thing appearing has them as properties appearing. They are the properties appearing attributed to every spatial and temporal thing appearing. Moreover, for example, colors as qualities and brightness as a quantity are the properties appearing attributed to every spatial and temporal thing appearing on a visual sensation, high-low as a quality and loudness as a quantity are the properties appearing attributed to every spatial and temporal thing appearing on an auditory sensation.
    In such ways, not only spatial and temporal things appearing but also their properties appear. For example, colors and brightness appear on a visual sensation, and high-low and loudness appear on an auditory sensation. Simply, we see colors. Accordingly, the words of "properties appearing" will be used more often than those of "properties of spatial and temporal things appearing" from now on.
    However, the meaning of properties appearing can extend. For example, virtue or vice appearing as complex images, that is, ideas can be properties appearing attributed to human beings appearing as complex images. However, such things as appear only as complex images are not included in properties appearing in these books.
    When they are defined in such a way, mass, universal gravitation, and so on are not properties appearing but properties of material things included in things in themselves. It is premised that the wavelength of light included in things themselves is represented as colors included in properties appearing and that that of sound wave included in things in themselves is represented as tone included in properties appearing.

WHOLES AND PARTS

    The space has the spatial whole and parts. The time has the temporal whole and parts. For example, the time has the eternity as the temporal whole and has the past, the present, and the future as temporal parts. The whole of the space and that of the time in a true sense are endless. However, a part of them can be looked upon as the whole. For example, a day has the time for 24 hours as the temporal whole and has the morning and the afternoon as temporal parts.
    A spatial and temporal thing has the spatial whole, spatial parts, the temporal whole, and temporal parts. For example, a neuron has its cellular membrane and its contents as the spatial whole and has a neuronal body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon diverging into a lot of small ones at its terminal as spatial parts. Things appearing on a visual sensation have the continuity of sights from awakening to falling asleep as the temporal whole and has that of day sights and that of night ones as temporal parts.
    While a spatial and temporal thing has the spatial whole and parts and the temporal whole and parts, a property has the whole and parts of its own which are different from them. The latter are not as clear as the former. For example, excitement and transmission which is a property of a neuron has postsynaptic transmission, excitement, presynaptic transmission, and pause as parts of a property, and they are not as clear as a neuronal body, dendrites, and an axon which are spatial parts of a neuron.

the wholeparts
spacethe spatial wholespatial parts
timethe temporal wholetemporal parts
a spatial and temporal thingthe spatial whole
the temporal whole
spatial parts
temporal parts
a propertythe whole of the propertyparts of the property

THINGS

    There are some recognition of some properties which will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES" in the beginning of every mental function like recollections of images, perceptions, associations, mental emotions, egos, thinkings, and so on. In addition, some parts of sensations sources which have some properties are cut, and individual images' sources are generated. Accordingly, animals including human beings can perceive, associate, or think only what already has some properties. Accordingly, every common noun designates a thing which already has some properties. For example, the word "water" has designated a thing which has being the most clear and being the most fluid as properties since before the discovery of the distinction between solids, liquids, and gases and of the elements of hydrogen and oxygen. Accordingly, including things in themselves, things appearing as mental phenomena, spatial and temporal things, properties, first properties, second properties, and so on, what already have some properties can be called "Things". For example, a property of a spatial and temporal thing which already has some properties can be called a property. Things include things in themselves, things appearing as mental phenomena, spatial and temporal things, and properties which were explained earlier.

NECESSARY PROPERTIES

    Moreover, everything has some properties without which it could not be looked upon that thing in our daily life and science. For example, a neuron without the ability to excite or transmit could not be looked upon as a neuron. The properties without which a thing could not be looked upon as that thing in our daily life and science can be called the "Necessary Properties" of or for the thing. For example, the necessary properties of a neuron are being a cell, having a neuronal body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon, and having the ability to excite and transmit are the necessary properties of a neuron.
    When a thing's necessary properties are caused, the thing has already been caused or generated. When a thing's necessary properties continue, the thing continues. That a thing keeps its necessary properties and gets, loses, or changes some other properties is looked upon as the thing's "Changing" or being changed. Changing in such a way is also looked upon being included in continuing.
    A thing's losing some of its necessary properties is looked upon as the thing's being "Changed into" another thing, "Disappearing", "Aging", or "Dying". For example, a neuron's losing its ability to excite and transmit is looked upon as its being aging or dying.
    When a thing causes some other things, it is directly or indirectly, often indirectly that it does so. For example, it is directly that plants' photosynthesis causes oxygen. It is indirectly through digestion, absorption, synthesis of protein, and so on that water and food cause animal bodies. However, if the words "directly or indirectly" were always used, sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, unless specially necessary, such words will be omitted in these books.

MATERIAL THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

MATERIAL THINGS

    The spatial and temporal things in themselves which consist of some particles like molecules, ions, atoms, neutrons, protons, electrons, and so on, and which they go out of and come into, but which retain their necessary properties can be called "Material Things". For example, a spatial and temporal thing in itself which consists of particles like molecules, ions, and so on, and which they go out of and come into, but which retain the necessary properties of being a cell, consisting spatially of a neuronal body, a lot of dendrites, an axon diverging into a lot of small ones at its terminal, and having the ability to excite and transmit as necessary properties can be called a neuron, and it is included in material things.
    Genes, cellular membranes, cells, neurons, nervous systems, bodies, and so on also consist of particles like molecules, ions, and so on. Though they are described as living, having life, or so, they are included in material things. Simply, they are only material things. In bodies, though we look upon nervous systems as special things which have mind, spirit, or so, they are included in bodies and in material things.
    Vacuums are also penetrated by some particles like photons. Vacuums have spatial positions and temporal positions as properties. Also about the properties like mass, universal gravitation, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so on, vacuums can be looked upon as having those properties whose quantities are zero ones. In contrast, the space cannot be looked upon as having such properties. Vacuums are different from the space. Accordingly, vacuums are included in material things in these books. When material things are defined in such a way, they are the same as spatial and temporal things in themselves.
    Material things have not only spatial positions, temporal positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes but also mass, universal gravitation, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so on as properties. They are the properties attributed to every material thing.

FUNCTIONS

    Every material thing has some properties (F) or the tendencies or abilities to cause some properties (F) each of which has the following properties of (a) and (b).

(a) The whole or part of each of the properties (F) is caused or changed directly or indirectly by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties' being caused or changed.
(b) The whole or part of each of the properties (F)'s being caused or changed causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties directly or indirectly.

    The properties (F) which a material thing has or has the tendency or ability to cause and each of which has the properties of (a) and (b) can be called the material thing's "Functions", the Functions which the material thing has, the things which the material thing has as Functions, the Functions attributed to the material thing, or Functions or Material Functions simply.
    This is a strict definition. The second properties of (a) and (b) can be simplified a little more as follows.
    As was explained earlier, when a thing causes or changes some other things, it do so directly or indirectly, often indirectly. However, if the words "directly or indirectly" were always used, sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, the words are usually omitted in these books, and they are omitted here, too.
    In addition, unless anything is caused or changed, it does not causes or changes any other things, and so strictly, the words "by …' being caused or changed" and "…'s being caused or changed" are necessary. However, because such a representation will complicate sentences, the words are usually omitted in these books and are omitted here, too.
    Then, (a) and (b) are simplified as follows.

(a') The whole or part of each of the properties (F) is caused or changed by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties.
(b') The whole or part of each of the properties (F) causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties.

    Moreover, if the words of "being caused or changed" and "causing or changing" were always used, sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, being caused or changed or causing or changing are also called Being Caused or Causing in these books. Then, (a)(b) are more simplified as follows.

(a'') The whole or part of each of the properties (F) is caused by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties.
(b'') The whole or part of each of the properties (F) causes the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties.

    Simply, the properties (F) which a material thing has or has the tendency or ability to cause and each of which has the properties of (a'') and (b'') can be called the material thing's "Functions", the Functions which the material thing has, the things which the material thing has as Functions, the Functions attributed to the material thing, or Functions or Material Functions simply.
    Let's apply functions to concrete things. Every material thing has universal gravitation as a property. The whole of its universal gravitation is changed by the wholes of all the other material things', and the whole of its universal gravitation changes the whole of all the other material things'. Accordingly, every material thing has universal gravitation as a function, and universal gravitation is included in functions. Every neuron has the ability to excite and transmit as a property. The whole or part of its excitement and transmission are caused by the whole of some other neurons' or sensory cells', and the whole of its excitement and transmission causes the wholes or parts of some other neurons', muscle cells' excitement and contraction, or secretory cells' excitement and secretion. Accordingly, every neuron has excitement and transmission as a function, and excitement and transmission is included in functions.
    The functions which material things, bodies, nervous systems, or so have can be called material functions, bodily functions, nervous functions, or so. Functions and material functions are the same. (Material) functions include bodily functions and nervous functions. Human functions include walking upright on two legs, running alike, doing the crawl, the butterfly, and so on, speaking words, writing words, calculating, playing, studying, working, and interpersonal functions.
    Again, the whole or part of a function is caused or changed directly or indirectly by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties and causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties directly or indirectly. After all, the other material things or properties by the wholes or parts of which the whole or part of a function is caused or changed directly or indirectly are endless, and we cannot enumerate all of them. For example, when we enumerate the other material things or properties by the wholes or parts of which the whole or part of a neuron's excitement and transmission is caused, they include some other neurons or sensory cells' excitements and transmissions, photons, sound waves, physical or chemical stimuli, and what cause or change them, and so they are endless. In addition, the other material things or properties the wholes or parts of which a function causes or changes directly or indirectly are endless, and we cannot enumerate all of them. For example, when we enumerate the other material things or properties the wholes or parts of which the whole of a neuron's excitement and transmission causes or changes, they include some other neurons' excitements and transmissions, muscle cells' excitements and contractions, secretory cells' excitements and secretions, sensations, memories, voluntary movements, involuntary movements, and what are caused or changed by them, and so they are endless. In our daily life and science, the self-evident of such endless things are omitted. In addition, the excessively indirect are omitted. Also in these books, they have been omitted and will be omitted. For example, when neurons' excitements and transmissions are explained, the supply of oxygen and glucose is omitted as self-evident.
    As was explained earlier, every property has the whole and parts of its own, and functions are included in properties. Accordingly every function has the whole and parts of its own. For example, a neuron's excitement and transmission has postsynaptic transmission, exceeding of threshold, excitement, presynaptic transmission, and pause as parts of functions.

NEURONS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    Nervous systems are not composed only of neurons. They are composed of neurons, neuroglial cells supporting them, their own particular immune cells,, various membranes, cerebrospinal fluid, and so on. Neurons can exist and function by their support, above all, neuroglial cells'. All the same, the most important for mental functions are neurons' excitements and transmissions.
    A neuron consists spatially of a neuronal body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon diverging into a lot of small ones at its terminal.
    Sensory cells include not only sensory cells in skins, bones, striated muscles, mucous membranes, and so on in a narrow sense but also visual cells, auditory cells, taste cells, and so on in these books. Metaphorically, the first runners of sensations are sensory cells.
    Muscle cells include striated muscle cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiac muscle cells. Secretory cells include endocrine cells and exocrine cells.
    A neuron stretches an "Axon" long, the axon diverges one after another into a lot of small ones, and many "Axonal Terminals" come closest to a lot of parts of the cellular membranes of some other neurons, muscle cells, or secretory cells. In this way, one axon diverges one after another into a lot of small ones, and so one neuron comes close to not always one but sometimes more than one neuron, muscle cell, or secretory cell.
    Though a sensory cell does not have such long processes as a neuron has as an axon, a sensory cell stretches some processes, such processes diverge into a lot of small ones, and many terminals come closest to a lot of parts of the cellular membranes of some neurons. Such a process of a sensory cell is also called an Axon, and such terminals are also called Axonal Terminals, in the same way as a neuron's are, in these books.
    When a neuron or a sensory cell (A) stretches its axon, when its axon diverges one after another, and when one (a) of the axonal terminals comes closest to one (b) of the parts of the cellular membrane of another neuron or a muscle cell or a secretory cell (B), a, b, and the cleft between them can be called a "Synapse", and the cleft can be called a "Synaptic Cleft". By the way, synaptic clefts are not full of air but full of intercellular fluid. Of course, the inner part of a cell is full of intracellular fluid.
    In each of such synapses, when many neurotransmitters are released from A to the synaptic cleft, they bind to a lot of receptors on B.
    In such ways, a neuron or a sensory cell comes close to some other neurons, muscle cells, or secretory cells and forms a lot of synapses. That can be called a neuron or a sensory cell's "Joining" to some other neurons, muscle cells, or secretory cells. In addition, a neuron, a muscle cell, or a secretory cell has some other neurons or sensory cells come close to itself and has them form a lot of synapses. That can be called a neuron, a muscle cell, or a secretory cell's "Being Joined" to by some other neurons or sensory cells. After all, a neuron is joined to by some other neurons or sensory cells, and joins to some other neurons, muscle cells, or secretory cells.
    Some other neurons or sensory cells by which a neuron is joined to can be called the neuron's "Directly Preceding Cells", and some other neurons, muscle cells, or secretory cells which a neuron join to can be called the neuron's "Directly following Cells". After all, a neuron is joined to by some directly preceding cells, and joins to some directly following cells. In such a way, one neuron is joined to by not always one but sometimes more than one directly preceding cell and joins to not always one but sometimes more than one directly following cell.
    The above is so when a neuron is made a center. In contrast, the following is so when a synapse is made a center.
    In each of a lot of synapses, the cell (A) whose axonal terminal release neurotransmitters can be called the "Presynaptic" Cell, and their material things, functions, or so can be called Presynaptic Material Things, Presynaptic Functions, or so, and the cell (B) whose receptors the neurotransmitters are bound to can be called "Postsynaptic" Cells, and their material things, functions, or so can be called "Postsynaptic" Material Things, Postsynaptic Functions, or so.
    In every cell including neurons, almost constantly, making its cellular membrane a border, and making extracellular part a reference point, the electrical potential where the intracellular part is negative is formed.
    Each neuron (N) has the following function [1]-[4].

[1]Postsynaptic Transmission
    Many neurotransmitters are released from the axonal terminals of N's directly preceding cells into the synaptic clefts, they are bound to the receptors on N's membrane, N's electrical potentials of intracellular part change, and the potentials changing are summed including subtraction. This can be called N's "Postsynaptic Transmission" from its directly preceding cells or N's "Being Transmitted" to by its directly preceding cells.

[1-1]Exceeding of the Threshold
    Some sums of N's intracellular potentials changes in the positive direction and exceed a certain threshold. This can be called N's "Exceeding of the Threshold" or Exceeding the Threshold.

[1-2]Misfire
    Not a sum of the potentials exceeds the threshold. This can be called (N)'s "Misfire" or Misfiring.

[2]Excitement
    When the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] in [1] is caused even in one part of N's membrane, the potentials' changes exceeding the threshold spread around the neuronal body and the axon as if they burst. This can be called N's "Excitement", Exciting, or being Excited.
    Then, N's excitement's spreading through N's axon is specially called N's "Conduction". Conductions are included in excitements in these books.

[3]Presynaptic Transmission
    The potentials' changes exceeding the threshold reach the axonal terminals of N, and the neurotransmitters are released from the axonal terminals into the synaptic clefts between N and its directly following cells. This can be called N's "Presynaptic Transmission" or "Transmitting" to its directly following cells.
(Moreover, [1]-[4] can be caused in each of N's directly following cells, and the same can be repeated.)

[4]Pause
    Only for milliseconds (several thousandths of a second), N is not able to excite. That can be called N's "Pause" or "Pausing". (Thereafter N can excite and repeat [1]-[4])

    The above [1-1][2][3][4] can be called N's "Excitement and Transmission" or "Exciting and Transmitting".
    Let the directly preceding cells of a neuron (N) be A, B, … and let its directly following cells be X, Y, …. A,B…'s [3]s and N's [1]'s being caused can be called the transmission from A,B… to N or A,B…'s transmitting to N. N's [3] and X,Y…'s [1]s ' being caused can be called the transmission from N to X,Y… or N's transmitting to X,Y…. Even if A,B… transmit to N, N does not always excite and transmit. When N's [1] end up with misfire [1-2], N does not excite or transmit. In contrast, when not [1-2] but exceeding of threshold [1-1] is caused, N excites and transmits unless something unusual happen like its axon is cut and like its neurotransmitters are depleted.
    A sensory cell is excited by some photons, sound waves, physical and chemical stimuli, and so on and transmits in the same way as a neuron does. This can be called a Sensory Cell's Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting.
    A muscle cell excites in the same way as a neuron does by being transmitted to by some neurons and contracts. This can be called the Muscle Cell's Excitement and Contraction or Exciting and Contracting.
    A secretory cell excites in the same way as a neuron does by being transmitted to by some neurons and secretes. This can be called the Secretory Cell's Excitement and Secretion or Exciting and Secreting.
    When the properties which are common to all of them are explained, neurons, sensory cells, muscle cells, and secretory cells are explained as neurons, and neurons' excitements and transmissions, sensory cells' excitements and transmissions, muscle cells' excitements and contractions, and secretory cells' excitements and secretions are explained as neurons' excitements and transmissions in these books.
    In addition, the words of "excitement and transmission", "transmission", and so on designate a concrete and countable function which each neuron or neuronal group has. For example, if there are a hundred neurons, there can be a hundred or less of excitements and transmissions at once. Accordingly, those words are used as countable nouns in these books.
    After all, a neuron can be transmitted to by not always one but sometimes more than one directly preceding cell and can transmit to not always one but sometimes more than one directly following cell.
    The whole of [1-1][2][3][4] or the part of [1-2] of a neuron's excitement and transmission is caused by the whole of [1-1][2][3][4] of some directly preceding cells' excitements and transmissions, and the whole of [1-1][2][3][4] of a neuron's excitement and transmission causes the wholes of [1-1][2][3][4] or parts of [1-2] of some directly following cells' excitements and transmissions. Accordingly, neurons' excitements and transmissions are functions.
    A neuron's excitement and transmission as a function has each of [1-1][1-2][2][3][4] as a part of a function. A neuron's excitement and transmission as a function consists of [1-1][1-2][2][3][4] as parts of a function.
    Like whether a neuron excites and transmits or ends up with [1-2] misfire, some functions are alternative ones. In contrast, the functions like universal gravitation, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so on are not alternative ones.
    In some functions, only a part is sometimes caused, like a neuron sometimes ends up with misfire [1-2]. In addition, it is probable that none of the other material things or functions which the whole can cause are caused only by a part's being caused. For example, in neurons' excitements and transmissions, none of the wholes or parts of directly following cells' excitements and transmissions are caused only by misfires' being caused.
    Not only the whole of [1-1][2][3][4] but also, at least, each part like [2][3] is a function. That is because, [2] is caused by [1-1], [2] causes [3], and [3] causes [1-1] or [1-2] of some of its directly following cells. In such a way, in some functions, some of their parts are functions, too.
    When the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is caused, the following [2][3][4] are caused, and the whole of the excitement and transmission is caused. Even if a neuron is transmitted to by some of its directly following cells, when [1-1] is not caused, the following parts are not caused, the whole is not caused, and it ends up with misfire [1-2]. If its axon was cut or if its neurotransmitters were depleted, its presynaptic transmission [3] would not be caused even if [1-1] is caused. However, the cells which do not have any abilities to transmit in such a way do not satisfy the necessary properties of neurons and can no longer be looked upon as neurons.

SHORT-TERM REPETITION OF EXCITEMENT AND TRANSMISSION

    The above [1-1][2][3][4] is one excitement and transmission continuing for milliseconds (several thousandths of a second). This can be called a neuron's "One (Super-short-term) Excitement and Transmission" or a neuron's Exciting and Transmitting Once (for Super-short time). Practically, once it is caused, it is repeated at a certain frequency of hundreds times a second continually for seconds. Such a repetition can be called a neuron's "Short-term (Continual) Repetition" of excitement and transmission or Repeating excitement and transmission (Continually) for a Short Time". However, such a repetition can also be called a neuron's Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting, and the words of excitement and transmission usually designate such a short-term continual repetition in these books. Short-term continual repetitions need to be clearly distinguished from long-term intermittent repetitions as will be defined later.

NECESSARY FUNCTIONS, OBJECTS, AND SO ON

    As was defined earlier, the properties without which a thing could not be looked upon as that thing can be called the Necessary Properties of or for the thing.
    For example, the ability to excite and transmit is one of the necessary properties of neurons, and so a cell without that ability could not be looked upon as a neuron. A neuron has the ability to excite and transmit as a necessary property. In contrast, because there is always universal gravitation in every material thing, it is strange to say that a material thing has the ability of universal gravitation, and it can be said that every material thing has universal gravitation as a function. In contrast, it is a little strange to say that a neuron has excitement and transmission as a function. However, in these books, it is also said that a neuron or so has excitement and transmission or so as a function.
    Now, the functions which a material thing has as necessary properties or whose tendencies or abilities a material thing has as necessary properties can be called the Necessary Functions of or for the material thing, the Necessary Functions which the material thing has, or the Necessary Functions attributed to the material thing. For example, a neuron has excitement and transmission as a necessary function.
    The whole or part of a function is caused or changed by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties (1) and causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties (2). Some of (1) or (2) are sometimes contained in some of a function's necessary properties. For example 1, a neuron's excitement and transmission whose whole does not cause any of even the post-synaptic transmissions of striated muscle cells cannot be called the excitement and transmission of a neuron of a motor nerve. For example 2, a neuron's excitement and transmission even whose post-synaptic transmission is not caused by the wholes of the excitements and transmissions of any sensory cells or their following cells cannot be called the excitement and transmission of a neuron of a sensory nerves. When some of (1) are contained in some of the necessary properties of a function, they can be called the function's Necessary Causes, and when some of (2) are contained in some of the necessary properties of a function, they can be called the function's Necessary Objects or Effects.
    Moreover, in a function, there is a part which is essential for the wholes or parts of its necessary objects to be caused or changed and which causes necessary objects the least indirectly in it. Such a part can be called the function's "Necessary and Direct Part". For example, if a neuron's [3] presynaptic transmission is not caused, none of its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions, some of which are its necessary objects, are caused. In addition, it causes them the least indirectly in a neuron's excitement and transmission. Accordingly, the presynaptic transmission [3] is the necessary and direct part of a neuron's excitement and transmission.
    By the way, a function's necessary and direct part and its whole are sometimes the same. For example, they are the same in universal gravitation.

DECISIVE PARTS OF FUNCTIONS

    However, when a certain part of a function is caused or changed, its necessary and direct part is also caused or changed, and the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are caused or changed. For example, in a neuron's excitement and transmission, when its exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is caused, its presynaptic transmission [3] is also caused, and the wholes or parts of its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions, some of which are its necessary objects, are caused. Such a part can be called the function's "Decisive" part. For example, in a neuron's excitement and transmission, the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is its decisive part, and presynaptic transmission [3] is its necessary and direct part. Like this example, they are not always the same. In contrast, in some functions, the whole, decisive part, and necessary and direct part of a function are the same. For example, they are so in universal gravitation.

FUNCTIONS' FUNCTIONING

    In a function, that none of its necessary and direct part is caused or changed, practically that none of its decisive part is caused, and as a result that none of the whole or part of its necessary objects are caused or changed cannot be called the function's functioning. For example, in a neuron's excitement and transmission, that its presynaptic transmission [3] is not caused, practically that its exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is not caused, and as a result that none of its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions, some of which are its necessary objects, are caused cannot called the neuron's excitement and transmission's functioning. Accordingly, that the necessary and direct part of a function is caused or changed, practically that its decisive part is caused or changed, and as a result that the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are caused or changed can be called the function's "Functioning to" its necessary objects. For example, in a neuron's excitement and transmission, that its presynaptic transmission [3] is caused, practically that its exceeding of threshold [1-1] is caused, and as a result that the wholes or parts (their postsynaptic transmissions) of its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions, some of which are its necessary objects, are caused can be called the neuron's excitement and transmission's functioning to its necessary objects. In addition, when the necessary objects are self-evident, a function's functioning to its necessary objects can be called the function's Functioning. In addition, a function's functioning can also be called the function's Being Caused. That is, the words of a function's being caused and those of its functioning mean the same thing. In addition, when the material thing (1) which a function is attributed to is self-evident and when the material things (2) which its necessary objects is attributed to is self-evident, the function's functioning to its necessary objects can be called the material thing (1)'s Functioning to the material things (2). For example, the excitements and transmissions of a sensory cell or its following cell's functioning to the excitements and transmissions of some neurons in a sensory nerves' can be called that sensory or its following cell's functioning to those neurons.

FUNCTIONS' TIMELY FUNCTIONING

    However, a function functions by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties' being caused or changed. When they are not caused or changed, no functions function. In living things, we are relieved by this. For example, if the neurons which are the directly following cells of sensory cells excited and transmitted without being transmitted to by them, sensations would be chaotic, and we would feel pain without any stimulation or inflammation. When such needs to be emphasized, functions' functioning is called their "Timely" Functioning in these books. Above all, it is significant for neurons' excitements and transmissions.

MATERIAL THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    Things in themselves excluding space and time are either material things or their properties, and their properties are either functions or the others.
    When a material thing is paid attention to and when its functions are made much of, a material thing and the properties including functions which the material thing has can be called the "Material Thing and its Material Functions", the Material Thing and its Functions, or the Material Thing. A body and the properties including functions which the body has, a nervous system and the properties including functions which the nervous system has, or so can be called the "Body and its Bodily Functions", or the Body and its Functions, or the Body, the "Nervous System and its Nervous Functions", or the Nervous System and its Functions, or the Nervous System, or so. That is, the words of material things, bodies, nervous systems, and so on sometimes imply their properties including functions.
    When the above have been defined so, the words "material things and their functions" designate all things in themselves excluding space and time.
    A material thing's existing or a material thing and its functions' existing implies its functions' timely functioning. However, when functions' timely functioning needs to be emphasized, a material thing's existing can be called the material thing and its functions' "Existing and Functioning" or the material thing's Existing and Functioning. The same usage is used for a body and its bodily functions, nervous system and its nervous functions, and so on. For example, though the following is a rough description, a neuron's being generated, maturing, and exciting and transmitting when it is transmitted to are the neuron's existing and functioning.
    When the words of a material thing or a property including function are always used, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, those words are sometimes replaced by those of a thing in these books.
    However, a property including function is sometimes paid attention to, and thereafter the material thing which it is attributed to is sought. For example, usually, a damage is found, and thereafter its assailants are sought. In such a case, the words of a property, a function, a property including function, a material thing or a property including function, or so cannot help being used. However, again, if those words are always used, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, a material thing or a property including function is also called a "Thing" in these books.

POSSIBILITIES

    The possibility of a thing's, that is, a material thing or a property including function's existing or functioning or being caused or changed can be called the Possibility of the thing.
    The possibility of a thing contains the possibilities of some other things. For example, the possibility of a neuron's exciting and transmitting contains that of some directly preceding cells' exciting and transmitting, the supply of oxygen, glucose, and so on. From the beginning, our possibility contains the possibilities of the sun, the earth, the food chain from microorganisms to plants to smaller animals, and so on.

SITUATIONS AND THE NATURE

    Living things, living functions, animals, animal functions, individuals, individual functions, human beings, human functions, and so on will be defined later. Before they are defined, their situations and nature will be defined.
    As was explained above, the possibility of a thing contains the possibilities of some other things. Those other things can be called the "Situation" of or for the thing. In addition, the situation of some living things without which they could not exist or function can be called the "Nature" of or for them. For example, the sun, the earth, sunlight, oxygen, carbon dioxide, the photosynthesis by plants, the food chain from microorganisms and plants to some other animals, and so on are the nature for a species of animals. The nature of some living things contains some other living things. For example, the nature for human beings contains some other animals, plants, microorganisms. In addition, the nature for some of a species of living things contains some other living things of the same species. For example, the nature for a human individual contains some other human beings and their interpersonal functions. It may be unnatural that such a thing as contains some other human beings and their functions is called his or her nature. Accordingly, such can be called his or her Necessary Situation.
    However, it is impossible to enumerate all the material things and properties including functions contained in the nature or a situation. For example, when we enumerate the nature of a neuron's excitement and transmission, it contains some of its directly preceding cells' excitements and transmissions, the supply of oxygen, glucose, and so on, the palpitation of the heart, the respiration, the digestion and absorption of food, the chain of food, and so on, and they are endless. This is the same as the material things and properties including functions causing or changing the whole or part of a function are endless, which has already been explained. In our daily life and science, out of them, those which are self-evident and too indirect are omitted. All the books in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET have done and will do the same.

TENDENCIES AND ABILITIES

    The possibility of a thing contain the possibilities of some other things. In contrast, the part of the possibility inside the thing can be called the thing's Own Possibility. Out of things' own possibilities, the following tendencies and abilities are significant. Anyway, the tendency or ability of a thing is one of its own properties, and does not contain the possibilities, tendencies, or abilities of any other things.
    When a thing is caused against some resistance including indirect competition, its own possibility can be called its "Tendency" (to exist or function or to be caused or changed). For example, when a lot of excitements and transmissions of neuronal groups are caused in a converging neuronal groups which will be explained later, those exciting and transmitting the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center go through making the others disappear and reach the destination. Such earliness, continuity, density, width, and closeness to the center of a neuronal group's excitement and transmission are its tendency to be caused in a converging neuronal group.
    In contrast, when a thing is caused little depending on any external resistance but mainly by its properties which are formed inside it, its own possibility can be called its "Ability", Capability, or Activity (to exist or function or to be caused or changed). For example, a neuron's excitement and transmission in itself is caused mainly by its having a lot of active receptors on its membrane, stretching its axon, and joining to its directly following cells, and releasing a lot of active neurotransmitters from its axonal terminals, and these can be called its ability or activity. As will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES―A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", tendencies are significant in limited egos, and abilities are so in intentional functions.
    When a necessary function of a material thing is self-evident, the tendency or ability of that function can be called the Tendency or Ability of that material. For example, because it is self-evident that the necessary function of a neuron is its excitement and transmission, the ability or activity of the neuron's excitement and transmission can be called the neuron's ability or activity. The abilities which is particular to human beings include the ability to walk upright on two legs, to run alike, to do the crawl, the butterfly, and so on, to speak words, to write words, to calculate, to play, to study, and so on.
    The increase of the ability or activity of a thing can be called the "Activation" of the thing or the thing's being Activated.

ACTIVITIES OF NEURONS

    The activity (ability) of a neuron('s excitement and transmission) is being joined to by some directly preceding cells, having a lot of active receptors on its cellular membrane, stretching its dendrites and an axon long, joining tightly to its directly following cells, releasing a lot of active neurotransmitters from its axonal terminals, and so on. In this way, not only neurons but also neurotransmitters and receptors have their activities. Their activities are the abilities to change the extra-intracellular voltage when they are bound.
    A neuron's activity is decreased temporarily for seconds by the short-term continual repetition which was explained earlier, that is, simply, excitement and transmission. However, the activity is increased by the short-term continuous repetition's being repeated intermittently in the long time from seconds to years. In contrast, the activity is decreased without such repetition. This is the substance of the importance of repetition in learning which is experienced in our daily life and science. Such a long-term intermittent repetition of short-term continuous repetition can be called a neuron's excitement and transmission's "Long-Term Intermittent Repetition" or Being Repeated Intermittently in a Long Time. A neuron's activity is increased by such repetition and is decreased by little or no repetition. Mainly, such repetition increases the tendencies of recollections of images which will be explained later, the abilities of intentional functions and the tendencies of limited egos as will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".

PROMOTIONS⇔RESTRAINTS

    The words of "excitement and transmission", "transmission", "activity", and "activation" explained earlier, "promotion" and "restraint" which will be explained below, and so on designate concrete and countable functions which each neuron, neuronal group, or so has. For example, for a neuron, if there are ten directly preceding cells, there can be ten or less promotions or restraints, and when the sum of the voltages caused by them exceeds a certain threshold, the neuron excites and transmits. Accordingly, they are used as countable nouns in these books.
    By the whole or part of a function [P]'s being caused or changed, when the possibility of the wholes or parts of some other things' being caused or changed gets larger, the function [P] can be called the "Promotion", Prompt, Promoting Function, or Prompting Function for those other things or [P]'s Promoting or Prompting those other things.
    In contrast to promotions, by the whole or part of a function [R]'s being caused or changed, when the possibility of the wholes or parts of some other things' being caused or changed gets smaller, the function [R] can be called the "Restraint" or Restraining Function on those other things or [R]'s Restraining those other things.
    Promotions and restraints are found in interpersonal relations and the society. For example 1, violence often restrain some individuals' functions. That is a kind of violation of liberal right. However, by restraining the violence which restrains some individuals' functions, some force can prevent them from being restrained. That is a kind of protection of liberal right. For example 2, some power can promote human existence and functions by supplying water and food, medicine, information, and so on. That is a kind of security of social right. For example 3, in each animal body, when a group of endocrine secretory cells secretes a kind of hormone exceedingly, another group secretes another kind of hormone which restrains its secretion. That is a part of homeostasis. Also in each nervous system, there are promoting transmissions and restraining ones, as will be explained below.
    When a neuron's transmission [PT] promotes its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions by reducing extra-intracellular voltage and by facilitating exceeding of the threshold, [PT] can be called the Promoting Transmission, Promotion, Prompting Transmission, or Prompt for its directly following cells or [PT]'s Promoting or Prompting its directly following cells.
    In contrast to promoting transmissions, when a neuron's transmission [RT] restrains its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions by increasing extra-intracellular voltage and by making exceeding of the threshold more difficult, [RT] can be called the Restraining Transmission or Restraint on its directly following cells or the neuron's Restraining its directly following cells.
    Neurons' transmissions which release GABA's as neurotransmitters are restraining transmissions, and most of the others are promoting transmissions. Practically, because one neuron releases only one kind of neurotransmitters, neurons can be divided clearly into promoting ones and restraining ones.
    A neuron is sometimes joined to by more than one directly preceding cell and sometimes gets a mixture of promoting and restraining transmissions. Usually in such a case, when a neuron has got more promoting ones, it excites and transmits, and when it has got more restraining ones, it does not. However, more strictly, the sum of the voltages caused by them is the question.
    The restraints in nervous systems are important for pain's reduction, sleep, and rest. Simply, we cannot endure pain and cannot rest or sleep well without restraints. In the human society, the restraints on powers are the main purpose of democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law.

FUNCTIONS' STOPS

    In contrast to a function's functioning, a function's not functioning, that is, its necessary part's not being caused or changed can be called the function or the material thing (which has the function as a necessary function)'s "Stop" or Stopping. A function's stop includes that its necessary part is not caused and that some other parts are caused. Of course, it includes that no parts are caused. For example, a neuron's stop includes that its postsynaptic transmission [1] is caused but that its presynaptic transmission [3] is not caused, that is, that its misfire [1-2] is caused. Of course, it include that even its misfire [1-2] is not caused.
    Functions' stops, above all, neurons' stops are very important for mental functions. As will be explained in the chapters below, because some series of neurons actually joining in a neuronal group excite and transmit and because the others stop, it is premised that the subtle quantities in sights, sounds, pain, and so on appear. If all the neurons in a neuronal group either excited and transmitted or stopped, sights would be completely white or black in all the visual field, sounds would be piercingly loud or deadly silent in all the high-low, and the pain would be terribly severe or boringly senseless in all the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendon. In addition, so that shapes can appear, shadows need to appear, and the neurons transmitting shadows need to excite and transmit at low density. From the beginning, so that density can exist, some series of neurons actually joining in a neuronal group need to excite and transmit, and the others need to stop.
    In such a way, most of functions' stops can be looked upon as functions. Functions' stops which are looked upon as functions are included in functions in these books.
    As was explained earlier functions include restraints. That some functions restrain some other functions and that the latter stop can be called the former's stopping the latter. For example 1, that a neuron releasing the neurotransmitters of GABA restrains its directly following cells and that the latter stop is the former's stopping the latter. For example 2, that democratic systems and separations of powers restrain despotism and that the latter stop is the former's stopping the latter.

FUNCTIONS' AROUSALS

    That the part of a function which can cause or change its necessary part is caused or changed can be called the function's "Arousal" or Arising. A function's arousal includes that the part of the function which can cause or change its necessary part is caused or changed but that its necessary part is not caused or changed, and so it overlaps with a stop. Simply, it is probable that a function stops even if it arises. A function's arising does not always mean its functioning (being caused). For example, that a neuron's postsynaptic transmission [1] is caused is its excitement and transmission's arising. Even if [1] is caused, when the misfire [1-2] is caused and when the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is not caused, presynaptic [3] transmission is not caused, and the neuron does not excite or transmit and does stop. This is the neuron's (excitement and transmission's) arising and, simultaneously, stopping.
    The following is the most important example of arousals. As will be explained later, though a lot of images' sources usually arise, a limited number of them are recollected. This is the substance of our daily thought that we cannot think of two or more things at once.
    The following is the case as long as neurons' excitements and transmissions and some other living functions are concerned. If no pause [4] was caused and if the presynaptic transmission [3] was caused, the neuron could transmit to and function to its directly following cells. However, it is impossible for [1-1][2][3] to be caused and for [4] not to be caused. By definition, though that presynaptic transmission [3] which is a necessary and direct part is caused is a neuron's functioning, actually, the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] which is a decisive part is caused is it, and, more actually, that the whole of [1-1][2][3][4] is caused is it.

COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE STOPS

    In contrast to a function's arising, a function's not arising, that is, that neither its necessary part nor the parts which can cause it is caused or changed can be called the function's "Complete" Stop or Completely Stopping.
    In contrast to a function's complete stop, a function's arising and not functioning, that is, that some of the parts that can cause its necessary part is caused or changed but that its necessary part is not caused or changed can be called the function's "Incomplete" Stop or Stopping Incompletely.
    Though the word of "incomplete" may make a bad impression, each of us need to stop functions falling into a vicious circle, which will be explained in "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS", not completely but incompletely in the first stage in order to decrease the tendencies falling into a vicious circle.

LIVING THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

LIVING THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    The material things which have the property of synthesizing some macromolecules like proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, that of consisting of them, and that of reproducing some material things which have the same necessary properties as they have can be called "Living Things". For example, a gene has the property of synthesizing proteins and nucleic acid, that of consisting of them, and that of reproducing itself, and is not only an important part of a larger living thing but also itself a living thing. Accordingly, we cannot help recognizing RNA or DNA viruses as living things. Living things include genes, cells, cellular membranes, individuals, and so on.
    The functions which living things have can be called Living Functions. Living functions include biogenesis, reproduction, growth, aging, death, making groups, spontaneous mutation, and evolution.
    Living thing and their properties including functions can be called "Living Things and Their Living Functions", Living Things and Their Functions, or Living Things.
    A living thing and its functions' existing and functioning can be called its "Living" or "Life". A living thing and its functions' coming to exist and function can be called its "Being Borne" or "Birth", and its coming not to exist or function can be called its "Dying" or "Death". For example, not only individuals but also cells which compose individuals are dying sooner or later.
    Living things are included in material things, and living functions in material functions. However, material things excluding living things can also be called Material things, and material functions excluding living functions can also be called Material Functions.

INDIVIDUALS

    There are some living things which can be living things when they are spatially separated from the other living things. The living things which can be living things when they are spatially separated from the other living things can be called "Individuals". Most animals like insects, fishes, birds, horses, cows, dogs, cats, monkeys, human beings, and so on which are found in our daily life are individuals.

BODIES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    There are some individuals whose functions of sensations or recollections of images are premised to cause some things appearing as mental phenomena and which have motor functions. Such individuals can be called "Bodies" or "Animals". For example, it is premised that things appearing on a visual sensation are caused by a neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinae to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, the limbs, the eye balls, and the tongue, and so on can move, and an individual having such functions is a body or an animal.
    The functions which bodies have can be called Bodily Functions, Animal Functions, or Physical Functions. Bodily functions include expansion and contraction of hearts, blood vessels, and lungs, neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions, muscular groups' excitements and contractions, secretory groups' excitements and secretions, involuntary movements, voluntary movements, sensations, memories.
    Bodies and their properties including functions can be called "Bodies and their Bodily Functions", Bodies and their Functions, or Bodies, Animals and Their Animal Functions, Animals and Their Functions, or Animals.

ANIMALS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    Bodies can be called "Animals", Animal Bodies, or Animal Individuals, too, and bodily functions can be called Animal functions, too. However, in our daily life, the word of bodies is used for the contrast with minds or spirits and does not imply them or things appearing as mental phenomena. In contrast, the word of animals and that of human beings can imply them. Accordingly, bodies and their functions and the things appearing as mental phenomena which some parts of them are premised to cause can be called Animals and their Animal Functions, Animals and their Functions, or Animals. That is, the words of animals and their functions are different from that of bodies and their functions in that the former sometimes implies things appearing as mental phenomena.

HUMAN BEINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    The animals which belong to the species of "Homo sapience" can be called "Human Beings", the functions which human beings has can be called "Human Functions", and human beings and their properties including functions can be called "Human Beings and their Human Functions", Human Beings and Their Functions, or Human Beings. Moreover, for the same reason explained in the above section, human beings and their functions and the things appearing which some parts of them are premised to cause can be called "Human Beings and Their Human Function", Human Beings and Their Functions, Human Beings, Human Individuals, Individuals, Individual Persons, Persons, or Each of Us.
    Human functions include the bodily functions enumerated earlier and walking upright on two legs, running alike, doing the crawl, butterfly, and so on, speaking words, writing words, calculating, playing, studying, working, and interpersonal functions.
    Material things include living things, living things include bodies ( = animals), and bodies include human beings. Material functions include living functions, living functions include bodily functions ( = animal functions), and bodily functions include human functions. Material things and their functions include living things and their functions, living things and their functions include bodies and their functions ( = animals and their functions), bodies and their functions include human beings and their functions.

NEURONAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    An organ which consists of neurons and sensory cells and neuroglial cell, cerebrospinal fluid, dura maters, pia maters, arachnoid membranes, and so on which support neurons and sensory cells can be called a "Nervous System" or Neuronal System. Not only central nervous systems but also peripheral ones and autonomic ones are included in nervous systems. Moreover, sensory cells, sensory group, and sensory organs are included in nervous systems in these books. However, when they are defined so, skins or so where sensory cells are densely distributed may be included in nervous systems. Accordingly, as far as somatic sensations and autonomic sensations are concerned, only sensory cells and sensory groups are included in nervous systems in these books.
    The following can be called "Neuronal Groups"

UNITARY NEURONAL GROUPS

    A group of neurons where neuronal bodies assemble into what is called a nucleus and the axons bunch into what is called a nerve can be called a "Unitary Neuronal Group".
    Each neuron in a unitary neuronal group is joined to by some neurons in some other unitary neuronal groups. This can be called a unitary neuronal group's Being Joined to by some other neuronal groups. Each neuron in a unitary neuronal group joins to some other neurons in some other unitary neuronal groups. This can be called a unitary neuronal group's Joining to some other neuronal groups.

SENSORY GROUPS

    A gathering of sensory cells can be called a "Sensory Group".
    Though a sensory cell does not have such a long process as a neuron has as an axon, it joins to some neurons with some processes having the same functions as an axon has and which can be called an axon and has an ability to transmit to them in the same way as a neuron does. In addition, a sensory group joins to some unitary neuronal group in the same way as a unitary neuronal group does. Such sensory cells are included in neurons, and such sensory groups are included in unitary neuronal groups in these books.
    However, not a sensory group is joined to or transmitted to by any neuronal groups. Sensory groups are made to excite and transmit by such stimuli from the outside of nervous systems as photons, sound waves, pressure, heat, and so on. Such stimuli are the only input into nervous systems. A sensory group is metaphorically a first runner in a complex neuronal group as will be defined in the following sections.

COMPLEX NEURONAL GROUPS

    Linear neuronal groups, neuronal ways, diverging neuronal groups, converging neuronal groups, and paired neuronal groups which will be explained below, and mixtures of some of them can be called "Complex Neuronal Groups".

LINEAR NEURONAL GROUPS

    When a unitary neuronal group [A] joins to another unitary neuronal group [B], [B] joins to another unitary neuronal group [C] and when the same are repeated, [A][B][C]… can be called a "Linear Neuronal Group".

NEURONAL WAYS

    When a unitary or complex neuronal group or sensory neuronal group [A] joins to another unitary neuronal group [B], [B] joins to another unitary neuronal group [C], [C] joins to another unitary or complex neuronal group, a muscle group, or a secretory group [D], when [A][D] have some clear functions like sensations, memories, and movements, secretion, and when [B][C] do not have any clear functions other than excitements and transmissions, [B][C] can be called the "Neuronal Way" from [A] to [D].
    However, some neuronal ways can diverge or converge. Such are included neuronal ways in these books.

DIVERGING NEURONAL GROUPS

    When a unitary neuronal group [A] joins to unitary neuronal groups [B][B'] whose number is as large as or larger than [A]'s, when [B][B'] joins to unitary neuronal groups [C][C'][C''] whose number is as large as or larger than [B][B']'s, and when the same are repeated, [A][B][B'][C][C'][C'']… can be called a "Diverging" Neuronal Group. In addition, neuronal groups diverging wildly can be called Diffusing ones.
    For example, the neuronal groups which individual images' sources which are being generated go through, which will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES", are diverging neuronal groups, and the neuronal groups which impulses go through, which will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", are diffusing neuronal groups.

CONVERGING NEURONAL GROUPS

    When a unitary neuronal group [Z] is joined to by unitary neuronal groups [Y][Y'] whose number is as large as or larger than [Z]'s, when [Y][Y'] are joined to by unitary neuronal groups [X][X'][X''] whose number is as large as or larger than [Y][Y']'s, and when the same are repeated, [Z][Y][Y'][X][X'][X'']… can be called a "Converging" Neuronal Group.
    For example, the neuronal groups from the unitary neuronal groups which store individual images' sources to the neuronal groups which replay sources which will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES" are converging neuronal groups. Accordingly, though a lot of individual images' sources arise, a limited number or less of them are recollected.

PAIRS OF NEURONAL GROUPS

    In most nervous systems, there are some pairs of neuronal groups, and the two neuronal groups composing each pair are symmetrical though some parts of them cross and some join to each other. For example, in each of vertebrates' nervous systems, there is a pair of neuronal groups from the retinae via optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes though optic nerves cross. Such paired neuronal groups are included in neuronal groups and in complex neuronal groups in these books.
    As will be explained later, it is premised that paired neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and some functions processing them cause things appearing beyond sensory organs. For example, your face appearing to me on a visual sensation with both eyes seems to be in the position beyond my eyes. In contrast, when I close my right eye, your face appearing on a visual sensation with my left eye seems to be in the position of my left eye. In addition, because there is a pair, an individual which suffer disorder in one of the pair sometimes maintains life. That is true of not only nervous systems but also eyes, ears, lungs, kidneys, limbs, testicles, ovaries, and so on. In addition, because neuronal groups compose a pair also in the cerebrum, the dominant hemisphere is questioned. For example, in a right handed person, the left hemisphere is often dominant. In this case, even if the right one suffers some disorder, mental and bodily functions sometimes do not suffer serious disorder.

NEURONAL GROUPS

    The above unitary neuronal groups, sensory group, complex neuronal groups, and the mixtures of some of them are called Neuronal Groups in these books.

SERIES OF NEURONS ACTUALLY JOINING

    In a complex neuronal group, not all the neurons join directly or indirectly. If all did so, for example, a spot in the retina might become all the field in the visual area on the occipital lobe.
    In a complex neuronal group, each group of neurons which actually join directly or indirectly can be called a "Series of Neurons Actually Joining". When they are defined so, a neuronal group can be redefined as the bunch of a lot of series of neurons actually joining.

SELECTIVE NEURONAL GROUPS RETAINING SPATIAL POSITIONS

    When we imagine that the bunch of the axons of a neuronal group is cut in round slices as a stem is, it turns out that each series of neurons actually joining has a spatial relative position in the slices as a property. Unless neurons join to or are joined to by in one-to-many way or in many-to-one way again and again and unless axons are tangled, the spatial relative position of each series of neurons actually joining is retained to a great degree. Otherwise, for example, a circle appearing on visual sensations would be distorted and become a curve like an amoeba.
    In addition, in such a neuronal group's excitement and transmission, it is retained at such spatial relative position whether each series of the neurons actually joining excites and transmits or stops, that is, selectivity. By such retention of selectivity, the density of excitements and transmissions is also retained. For example, the series transmitting shadows excite and transmit at law density, and those transmitting highlights excite and transmit at high density.
    From the beginning, if the neurons in the neuronal groups which were involved in sensations and memories either all excited and transmitted or all stopped, things appearing on visual sensations would be all highlights or all shadows, things appearing on auditory sensations would be all maximum sounds or all absolute silence, and there would be no sensations or memories.
    Such neuronal groups as retain spatial relative position and selectivity can be called "Selective Neuronal Groups (Retaining Spatial Positions)". In addition, the contrary can be called "Non-Selective" Neuronal Groups.
    Selective neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions are one of the necessary properties of neuronal sources of things appearing as mental phenomena which will be explained later. Some examples of what would happen otherwise are enumerated above. Here another will be enumerated. Otherwise, it is premised that the spatial positions and arrangements of some pain on the skins appearing on a somatic sensation are confused, and that we cannot tell where the pain are. In such ways, neuronal groups causing sensations and recollections of images need to be selective ones.
    In contrast, neuronal groups which cause smooth muscles' contractions or endocrine glands' secretions do not always need to be selective ones. However, practically, they are also selective though they are not as selective as those causing sensations or recollections of images. That is because, embryologically, the genesis of neuronal groups where axons are tangled is harder or impossible work. Accordingly, all neuronal groups are more or less selective ones.

NERVOUS FUNCTIONS

    The functions which a nervous system has can be called "Nervous Functions". Nervous functions include neurons' excitements and transmissions, neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions, sensations, and memories.
    It is premised that some parts of a nervous system and its functions directly cause things appearing as mental phenomena, and more in detail that some parts of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions cause them.

NEURONAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

After selectivity has explained above, we can define neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions. In a neuronal group, which is more or less selective, as was explained above, some series of neurons actually joining's exciting and transmitting and the other series' stopping can be called the Neuronal Group's Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting. In addition, when we need to emphasize the retention of spatial position and the selectivity, it can be called a Selective Neuronal Group (Retaining Spatial Positions)' Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting.
    In contrast, in a neuronal group, all the series's stopping can be called the Neuronal Group' s Stop or Stopping.
    In addition, the presynaptic transmissions of the neurons which belong to the unitary neuronal group which is, so to speak, the last runner in a complex neuronal group can be called the complex neuronal groups' Presynaptic Transmission or Transmitting. In contrast, the postsynaptic transmissions of the neurons which belong to the unitary neuronal group which is, so to speak, a first runner in a complex neuronal group can be called the complex neuronal groups' Postsynaptic Transmission or Being Transmitted.

NEURONAL GROUPS' INSTANT EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    In every neuronal group, the differences among the times of series of neurons actually joining's excitements and transmissions are of milliseconds (several thousandths of a second). Such a neuronal group's excitement and transmission can be called the neuronal group's "Instant" Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting Instantly.
    In a neuronal group's instant excitement and transmission, not only the spatial positions but also the temporal positions of series of neurons actually joining's excitements and transmissions are retained to a degree. For example, when the right half of a neuronal group started to excite and transmit two seconds ago and when the left half of it started to a second ago, the difference of a second is retained to a degree. In addition, in a neuronal group's instant excitement and transmission, the frequencies of series of neurons actually joining's excitements and transmissions are retained.
    Neuronal groups' instant excitements and transmissions are one of the necessary properties of neuronal sources of things appearing as mental phenomena. Otherwise, it is premised that, for example, the limbs' movement of a running animal of forelimbs forward and hindlimbs backward then forelimbs backward and hindlimbs forward and so on appearing on a visual sensation sometimes becomes that of forelimbs forward and hindlimbs forward then forelimbs backward and hindlimbs backward and so on.

NEURONAL GROUPS' ACTIVITY

    The activities or activations of the neurons in a neuronal group can be called the Neuronal Group's Activity or Activation. Such neuronal groups' activations and activities make memorizations and storages in memories possible, as will be explained later.
    In addition, such activations and activities are also selective. For example, a part of shadow is activated at law density, and a part of highlight is activated at high density.

THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    As was explained earlier, sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, taste, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, images, ideas, colors, brightness, high-law and loudness, and so on can be called Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena). Things appearing as mental phenomena's existing or being premised to exist can be called things' Appearing (as Mental Phenomena). For example, the display of my personal computer, its keyboard, my hands striking it are appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, the sounds of striking the keyboard are appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears, and slight hunger is appearing on an autonomic sensation to me, a writer of this book, at present.
    The words "things appearing (as mental phenomena" can designate sights, images, and so on and can designate things in themselves like material things, bodies, and so on which are premised to be represented as things appearing. The words "things appearing" designate the former, that is, sights, images, and so on in these books. For example, material things' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction which are premised to be represented as sights are not things appearing, but sights are things appearing.
    The words "things' appearing" can designate sights, images, and so on's existing or being premised to exist and can designate their being represented as sights, images, and so on. The words "things' appearing" designate the former in these books.
    The whole of things appearing appears, and its parts appear. For example, though its periphery is vague, the whole of things appearing on a visual sensation appears as what is called a visual field. Of course, its central part appears clearly. Accordingly, the whole or parts of things appearing can be called the "Whole Appearing" or "Parts Appearing". In addition, the whole appearing or parts appearing can be called Things Appearing.
    Qualities like colors, high-low, and so on, quantities like brightness-darkness, loudness-silence, and so on, spatial positions, temporal positions, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, their changes are the properties of spatial and temporal things appearing, and they appear. Accordingly, they can be called Properties Appearing.
    The above meanings apply to the following words.

(1) Words like "properties appearing", "the time appearing", "the whole's appearing", and so on where the word of "things" in "things appearing" and in "things' appearing" are replaced by other words
(2) Words like "things appearing on a sensation", "things appearing as an image", and so on where the modifiers like "on a sensation", "as an image", and so on are attached to the verb "appear"
(3) Words like "things which appeared to me in the past", "things' which will appear to me in the future", and so on where the tense in a broad sense of the verb "appear" is changed.

BASIC KINDS OF THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    The following are basic kinds of things appearing as mental phenomena.

(s)In general, things appearing on a kind of sensation or things appearing on sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a sensation

(s1)In general, things appearing on the visual kind of sensation or things appearing on visual sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a visual sensation
    Sights, colors, brightness, written words, and so on
(s1-1)In general, things appearing on the visual kind of sensation with one eye or things appearing on visual sensations with one eye, and in each individual, things appearing on a visual sensation with one eye
    Sights which are planar and are localized to one eye
(s1-2)In general, things appearing on the visual kind of sensation with both eyes or things appearing on visual sensations with both eyes, and in each individual, things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes
    Sights which are cubic and are beyond both eyes
(s2)In general, things appearing on the auditory kind of sensation or things appearing on auditory sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on an auditory sensation
    Sounds, voices, high-low, loudness, spoken words, and so on.
(s2-1)In general, things appearing on the auditory kind of sensation with one ear or things appearing on auditory sensations with one ear, and in each individual, things appearing on an auditory sensation with one ear
    Sounds which are spatial points and are localized to one ear
(s2-2)In general, things appearing on the auditory kind of sensation with both ears or things appearing on auditory sensations with both ears, and in each individual, things appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears
    Sound sources which are cubic and are beyond both ears
(s3)In general, things appearing on the olfactory kind of sensation or things appearing on olfactory sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on an olfactory sensation
    Smells, fragrances, odors, and so on
(s3-1)In general, things appearing on the olfactory kind of sensation with one nasal cavity or things appearing on olfactory sensations with one nasal cavity, and in each individual, things appearing on an olfactory sensation with one nasal cavity
    Smells which are planar and are limited to one nasal cavity
(s3-2)In general, things appearing on the olfactory kind of sensation with both nasal cavities or things appearing on olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities, and in each individual, things appearing on an olfactory sensation with both nasal cavities
    Smell sources which are cubic and are beyond both nasal cavities
(s4)In general, things appearing on the balancing kind of sensation or things appearing on balancing sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a balancing sensation
    Dizziness, appearing acceleration, appearing rotation, and so on
(s5)In general, things appearing on the taste kind of sensation or things appearing on taste sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a taste sensation
    Tastes, sweetness, saltiness, sourness, bitterness, and so on
(s6)In general, things appearing on the somatic kind of sensation or things appearing on somatic sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a somatic sensation
    Pain, itches, hotness, coldness, and so on in skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, and so on
(s7)In general, things appearing on the autonomic kind of sensation or things appearing on autonomic sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on an autonomic sensation
    Pain, itches, hotness, coldness, and so on in mucous membranes, digestive systems, circulatory systems, and so on, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, and so on

(i)In general, things appearing as a kind of sensory image, a kind of sensory image, things appearing as sensory images, or sensory images and in each individual, things appearing as a sensory image or a sensory image

(i1)In general, things appearing as the visual kind of sensory image, the visual kind of sensory image, things appearing as visual sensory images, or visual sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as a visual sensory image or a visual sensory image
(i1-1)In general, things appearing as the visual kind of sensory image as if with one eye, the visual kind of sensory image as if with one eye, things appearing as visual sensory images as if with one eye, or visual sensory images as if with one eye, and in each individual, things appearing as a visual sensory image as if with one eye or a visual sensory image as if with one eye
(i1-2)In general, things appearing as the visual kind of sensory image as if with both eyes, the visual kind of sensory image as if with both eyes, things appearing as visual sensory images as if with both eyes, or visual sensory images as if with both eyes, and in each individual, things appearing as a visual sensory image as if with both eyes or a visual sensory image as if with both eyes
(i2)In general, things appearing as the auditory kind of sensory image, the auditory kind of sensory image, things appearing as auditory sensory images, or auditory sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as an auditory sensory image or an auditory sensory image
(i2-1)In general, things appearing as the auditory kind of sensory image as if with one ear, the auditory kind of sensory image as if with one ear, things appearing as auditory sensory images as if with one ear, or auditory sensory images as if with one ear, and in each individual, things appearing as an auditory sensory image as if with one ear or an auditory sensory image as if with one ear
(i2-2)In general, things appearing as the auditory kind of sensory image as if with both ears, the auditory kind of sensory image as if with both ears, things appearing as auditory sensory images as if with both ears, or auditory sensory images as if with both ears, and each individual, things appearing as an auditory sensory image as if with both ears or an auditory sensory image as if with both ears
(i3)In general, things appearing as the olfactory kind of sensory image, the olfactory kind of sensory image, things appearing as olfactory sensory images, or olfactory sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as an olfactory sensory image or an olfactory sensory image
(i3-1)In general, things appearing as the olfactory kind of sensory image as if with one nasal cavity, the olfactory kind of sensory image as if with one nasal cavity, things appearing as olfactory sensory images as if with one nasal cavity, or olfactory sensory images as if with one nasal cavity, and in each individual things appearing as an olfactory sensory image as if with one nasal cavity or an olfactory sensory image as if with one nasal cavity
(i3-2)In general, things appearing as the olfactory kind of sensory image as if with both nasal cavities, the olfactory kind of sensory image as if with both nasal cavities, things appearing as olfactory sensory images as if with both nasal cavities, or olfactory sensory images as if with both nasal cavities, and in each individual, things appearing as an olfactory sensory image as if with both nasal cavities or an olfactory sensory image as if with both nasal cavities
(i4)In general, things appearing as the balancing kind of sensory image, the balancing kind of sensory image, things appearing as balancing sensory images, or balancing sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as a balancing sensory image or a balancing sensory image
(i5)In general, things appearing as the taste kind of sensory image, the taste kind of sensory image, things appearing as taste sensory images, or a taste sensory image, in each individual, things appearing as a taste sensory image or a taste sensory image
(i6)In general, things appearing as the somatic kind of sensory image, the somatic kind of sensory image, things appearing as somatic sensory images, or somatic sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as a somatic sensory image or a somatic sensory image
(i7)In general, things appearing as the autonomic kind of sensory image, the autonomic kind of sensory image, things appearing as autonomic sensory images, autonomic sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as an autonomic sensory image or an autonomic sensory image

    Simply, things occurring to me, past things remembered, future things expected, unreal things imagined, and so on are images.
    When the word "images" is used, visual sensory images occur to us, but that word is also used about auditory sensory images, olfactory sensory images, and so on in these books. For example 1, when a person who is not present here occurs to us, his or her face appears as a visual sensory image, his or her spoken words appear as an auditory sensory image, and his or her touch appears as a somatic sensory image. In addition, his or her smell with that of tobacco, alcohol, perfume, or so sometimes appears as an olfactory sensory image. For example 2, when some events on the next day in school or office are expected at home, its buildings and people appear as a visual sensory image, their words and the sound of chimes appear as an auditory sensory image. From the beginning, we think with some visual and auditory sensory images of words. Otherwise, we could not think without writing words or speaking words aloud.
    The above are the most basic things appearing as mental phenomena, and the following are comparatively basic things appearing as mental phenomena.
    Strictly, palpitation, dyspnea, and so on contain not only things appearing on an autonomic sensation but also things appearing on a somatic sensation which accompany the chest's expansion and contraction, and are not pure things appearing on an autonomic sensation, but each of them is looked upon as one thing appearing on sensations. A thing appearing on sensations which consists of things appearing on more than one kind of sensation and which are looked upon as one thing appearing on sensations can be called a "Thing Appearing on a complex sensation".
    However, the following definitions will be done in these books. While things appearing on sensations which are premised to be caused by the nervous function which contains some sensory nerves in a narrow sense and which does not contain any other sensory nerves in a broad sense can be called Things Appearing on the Somatic Kind of Sensation or Things Appearing on Somatic Sensations, things appearing on complex sensations which is premised to be caused by the nervous function which contains some autonomic nerves are also called Things Appearing on Autonomic Kind of Sensation or Things Appearing on Autonomic Sensations in these books. That is, when things appearing on complex sensations contain some things appearing on autonomic sensations, they are also called Things Appearing on Autonomic Sensations in these books. The reason why things appearing on autonomic sensations are given priority to in such a way will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".
    Things appearing on autonomic sensations are the vaguest of all things appearing on sensations. However, for example, palpitation and dyspnea appear on an autonomic sensation. Things appearing as autonomic sensory images are the vaguest of all the things appearing, and it is probable that they do not exist. However, because it is possible that they exist, they were enumerated.
    Things appearing on a visual sensation with one eye, things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, things appearing on an auditory sensation with one ear, and so on are respectively homogeneous in a sense. For example, all things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes have colors and brightness as properties and are cubic and beyond both eyes. They are homogeneous in that sense. In contrast, things appearing on an autonomic sensation and things appearing as an autonomic sensory image are not homogeneous, and they are heterogeneous. For example, palpitation, dyspnea, and nausea do not resemble one another at least, they are far from homogeneous. The homogeneous are premised to be caused by a single function. For example, things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes are premised to be caused by paired neuronal groups' excitement and transmission from the retinas to optic nerves (they cross here) to visual areas, and they can be looked upon as one function. In contrast, the heterogeneous cannot be premised to be caused by a single function. Accordingly, as far as things appearing on the autonomic kind of sensation and things appearing as the autonomic kind of sensory image are concerned, even in each individual, the plural forms like things appearing on autonomic "kinds" of "sensations" or on autonomic sensations are sometimes used in these books.

THINGS APPEARING ON THE SAME KIND OF SENSATION AND SENSORY IMAGE = THINGS APPEARING ON EACH KIND OF SENSATION AND SENSORY IMAGE

    Though a visual sensory image is not as clear as things appearing on a visual sensation, the former resembles the latter, though an auditory sensory image is not as clear as things appearing on an auditory sensation, the former resembles the latter, and the same applies to olfactory sensory images, balancing sensory images, and so on. For example, though another person's face appearing as a visual sensory image is not as clear as his or her face appearing on a visual sensation, the former resembles the latter, though another person's voice appearing as an auditory sensory image is not as clear as his or her voice appearing on an auditory sensation, the former resembles the latter. That is because both things appearing on visual sensations and visual sensory images have colors and brightness as necessary properties, and because both things appearing on auditory sensations and auditory sensory images have high-law and loudness of sounds as necessary properties, and the same are repeated. The things appearing on sensations and the sensory images which have the same necessary properties which are different only in clearness in such a way can be called Things Appearing on the Same Kind of Sensation and Sensory Image or Things Appearing on Each Kind of Sensation and Sensory Image in general, and in particular, Things Appearing on the Visual Kind of Sensation and Sensory Image, Things Appearing on the Auditory Kind of Sensation and Sensory Image, and so on.
    It is in things appearing on the same kind of sensation and sensory image that things appearing on a sensation and things appearing as a sensory image are alike. It is not beyond each kind that they are alike. For example, a thing appearing on a visual sensation and a thing appearing as an auditory sensory image are not alike at all. Another person's face appearing on a visual sensation and his or her voice appearing as an auditory sensory image are not alike at all.

THINGS APPEARING ON PLEASURE OR DISPLEASURE SENSATIONS

    Some pleasure or displeasure almost always appear on sensations. For example, the pain on the skins appears on a somatic sensation, and palpitation, dyspnea, hunger or repletion, thirst, and nausea appear on autonomic sensations, and they are pleasure or displeasure. For example 1, moderate hunger is sometimes pleasure, and excessive hunger is often displeasure. For example 2, though excessive palpitation and dyspnea are always displeasure, moderate palpitation and respiration are sometimes pleasure. (s3)-(s7) have such pleasure or displeasure as properties. (s3)-(s7) which have some pleasure or displeasure as properties can be called "Things Appearing on Pleasure or Displeasure Sensations" in general, and in particular, Things Appearing on Pleasure or Displeasure Olfactory Sensations, Things Appearing on Pleasure or Displeasure Balancing Sensations, Things Appearing on Pleasure or Displeasure Taste Sensations, Things Appearing on Pleasure or Displeasure Somatic Sensations, or Things Appearing on Pleasure or Displeasure Autonomic Sensations.
    The pain, itches, hotness, coldness, and so on in the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, and so on are included in things appearing on a pleasure or displeasure somatic sensation. That is because those tissues or organs are reached mainly by sensory nerves in a narrow sense. Those in the mucous membranes, digestive systems, circulatory systems, and so on, and palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, and so on are included in things appearing on pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations. That is because those tissues or organs are reached mainly by autonomic nerves.
    Excluding things appearing on visual sensations and things appearing on auditory sensations, things appearing on sensations are things appearing on pleasure or displeasure sensations. They are psychologically important because they have pleasure or displeasure as properties. Neither things appearing on visual sensations nor things appearing on auditory sensations are things appearing on pleasure or displeasure sensations. For example, eyes' or ears' pain are things appearing on somatic sensations, things appearing on autonomic sensations, or metaphors. Though things appearing on visual sensations and things appearing on auditory sensations have no pleasure or displeasure, because the visual sensory image and the auditory sensory image which are caused from them occupy most of the sensory image, they are psychologically important. After all, (s3)-(s7) are important for emotions, and (s1)(s2) are so for memories, perceptions, associations, and thinkings.
    Things appearing on a pleasure or displeasure sensation have some spatial and temporal parts where pleasure is dominant and some other spatial and temporal parts where displeasure is dominant. In things appearing on a pleasure or displeasure sensation, spatial and temporal parts where pleasure is dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Pleasure Sensation", and spatial and temporal parts where displeasure is dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Displeasure Sensation".
    After all, we can decide whether a thing appearing as mental phenomenon is pleasure or displeasure only according to how animals function to it. As will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", the autonomic sensations which cause functional impulses are pleasure ones.

THINGS APPEARING ON SENSORY ORGANS ⇔ THINGS APPEARING BEYOND SENSORY ORGANS

    (s1-1)(s2-1)(s3-1)(s4)(s5)(s6)(s7)(i1-1)(i2-1)(i3-1)(i4)(i5)(i6)(i7) are points, planes, or bodies, do appear on their own sensory organs, and do not appear beyond them. For example, when each of us closes the right eye, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with the left eye is a plane, does appear on the left one, and does not appear beyond it. (s1-1)(s2-1)(s3-1)(s4)(s5)(s6)(s7)(i1-1)(i2-1)(i3-1)(i4)(i5)(i6)(i7) which are points, planes, or bodies, does appears their own sensory organs, and do not appear beyond them can be called "Things Appearing on Sensory Organs".
    In contrast, (s1-2)(s2-2)(s3-2)(i1-2)(i2-2)(i3-2) are bodies and do appear beyond their own sensory organs. For example, when each of us opens both eyes, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes is a body and does appear beyond both eyes. (s1-2)(s2-2)(s3-2)(i1-2)(i2-2)(i3-2) which are bodies and do appear beyond their own sensory organs can be called "Things Appearing Beyond Sensory Organs".
    Though the explanations of sensory images are omitted in the following explanations, they are the same as those of things appearing on sensations.
    In things appearing on somatic sensations and things appearing on autonomic sensations where their own organs are not clear, the spaces where things appear are the same as those where their own sensory cells are distributed. The space where things appearing on a somatic sensation appear are the same as that of the skins, striated muscles, bones, tendons, and ligaments where sensory cells in a narrow sense are distributed. The space where things appearing on autonomic sensations are the same as that of mucous membranes, circulatory systems, respiratory systems, and so on where their own sensory cells in autonomic nervous system are distributed.
    Things appearing on auditory sensations with one ear and things appearing on balancing sensations are only points spatially. The reason why they are so is that the spatial positions and arrangements of their sensory cells represent not those in the body but sounds' high-low and some other qualities.

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL THINGS AND PROPERTIES APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    As was explained earlier, things appearing as mental phenomena are divided into spatial and temporal things and properties appearing as mental phenomena. For example, the sight of a tree is a spatial and temporal thing appearing on a visual sensation, and it has colors and brightness as properties. A little more closely, the spatial and temporal things of the leaves of the tree appearing on a visual sensation have the color of green as a property, those getting the sunlight directly have that of bright green as a property, and those in the shadow which are not getting the sunlight directly have that of dark green as a property. In such way, more closely, it is found that the first property of the quality of color has the second property of the quantity of brightness. However, even when a spatial and temporal thing (0) has a first property (1) and when the first property (1) has a second property (2), it is called (0)'s having (1)(2) as properties.
    In things appearing on each kind of sensation and sensory image, spatial and temporal things appearing are alike, and properties appearing are alike. For example, in things appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image, colors appearing on a visual sensation and colors appearing as a visual sensory image are alike.
    Properties appearing on visual and auditory sensations do not include any pleasure or displeasure. Properties appearing on olfactory, balancing, taste, somatic, and autonomic sensations include pleasure or displeasure. Properties appearing as sensory images do not include any pleasure or displeasure. For example, what seem to be pleasure or displeasure in mental emotions like anxiety, fear, and so on are the pleasure or displeasure which things appearing on autonomic sensations have as properties, as will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".
    Things appearing on sensations and things appearing as sensory images are spatial and temporal things or their properties. Individual images which will be explained later are spatial and temporal parts of sensory images. Complex images which will be explained later consist spatially and temporally of individual images. Things appearing on perceptions consist spatially and temporally of some parts of things appearing on sensations and complex images. Accordingly, all things appearing as mental phenomena are spatial and temporal things or their properties. Simply, they do not transcend space and time.

THINGS APPEARING INTENSELY OR FAINTLY

    Every spatial and temporal thing appearing as a mental phenomenon has quantity like brightness or darkness, loudness or silence, distance, size, intensity, clearness or vagueness, and so on as properties, and such quantity appears. The quantity which a spatial and temporal thing appearing as a mental phenomenon has as a property and which appears can be called "Quantity" or "Intensity" Appearing (as a Mental Phenomenon). In addition, though it is rough, by and large, a thing appearing whose quantity appearing is large or small can be called the Thing Appearing "Intensely or Faintly". A thing appearing intensely or faintly's appearing can be called the Thing's Appearing Intensely or Faintly.
    Some examples of quantity appearing will be enumerated below. They are also represented by the words of "intensity", "intense or faint", or "intensely or faintly".

○Brightness
    This word represents a kind of quantity appearing which everything appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image has.

○Distance or closeness
    This word represents a kind of quantity appearing which everything appearing beyond sensory organs, that is, everything appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image with both eyes, everything appearing on the auditory kind of sensation and sensory image with both ears, and everything appearing on the olfactory kind of sensation and sensory image with both nasal cavities have.

○Loudness
    This word represents a kind of quantity appearing which everything appearing on the auditory kind of sensation and sensory image has.

○Clearness
    This word represents a kind of quantity appearing which everything appearing has. In things appearing on a visual sensation, the periphery is vague and the central part is clear. In general, things appearing on somatic sensations are clearer than things appearing on autonomic sensations. In general, things appearing on sensations are clearer than things appearing as sensory images. Clearness appearing can be likened to the resolution of photographs. Usually, the larger the number of sensory cells in retinae is, the larger clearness is like the larger that of photodetector is, the larger resolution is. In addition, if the lenses of a person's eyes suffer from cataract, the clearness declines like if the lens of a camera gets dirty, the resolution declines.

〇Spatial size
    Things appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image and things appearing on the somatic kind of sensation and sensory image have clear spatial sizes. For example 1, in things appearing on visual sensations with both eyes, we can guess the size of things in front of us. For example 2, in things appearing on somatic sensations, we can guess the size of skin lesions on our backs from that of its pain or itch. However, some other things appearing have spatial sizes though they are vague. In things appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears and on an olfactory sensation with both nasal cavities, sound and smell sources appear, and their sizes appear, too. For example 1, we find that the sound source of a chorus is larger than that of a soloist even if we close our eyes. For example 2, in a human being, smell sources in things appearing olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities are very vague, but maybe some other animals can smell the sizes of their natural enemies. In addition, the spatial sizes in things appearing on autonomic sensations are vague, too. However, for example, the inflammation in the whole of the stomach's mucous membrane would be felt differently from that on a small part.

〇Temporal duration and frequency
    These are important in things appearing as images. For example, the images which cause anxiety appear vaguely but persistently and frequently, and these persistence and frequency annoy us.

○Intensity
    In a narrow sense, this word represents a kind of quantity appearing which pain, hotness, coldness, and so on appearing on somatic sensations and palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, and so on appearing on autonomic sensations have. In addition, this word is used to designate the quantity of pleasure or displeasure which things appearing on pleasure or displeasure sensations have as properties. In a broad sense, brightness appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image can be looked upon as the intensity of light, and loudness appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image, as the intensity of sounds. As was explained earlier, this word is also used to designate the other kinds of quantities appearing.

THINGS APPEARING AS IMAGES = IMAGES

THINGS APPEARING AS INDIVIDUAL IMAGES = INDIVIDUAL IMAGES

    In a sensory image, each of some spatial and temporal parts has some properties, is separated from the other parts, appears, comes closer, goes further, and fade out, and some of them fuse into one and get separated again. Such parts can be called "Things Appearing as Individual Images", Individual Images, Thing Appearing as Individual Sensory Images, or Individual Sensory Images in general, and in particular Things Appearing as Individual Visual Images or Individual Visual images, Things Appearing as Individual Auditory images, Individual Auditory images, or so. For example, in a visual sensory image, the individual visual image of a certain person's body which has the spatial arrangement of the head, trunk, arms, and legs as a property appears, is separated from the background, comes closer, goes further, and fades out or fuses with the background again. From now on, the words "an individual image" will usually be used for simplification. They are general words, and individual images include individual visual images, individual auditory images, and so on.
    As will be explained later in the chapter "MEMORIES", some properties which a part of a neuronal source just sensed are recognized and that part is cut out and generated as an individual image's source. Accordingly, each individual image has already got some properties, has already been separated, is homogeneous, and is either a visual one or an auditory one or so. In addition, it is the minimum unit in images. Such minimum units compose the other kinds of images explained below.

THINGS APPEARING AS IMAGES = IMAGES

    Things appearing as complex images, things appearing on perceptions, and things appearing on associations, which will be explained in the following sections, can be called "Things Appearing as Images" or "Images".

THINGS APPEARING AS COMPLEX IMAGES = COMPLEX IMAGES

    More than one individual image appears spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images and things appearing on sensations. For example, a particular person's face appearing as individual visual images with both eyes, his or her spoken words and names appearing as individual auditory images with both ears, and so on appear spatially and temporally closer than the other particular persons' faces appearing as individual visual images with both eyes, their spoken words and names appearing as individual auditory images with both ears, and so on. More than one individual image which appears spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images and things appearing on sensations can be called "Things Appearing as a Complex Image", a Complex Image, or a Group of Individual Images.
    Moreover, more than one complex image appears spatially and temporally closer than the other complex images and things appearing on sensations, and the same are repeated. For example, many human beings appearing as complex images appear spatially and temporally closer than apes, horses, cows, sheep, and so on appearing as complex images. The former are the image of general human beings. Moreover, for example, human beings, apes, horses, and so on appearing as complex images appear spatially and temporally closer than birds, fishes, and so on appearing as complex images. The former is the image of mammals. That is because human beings are more similar to apes, horses, and so on than to birds, fishes, and so on, and because modern people know biological classification, the theory of evolution, and so on. More than one complex image which appears spatially and temporally closer than the other complex images and things appearing on sensations and which can repeat this can be called "Things Appearing as a Complex Image", a Complex Image, or a Group of Complex Images.
    Every complex image consists spatially and temporally of a lot of individual images or some complex images. After all, every complex image consists spatially and temporally of a lot of individual images.
    A complex image usually consists of more than one kind of individual sensory image, that is, different kinds of individual sensory images. For example 1, a particular person appearing as a complex image consists of his or her faces and bodies appearing as individual visual images, his or her spoken words and names appearing as individual auditory images, and so on. For example 2, a general human being appearing as a complex images consists of a lot of particular persons' faces and bodies appearing as individual visual images, spoken words of "man", "woman", "human", "being", "Homo", "sapiens", and so on appearing as individual auditory images, and so on. When it needs to be emphasized that a complex image consists of different kinds of individual sensory images, it can be called a Complex Image of Different Kinds.
    However, a few kinds of individual sensory images are usually dominant in a complex image. Above all, in human beings, individual visual images and individual auditory ones are dominant. For example, individual visual images are dominant in complex images in mathematical or physical thinking where numerical formulas are often used, and the auditory ones are dominant in complex images in daily thinking where spoken words are usually used. The complex images where individual visual images are dominant, those where auditory ones are dominant, those where visual ones and auditory ones are dominant, or so can be called "Visual (Complex) Images", "Auditory (Complex) Images", "Visual and Auditory (Complex) Images", or so. When they have been defined so, it is no exaggeration to say that complex images are visual ones, auditory ones, or visual and auditory ones in human beings. In addition, in human beings, the images of language, that is, lingual images are generated. That is, language is not only the means of transmission but also that of associations and thinkings. The images of spoken words are auditory images, and those of written words are visual images.
    Complex images are the substance of what is called "Ideas." About particular things and general things, please refer to "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS." The things which have temporal extent of more than seconds, general things, functions, and so on all appear as complex images, and do not appear on sensations, as sensory images, or as individual images. What are called abstract things appear as complex images, too. For example 1, a certain person which has a temporal extent of years appears as a complex image consisting of his or her faces and bodies for years appearing as a lot of individual visual images, his or her spoken words and names for years appearing as a lot of individual auditory images, and so on. For example 2, general human beings appear as a complex image consisting of a lot of particular persons' faces and bodies appearing as individual visual images, certain spoken words "man", "woman", "human", "being", "Homo", and "sapiens" appearing as individual auditory images, erect bipedalism appearing as individual visual images, crowds in the cities appearing as individual visual and auditory images, and so on. For example 3, universal gravitation as a function appears as a complex image consisting of the arrows representing vectors appearing as individual visual images, spoken words of "Universal" and "Gravitation" appearing as individual auditory images, and so on.

SENSORY IMAGES AND COMPLEX IMAGES

    Both sensory images and complex images consist of individual images. However, the former do so on the basis of whether they are visual, auditory, or so, and the latter do so on the basis of spatial and temporal closeness. The former is like what is made by slicing the latter which is in unity and makes what is called sense, and the former makes no sense by itself. It is the latter that is important for feelings, desires, egos, thinkings, and so on which will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", and the former can almost be ignored there. In addition, the latter are important for our daily life, literature, and art. However, the former cannot be ignored in this book, which explain memories in the final chapter. That is because, at the final stage of a memory, individual visual images are replayed by the visual kind of replay and comprise a visual sensory image, individual auditory images are replayed by the auditory kind of replay and comprise an auditory sensory image, and the same applies to individual olfactory images, individual balancing images, and so on.

THINGS APPEARING ON PERCEPTIONS

    Some complex images and some spatial and temporal parts appearing on sensations appear spatially and temporally closer than the other complex images and parts appearing on sensations. For example, a particular person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, his or her faces appearing as visual complex images with both eyes, and his or her names appearing as auditory complex images with both ears appear spatially and temporally closer than the other particular persons' or the background appearing on a visual sensation. Some complex images and some spatial and temporal parts appearing on sensations which appear spatially and temporally closer than the other complex images and parts appearing on sensations can be called a "Thing Appearing on a Perception".
    All things appearing on sensations are endless and chaotic. An individual image which is generated by a part of a neuronal source having some properties' being cut out is not endless and gets out of chaos. However, all things appearing on sensations, all sensory images, and all individual images are momentary things and particular things. In contrast, some complex images are continuous things. In addition, some complex images are general things like general human beings. In addition, some complex images are abstract things like liberty. When a part appearing on a sensation fuses with some complex images, that part gets out of chaos as a thing appearing on a perception. For example, the part of another person's face appearing on a sensation is not a face, a person, or a human being. Simply, we cannot recognize him or her. When that part fuses with his or her face appearing as a complex image, that part gets out of chaos as his or her face appearing on a perception. Simply, we can recognize him or her. More simply, we can look at, listen to, and feel things well by overlapping images with things appearing on sensations.

A LIMITED NUMBER OR LESS OF IMAGES' APPEARING

    In a time of tenths of a second or less, a limited number or less of complex images appear, some of them appear intensely, and others appear faintly. For example, when each of us thinks of the self, its images appear intensely, the images of some other persons who it has much to do with appear faintly. That is the substance of some parts of what is called "consciousness."
    However, the limited number is not determined by species or individuals but varies in situations. For example, when some images appear very intensely, the number gets small. For example, when a boy or girl friend appears, it is smaller than when ordinary people appear.

THINGS APPEARING ON ASSOCIATIONS

    In a time of several tenths of a second or more, some things appearing on perceptions and some complex images appear spatially and temporally closer, the latter and some other complex images appear spatially and temporally closer, the latter and some other complex images appear spatially and temporally closer, and the same are repeated. the whole of such complex images as continue in such a way are included in complex images. However, complex images in a time of several tenths of a second or more are free from the limited number explained in the above section. Accordingly, they can be distinguished, and the complex images which continue in a time of tenths of second or less can be called Things Appearing as Complex Images in a Narrow Sense or Complex Images in a Narrow Sense, and those which continue in a time of several tenths of a second or more can be called "Things Appearing on an Associations". For example, when each of us wakes up in the morning, the windows appearing on a perception and our town appearing as an image appear closer, the latter and our office or school appearing as an image appear closer, and the latter and the people belonging to it appearing as images appear closer, and the same are repeated. Those images are a thing appearing on an association.
    However, when things appearing as complex images in a narrow sense and things appearing as associations do not need to be distinguished, they are called Things Appearing as Complex Images (in a Broad Sense) or Complex Images (in a Broad Sense) in these books.

Things Appearing as Images = Images

    Now we have found the following three groups.
Group (1) Things appearing as complex images (in a narrow sense) = Complex images (in a narrow sense)
Group (2) Things appearing on perceptions
Group (3) Things appearing on associations
(1)(2)(3) contain (1), and the most important for memories, emotions, egos, and thinkings are (1). In addition, if the words "complex images, things appearing on perceptions, or things appearing on associations", are always used, sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, (1)(2)(3) are also called Things Appearing as (Complex) Images (in a Broad Sense) or (Complex) Images (in a Broad Sense) in these books. That is, the word "images" or "complex images" designate complex images in a narrow sense, things appearing on perceptions, or things appearing on association in these books.
    In addition, in the same way as in the above chapters, (1)(2)(3) where individual visual images individual auditory images, individual visual images and individual auditory images, or so are dominant can be called Visual Images, Auditory Images, Visual and Auditory Images, or so.

WORDS APPEARING AS IMAGES = LANGUAGE APPEARING AS IMAGES = LINGUAL IMAGES

    In human beings, spoken words are sensed on auditory sensations and are generated and memorized and stored and recollected as auditory images. In addition, written words and signs are sensed on visual sensations and memorized and stored and recollected as visual images. In addition, it is probable that Braille are sensed on somatic sensations and memorized and stored and recollected as somatic images. The images of spoken words and written words and signs and Braille, and so on can be called "Words Appearing as Images", "Language Appearing as Images", or "Lingual Images".
    Some short isolated words appear as individual images, some short words, many long ones and some short phrases appear as complex images in a narrow sense, and some short phrases, many long ones, clauses, and sentences appear on associations. For example, the sentence "some short phrases, many long ones, clauses, and sentences appear on associations" appear on an association.
    We are shown not only words but also the things which they designate by our elders like parents , or it is sometimes clear in situations which things they designate. Accordingly, when lingual images are generated or renewed, the images of the things which they represent are also generated or renewed, the neuronal ways among their sources are activated on the basis of temporal closeness, and simply, words and things are linked. Common nouns in language represent sets and have already classified things. Accordingly, language not only are means of transmission but also facilitate classifying and systematizing complex images.
    In addition, grammar in language in itself is some patterns of associations and thinkings. Accordingly, language facilitate and sophisticate associations and thinkings.
    Of course, language is means of transmission and storage, too. Through language, complicated complex images, that is, ideas are generated or renewed and memorized and stored and recollected and not only transmitted as spoken words but also transmitted and stored as written words and sighs beyond generations and regions. In such a way, complicated ideas like the Ptolemaic system and the Copernican system, the Creation and Darwin's theory of evolution, and aristocracy and democracy are constructed in the human history. Some of them are dissolved or reconstructed but a lot of them are lost and forgotten.

INTENSITIES OF IMAGES

    Every image has intensity as a property as the average of the intensities of the individual images or parts of things appearing on sensations which it consists of. For example, when each of us thinks of a human being as an individual, its images appear more intensely than the images of the society or the nature.

COMPOSITION OF THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    Everything appearing as a mental phenomenon consists of some things appearing on sensations or some individual images. For example, every complex image in a narrow sense consists of a lot of individual images, and everything appearing on a perception consists of some parts appearing on sensations and a lot of individual images. In addition, as was explained earlier, sensory images consist of individual images.
    Things appearing as mental phenomena include things appearing on sensations, sensory images, individual images, complex images, things appearing on perceptions, things appearing on associations, things appearing on emotions, things appearing on egos, things appearing on thinkings, and so on. Out of them, things appearing on sensations consist of things appearing on sensations, sensory images, individual images, complex images in a narrow sense, and things appearing on associations consist of a lot of individual images. Things appearing on perceptions, things appearing on emotions, things appearing on egos, and things appearing on thinkings consist of some parts appearing on sensations and a lot of individual images.
    After all, all things appearing as mental phenomena consist spatially and temporarily of the whole or parts of things appearing on sensations or individual images. As was explained earlier, all things appearing on sensations and all individual images are spatial temporal things or their properties. Accordingly, all things appearing as mental phenomena are spatial and temporal things or their properties. That is, they do not transcend space and time.

A CONTINUITY OF THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    As long as each of us is awake or is dreaming, something appearing as mental phenomena appears continuously. If we closed our eyes completely, we could hear something. If we could close our eyes and ears completely, we could feel our hands, masks, or so blocking them. If nothing appearing on visual, auditory, or somatic sensations appeared, hunger or thirst could appear on autonomic sensations. If nothing appearing on sensations appeared, some images would appear continuously as long as each of us is awake or is dreaming. Such a continuity can be called a "Continuity of Things Appearing" or a "Continuity of Images". It is the substance of what is called a "Continuity of Consciousness", "Stream of Consciousness", and so on.
    When each of us is asleep and is not dreaming or is unconscious, nothing appearing appears. However, as long as each of us wakes up or dreams again and has memories, things appearing are looked upon as intermittent. For example, when each of us wakes up in the morning, yesterday's happenings and today's schedules appear as images.

NERVOUS FUNCTIONS CAUSING THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

NERVOUS FUNCTIONS CAUSING THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    Everything appearing as a mental phenomenon is premised to be caused by some things in themselves. For example, everything appearing on a visual sensation is premised to be caused by the photons which reach the retinae, the material things and their functions which reflect, permeate, and refract the photons reaching the retinae, the neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinae to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on.
    Everything appearing as a mental phenomenon is premised to be caused directly by some parts of the nervous system and their functions. The parts of the nervous system and their functions which are premised to cause a thing appearing as a mental phenomenon directly can be called the "Nervous Function Causing the Thing Appearing as a Mental Phenomenon". For example, the neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinae to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on are the nervous function causing things appearing on a visual sensation.
    In addition, the nervous function causing things appearing on a sensation can be called a "Sensation", and that causing things appearing as a sensory image can be called the "Recollection of the Sensory Images" or a "Recollection".
    These words imply something appearing as a mental phenomenon in our daily life. For example, when we use the word "sensation", not only eyes, ears, or nerves but also sights, sounds, touches, and so on occur to us. Accordingly,

(S) a sensation and the things appearing on the sensation which it causes
(I) the recollection of a sensory image and the sensory image which it causes

can also be called

(S)a Sensation
(R)the Recollection of the Sensory Image ( = a Recollection)

    The following is their detail.

[nf] The nervous functions causing things appearing as mental phenomena
  [s]In general, a kind of sensation or sensations, and in each individual, a sensation
    [s1]In general, the visual kind of sensation or visual sensations, and in each individual, a visual sensation
      [s1-1]In general, the visual kind of sensation with one eye or visual sensations with one eye, and in each individual, a visual sensation with one eye
      [s1-2]In general, the visual kind of sensation with both eyes or visual sensations with both eyes, and in each individual, a visual sensation with both eyes
    [s2]In general, the auditory kind of sensation or auditory sensations, and in each individual, an auditory sensation
      [s2-1]In general, the auditory kind of sensation with one ear or auditory sensations with one ear, and in each individual, an auditory sensation with one ear
      [s2-2]In general, the auditory kind of sensation with both ears or auditory sensations with both ears, and in each individual, an auditory sensation with both ears
    [s3]In general, the olfactory kind of sensation or olfactory sensations, and in each individual, an olfactory sensation
      [s3-1]In general, the olfactory kind of sensation with one nasal cavity or olfactory sensations with one nasal cavity, and in each individual, an olfactory sensation with one nasal cavity
      [s3-2]In general, the olfactory kind of sensation with both nasal cavities or olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities, and in each individual, an olfactory sensation with both nasal cavities
    [s4]In general, the balancing kind of sensation or balancing sensations, and in each individual, a balancing sensation
    [s5]In general, the taste kind of sensation or taste sensations, and in each individual, a taste sensation
    [s6]In general, somatic kind of sensation or somatic sensations, and in each individual, a somatic sensation
    [s7]In general, autonomic kinds of sensations or autonomic sensations, and in each individual, autonomic sensations
  [i]In general the recollection of a kind of sensory image or recollections of sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a sensory image
    [i1]In general, the recollection of the visual kind of sensory image or recollections of visual sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a visual sensory image
      [i1-1]In general, the recollection of the visual kind of sensory image as if with one eye or recollections of visual sensory images as if with one eye, and in each individual, the recollection of a visual sensory image as if with one eye
      [i1-2]In general, the recollection of the visual kind of sensory image as if with both eyes or recollections of visual sensory images as if with both eyes, and in each individual, the recollection of a visual sensory image as if with both eyes
    [i2]In general, the recollection of the auditory kind of sensory image or recollections of auditory sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of an auditory sensory image
      [i2-1]In general, the recollection of the auditory kind of sensory image as if with one ear or recollections of auditory sensory images as if with one ear, and in each individual, the recollection of an auditory sensory image as if with one ear
      [i2-2]In general, the recollection of the auditory kind of sensory image as if with both ears or recollections of auditory sensory images as if with both ears, and in each individual, the recollection of an auditory sensory image as if with both ears
    [i3]In general, the recollection of the olfactory kind of sensory image or recollections of olfactory sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of an olfactory sensory image
      [i3-1]In general, the recollection of the olfactory kind of sensory image as if with one nasal cavity or recollections of olfactory sensory images as if with one nasal cavity, and in each individual, the recollection of an olfactory sensory image as if with one nasal cavity
      [i3-2]In general, the recollection of the olfactory kind of sensory image as if with both nasal cavities or recollections of olfactory sensory images as if with both nasal cavities, and in each individual, the recollection of an olfactory sensory image as if with both nasal cavities
    [i4]In general, the recollection of the balancing kind of sensory image or recollections of balancing sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a balancing sensory image
    [i5]In general, the recollection of the taste kind of sensory image or recollections of taste sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a taste sensory image
    [i6]In general, the recollection of the somatic kind of sensory image or recollections of somatic sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a somatic sensory image
    [i7]In general, the recollections of autonomic kinds of sensory images or recollections of autonomic sensory images, in each individual, recollections of autonomic sensory images

    Some of them will be supplemented below.
    Things appearing on autonomic sensations and things appearing as autonomic sensory images cannot be premised to be caused by a unitary nervous function. For example, palpitation, dyspnea, and nausea cannot be premised to be caused by a unitary nervous function. Accordingly, as far as they are concerned, also in each individual, the plural forms like autonomic "kinds" of "sensations", autonomic "sensations", and so on are used in these books.
    As was explained earlier, at the stage of things appearing as mental phenomena, some things appearing on "complex" sensations have already been recognized. That is because the nervous functions which are premised to cause them are complex ones. They can be called "Complex Sensations". Above all, complex sensations which involve the excitements and transmissions of both autonomic nerves and sensory ones in a narrow sense can be recognized. For example, palpitation and nausea are so. However, the complex sensations which involve some autonomic nerves' excitements and transmissions are also called Autonomic Kinds of Sensations or Autonomic Sensations in these books. That is because when a sensation contains a few autonomic nerves' excitements and transmissions, it affects some feelings, desires, or egos which will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".
    [s1]-[s7] are sensations which are basic to vertebrates including human beings. In animals excluding vertebrates, the distinction between [s6]somatic sensations and [s7]autonomic sensations is vague. It is in terrestrial vertebrates that [s2]auditory sensations and [s3]olfactory sensations are clear. That is because sound waves and smell sources are not clear in the water. There can be some other kinds of sensations. For example, some reptiles have a kind of sensation which uses infrared rays, and some dolphins or whales have a kind of sensation which uses echoes. The explanations of such special sensations will be omitted in these books.
    Sensations excluding visual ones and auditory ones are "Pleasure or Displeasure Sensations" which are premised to cause things appearing on pleasure or displeasure sensations. In the phylogenesis, ontogenesis, and individual aging of sensations, somatic, autonomic, taste, and olfactory ones precede and survive the others. Accordingly, every animal having some sensations has some pleasure or displeasure sensations.
    Recollections of sensory images get clear in some mammals, above all, in human beings.
    Though the word "recollection" often designates remembering some past events in our daily life, it designates a nervous function causing images of not only past things but also present things, future things, and unreal things in these books.
    Though the neuronal function which is premised to cause things appearing as complex images will be explained in detail in the chapter "MEMORIES", it is called Recollections of Complex Images or Recollections of Images.

PERCEPTIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS

    The neuronal functions which are premised to cause things appearing on perceptions or things appearing on associations can be called Perceptions or Associations. The former consist of some sensations, some recollections of sensory images, and some functions among them, and the latter consist of some recollections of sensory images and some functions among them. Those functions among them are the recognitions, generations, memorizations, storages, arousals, recollections of individual images' sources, the excitements and transmissions of the neuronal ways among individual images' sources, and so on which will be explained in the chapter of "Memories".

THE INDIVIDUALITY OF SENSATIONS, RECOLLECTIONS, AND MENTAL FUNCTIONS

    By definition, bodies of individuals of animals are separated from each other, so are their nervous system, and no animals' neuronal groups join to, transmits to, are joined to by, or are transmitted to by any others'. Accordingly, it is premised that nothing appearing to any others appears to me. For example, though your face is appearing to me on my visual sensation, my face appearing to you on your visual sensation never appears to me. However, two animals' bodies which are to be two individuals are rarely born with them agglutinated in periphery. In that case, their peripheral nervous system are sometimes intermingled, too. As a result, pain, hotness, and so on appearing to one of them on a somatic sensation sometimes appear to another, too. However, no central nervous systems are intermingled, or none of those which are intermingled function, or the animals where some of them are intermingled die before their birth. Accordingly, no images appearing to other persons appear to me, and it never happens that I am thinking what any other persons are thinking.

THE SAME KIND OF CONTINUOUS SENSATION AND MEMORY = EACH KIND OF CONTINUOUS SENSATION AND MEMORY

    Visual sensory images resemble things appearing on visual sensations in things appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image, auditory sensory images resemble things appearing on auditory sensations in the auditory kind of sensation and sensory image, and the same applies to olfactory sensory images, balancing sensory images, and so on. In such a way, the kinds like the visual kind, the auditory kind, and so on have already been recognized at the stage of things appearing as mental phenomena.
    Moreover, because of the similarity of a sensory image to things appearing on the same kind of sensation, we can guess that between

(1) a sensation

and

(3) the recollection of the same kind of sensory image

there are

(2) some nervous systems and their functions which are caused or changed by (1) and which cause or change (3),

and that (1)(2)(3) compose a small nervous system in the nervous system of an individual, and (1)(2)(3) are a continuous function. While (1)(3) cause something appearing directly, (2) do not do so directly. (2) can be called a "Kind of Latent Memory" or Latent Memories in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of Latent Memory or Visual Latent Memories, the Auditory Kind of Latent Memory or Auditory Latent Memories, or so. (2)(3) can be called a Kind of Memory or Memories in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of Memory or Visual Memories, the Auditory Kind of Memory or Auditory Memories, or so. (1)(2)(3) can be called the Same Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory or Each Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory or a Continuous Sensation and Memory in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory or Visual (Continuous) Sensations and Memories, the Auditory Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory or Auditory (Continuous) Sensations and Memories, or so.
    Moreover, in each kind of continuous sensation and memory, there exist and function its own source, replay, and processing functions in a narrow sense which will be explained later. For example, there are visual source, visual replay, and visual processing functions in a narrow sense in the visual kind of continuous sensation and memory.
    Of course, the details of memories will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES". In addition, not only each kind of memory but also the integration of different kinds of memories will be explained in it.

SOURCES OF THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    Everything appearing as a mental phenomenon is premised to be caused by making something in itself a source. Something in itself which is premised to cause a thing appearing as a mental phenomenon by being made a source can be called the "Source" of the thing appearing as a mental phenomenon. In addition, in general, the source of things appearing on a sensation can be called the Sensation's Source, and in particular, a visual sensation's source, an auditory sensation's source, and so on. In addition, the source of things appearing as a sensory image, a thing appearing as an individual image, a thing appearing as an image, or so can be called the sensory Image's Source, the individual image's Source, the Image's Source, or so. For example, the source of things appearing on a visual sensation, that is, a visual sensation's source is the photons which reach the retinae, the material things and their functions which reflect, permeate, and refract the photons reaching the retinae, the neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinae to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on. Moreover, the source of a thing appearing as a mental phenomenon is also called the "Thing" in these books. That is, the word "things" sometimes designate the sources of things appearing as mental phenomena in these books.
    It is premised that nothing appearing as a mental phenomenon is caused only by sources. It is premised that nothing appearing would be caused if no nervous functions replayed or treated sources. It is only nervous functions that can replay or treat nervous functions. A part of a source needs to be nervous functions so that nervous functions can replay or treat it. The part of the source of a thing appearing as a mental phenomenon which is nervous functions can be called the "Neuronal Source" of the thing appearing (as a mental phenomenon). For example, the neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinae to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on is the neuronal source of things appearing on a visual sensation.
    Every neuronal source is a neuronal group's excitement and transmission or activation and activity. The details will be explained later.
    Anyway, some neuronal groups need to be generated and to exist so that their excitements and transmissions, activities, and so on can function. The functioning of some neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions or activations and activities as a neuronal source can be called the neuronal source's "Going", Coming, or Flowing through the neuronal groups. The following are the examples of the neuronal groups which some neuronal sources go through. In a visual sensation, the neuronal group from the retinae to optic nerves, crossing, to visual areas on occipital lobes. In an auditory sensation, the neuronal group from the inner ears to acoustic nerves, not crossing, to auditory areas on the temporal lobes. In a somatic sensation, the neuronal group from the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, or ligaments to sensory nerves in a narrow sense, crossing, to sensory areas in a narrow sense on parietal lobes.
    In addition, when the neuronal group which some neuronal sources go through diverge or converge, the neuronal sources can diverge or converge, too. When they diverge, one neuronal source can cause more than one identical one. When they converge, some of them can go through and the others can disappear. In addition, when the neuronal group which a neuronal source go through has a disorder, at least a part of it can disappear. For example, a visual field defect is caused.
    The sensory group's part of a neuronal source can be called the "Sensory Group's Source", and it is different from sensations' sources which were defined earlier. Sensory groups' sources are included in sensations' neuronal sources. The following are the examples of some sensory groups' sources. In a visual sensation's source, the sensory group's excitement and transmission in the retinae. In an auditory sensation's source, that in the inner ears. In a somatic sensation's source, that in the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
    The part of a source excluding the neuronal source can be called the "Material and Bodily Source". The following are examples of material and bodily sources. In a visual sensation's source, light sources→photons→material things' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction→photons. In an auditory sensation's source, sound sources→the frequency and amplitude of their vibration→sound waves. In a somatic sensation's source, pressure to, heat to, and inflammation in the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendons.
    In such ways, some material and bodily sources includes bodily functions. For example, an autonomic sensation's source includes the blood concentration of oxygen, that of glucose, and osmotic pressures. They are premised to cause dyspnea, hunger, and thirst respectively.
    It is premised that some parts of a material and bodily source are represented as things appearing as mental phenomena, that the other parts are not, and that the neuronal source is not. As for neuronal sources, simply, I have never seen my brain or nerves directly. Though I sometimes have a slight headache, what is represented as it is the stretch or vibration of the blood vessels, and it is not a neuronal source but a part of the material and bodily source. As for material and bodily sources, unless I look at the sun directly, it is not seen. In such a way, we rarely see light sources in the daytime. In contrast, material things' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction are premised to be represented as things appearing on visual sensations, the frequency and amplitude of material things' vibration are premised to be represented as things appearing on auditory sensations, and skins' inflammation are premised to be represented as things appearing on somatic sensations. The parts of a material and bodily source which are premised to be represented as things appearing as mental phenomena can be called the "Reproducible Source" of the things appearing as mental phenomena. For example, material things' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction are visual sensations' reproducible sources, the frequency and amplitude of material things' vibration are auditory sensations' reproducible sources, and pressure to, heat to, and inflammation in the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, and ligaments are somatic sensations' reproducible sources.

THE SAME KIND OF CONTINUOUS SENSATION AND SENSORY IMAGE'S SOURCE = EACH KIND OF CONTINUOUS SENSATION AND SENSORY IMAGE'S SOURCE

    As will be closely explained in the chapter "MEMORIES", in each kind of continuous sensation and memory, the properties which some parts of the sensation's source have are recognized, and those parts are cut out and are generated as individual images sources. Accordingly, closely, some parts of the sensation's source and the individual images' sources are a continuous one, and largely, the sensation's source and the sensory image's source are a continuous one. For example, in the visual kind of sensation and memory, the visual sensation's source and the visual sensory image's source are a continuous one, and in the auditory kind of sensation and memory, the auditory sensation's source and the auditory sensory image's source are a continuous one. Accordingly, in things appearing on each kind of sensation and sensory image, the sensory image is similar to things appearing on the same kind of sensation though the former are not as clear as the latter are. It is clear in the visual and auditory kinds in human beings. For example, a person's face appearing as an individual visual image is similar to the person's face appeared on a visual sensation in the past. The sensation's source and the sensory image's source which are a continuous one in such ways in the same kind of continuous sensation and memory can be called the "Same Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source", Each Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, or a (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, the Auditory Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, or so.

THINGS RETAINED BY NEURONAL SOURCES AND WAYS TO RETAIN THEM

(1) SELECTIVE NEURONAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS = SELECTIVE NEURONAL GROUPS RETAINING SPATIAL POSITION'S EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    In (1) a selective neuronal group's (a selective neuronal group retaining spatial position's) excitement and transmission, which was explained earlier, the spatial relative positions, the spatial arrangements, and the densities of series of neurons actually joining's excitements and transmissions are retained. As a result, the spatial relative positions and the spatial arrangements and the quantities of sources are retained.
    Concretely, the "shapes" of things are retained in (1). Otherwise, for example, some things appearing on visual sensations would be distorted, and a ball would look like an amoeba.
    In addition, quantities like brightness of light, loudness of sound, and intensity of pain are converted into the densities of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions by sensory groups, those densities are retained in (1). In (1), some series of neurons actually joining excite and transmit, and the others do not. Accordingly, there can be densities and quantities. One neuron in itself, which either excites and transmits or stops, cannot represent density or quantity. When neurons gather and compose a neuronal group, they can represent densities and quantities. Moreover, when they compose a selective neuronal group retaining spatial position, densities and quantities are actually retained.

(2) NEURONAL GROUPS' INSTANT EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    In (2) a neuronal group's instant excitement and transmission which was explained earlier, the temporal relative positions, the temporal arrangements, and their temporal changes and the frequencies of series of neurons actually joining's excitements and transmissions are retained. As a result, the temporal positions, the temporal arrangements, and their temporal changes and the quantities of sources are retained. Otherwise, for example, the limbs movement of an animal walking or running appearing on a visual sensation, which is usually regular, could be irregular.
    In addition, the qualities like colors and high-law of material and bodily sources are converted into the frequencies of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions by sensory groups, and such frequencies are retained in (2). For example, the neuron which was transmitted by a neuron which excited and transmitted at 100Hz excite and transmit at 100Hz. As a result, all the neurons belonging to a series of neurons actually joining excite and transmit at 100Hz.

(3) SENSORY GROUPS' CONVERSION OF MATERIAL AND BODILY SOURCES INTO NEURONAL SOURCES

    In a sensation's source, some functions of the sensory group convert the material and bodily source's qualities like waves' frequencies into the frequencies of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and convert its quantities like waves' amplitudes into the concentrations of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions. Such conversion can be called a Sensory Group's "Conversion" of a material and bodily source into a neuronal source or a Sensory Group's Converting a material and bodily source into a neuronal source. For example, in a visual sensation's source, the sensory group in the retinae convert colors into the frequencies of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and converts brightness into their concentrations.

(4) SELECTIVE AND SPECIALIZED NEURONAL GROUPS' ACTIVATIONS AND ACTIVITIES AND EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    Only when transmitted to with a certain frequency, some neurons excite and transmit with that frequency, are activated, retain the activities, and will excite and transmit with that frequency next time they are transmitted to with that frequency. Such neurons can be called "Selective and Specialized Neurons with the Frequency". In addition, a neuronal group which consists of selective and specialized neurons with various frequencies can be called a Selective and Specialized Neuronal Group.
    As will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES", some images' sources need to be memorized and stored so that they can be recollected after a while. First, the neuronal groups memorizing and storing images' sources need to be those which can be acquiredly activated. Moreover, in order for qualities as frequencies to be memorized and stored, those neuronal groups need to be selective and specialized neuronal groups.
    Individual images' sources can be memorized and stored and recollected in the above ways. In contrast, complex images' sources can be recollected in the following ways.

(5) Activations and activities and excitements and transmissions of the neuronal ways among neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources

    In order for complex images' sources to be recollected, a lot of individual images' sources need to be recollected spatially and temporally close, and to compose them. In order for them to do so, there need to be a lot of neuronal ways directly or indirectly among selective and specialized neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources, they need to be activated, and the activities need to be retained for a while. Then, when some of the neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources or some of the neuronal ways among them excite and transmit, some other ways or groups excite and transmit, the same are repeated, a lot of individual images' sources are recollected spatially and temporally close, and they compose complex images' sources.
    In each kind of memory, the neuronal source just sensed or just recollected goes through a neuronal group diverging one after another, some properties which some parts of that neuronal source have are recognized, and those parts are generated or renewed and memorized and stored as individual images' sources. Such a neuronal group diverging one after another can be called Each Kind of Memorial Neuronal Group Diverging (One After Another). In such a neuronal group, those selective and specialized neuronal groups which were explained in the above section are, and they store individual images' sources. In such a neuronal group, the more similar individual images are, the closer they are memorized and stored, and after all, they are classified on the basis of similarity.
    After those are repeated and when some properties which some parts of the neuronal source just sensed or the neuronal source just recollected have are recognized, the following part of such neuronal group or some neuronal ways paralleling it excite and transmit, that excitement and transmission causes those of selective and specialized neuronal groups memorizing storing similar individual images' sources. After all, similar individual images' sources can arise and be recollected spatially and temporarily close, and they can compose a complex image's source. This can be called Arousals or Recollections of Individual Images Sources on the Basis of Similarity. For example, when a particular human being is recognized, a lot of individual images' sources of particular human beings are recollected on the basis of similarity, they can compose a complex image's source of general human beings, and that particular person is recognized as one of general human beings. In such a way, first, individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of similarity compose complex images' sources. The part from recognitions to neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources of each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another or some neuronal ways paralleling it can be called "Neuronal Ways among Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Similarity". These neuronal ways are activated innately to a degree, and are activated more by individual images' sources' recognitions, generations, or renewals.
    Such neuronal ways do exist and function only in or along each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another and do not exist or function among different kinds. Accordingly, through them, only the same kind of individual image's source's can arise and be recollected, and different kinds cannot. When this needs to be emphasized, they can be called Neuronal Ways among the Same Kind of Individual Image's Source on the Basis of Similarity or Neuronal Ways among Each Kind of Individual Image's Source on the Basis of Similarity, and the arousals or recollections through them can be called Arousals or Recollections of the Same Kind of Individual Image's Source on the Basis of Similarity or Arousals or Recollections of Each Kind of Individual Images Sources on the Basis of Similarity.
    Second, there are a lot of neuronal ways among the same kind of and different kinds of memorial neuronal groups diverging or neuronal group memorizing and storing individual images' sources in them. However, such ways are not activated innately. They are acquiredly activated on the basis of temporal closeness. A little more closer, the neuronal ways among the neuronal groups which some individual images' sources generated or renewed temporarily close go through are activated. Such neuronal ways can be called Neuronal Ways among Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness. Next time some of those individual images' sources excites and transmits and arise and can be recollected, those activated neuronal ways excite and transmit, and the other individual images' sources, too, excite and transmit and arise and can be recollected. In such a way, individual images' sources which were generated or renewed temporarily close arise and can be recollected temporarily close, and can compose a complex image's source. This can be called Arousals or Recollections of Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness.
    Some temporarily close things are cause and effect, and, on their basis, cause and effect are recollected as complex images or associated. For example, when a child's mother are one of those who hit their children when they are angry, in the nervous system of the child, the neuronal ways between the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources of its mother's furious face and neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources of being hit are activated. After those are repeated and when the child perceive the mother's furious face, being hit is recollected or associated. In such a way, complex images' sources can be recollected not only on the basis of similarity but also on that of temporal closeness.
    Neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness are among not only the same kind but also different kinds of individual images' sources. Accordingly, through them, different kinds of individual images' sources arise and can be recollected, and can compose complex images consisting of different kinds of individual images. When this needs to be emphasized, they can be called Neuronal Ways among the Same Kind of and Different Kinds of Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness, and arousals or recollections through them can be called Arousals or Recollections of the Same Kind of and Different Kinds of Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness. For example, the individual visual images of the mother's furious face and the individual auditory images of her furious voice are recollected temporarily close, and they compose the complex image of the furious mother. In addition, all neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness are activated acquiredly, and they make the difference among individuals clear. Accordingly, those on the basis of temporal closeness are more important than those on that of similarity for perceptions, associations, thinkings, and so on.
    Two kinds of neuronal ways which were explained in this section, that is, those on the basis of similarity and those on that of temporal closeness can be called "Neuronal Ways among Individual Images' Sources" or "Image to Image Neuronal Ways". After all, the main part of complex images' sources are activations and activities and excitements and transmissions of selective and specialized neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources and of the neuronal ways among them. Mainly by them, the same kind of and the different kinds of a lot of individual images' sources can be recollected spatially and temporarily close, and comprise a complex image.
    By the way, there are image to image neuronal ways (neuronal ways among individual images' sources), image to function neuronal ways, function to function neuronal ways, and image to emotion neuronal ways as important ones in these books, and they need to be clearly distinguished.

(6)THE CONSISTENCY OF THE SAME KIND OF SOURCE

    In each kind of continuous sensation and memory, its own functions as follows function.

Its neuronal source excluding neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness
Its replay, which will be explained later.
Its processing functions, which will be explained later.
Most of the functions involved in a memory which will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES".

    In each kind of continuous sensation and memory, some properties which some parts of the sensation's source have are recognized, and those parts are cut out and generated as individual images' sources. Accordingly, the sensation's source and the sensory image's source are a continuous one. Such a continuous sensation's source and sensory image's source could be called the Same Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, Each Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, or a Continuous Sensation and Sensory Image's Source in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, the Auditory Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, or so. Most of the same kind of continuous sensation and sensory image's source is a selective neuronal group's instant excitement and transmission (1)(2), and so in it, the neuronal source's qualities as frequencies, quantities as concentrations, spatial and temporal positions, spatial and temporal arrangements, and their changes are retained consistently. This can be called the "Consistency of the Same Kind of Source".

(7)THE CONSISTENCY OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF SOURCES

    In things appearing on sensations, things appearing on different kinds of sensations appear spatially and temporally closer. For example, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and his or her spoken words appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears appear spatially and temporally closer. Simply, his or her spoken words are heard from his or her mouth. In a thing appearing on a perception, some parts appearing on a kind of sensation and different kinds of individual sensory images appear spatially and temporally closer. For example, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and his or her name appearing as individual auditory images as if with both ears appear spatially and temporally closer. In a complex image, different kinds of individual sensory images appear spatially and temporally closer. For example, another person's face appearing as individual visual images as if with both eyes and his or her spoken words appearing as individual auditory images as if with both ears appear spatially and temporally closer. The nervous functions which cause such spatial and temporal closeness of different kinds of things appearing as mental phenomena can be called the "Consistency of Different Kinds of Sources". It is premised to be different kinds of sensation and sensory image sources' meeting or paralleling somewhere in the central nervous system, perhaps in the parietal lobes.
    The consistency of the same kind of source and that of different kinds of sources can be called the Consistency of Sources.

(8)SYMMETRICAL PAIRS OF NEURONAL SOURCES

    Each of the nervous systems of most species of animals is a symmetrical pair of neuronal groups. There are some symmetrical pairs of neuronal sources in such pairs. Things appearing beyond sensory organs are cubic and beyond sensory organs like things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and things appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears. It is premised that a symmetrical pair of neuronal sources, their replay, and their treating functions, the last two of which will be explained later, cause things appearing beyond sensory organs.
    Some symmetrical pairs of neuronal sources cross and the others do not. For example, the pair of a visual sensation with both eyes cross, and that of auditory sensation with both ears do not. However, whether pairs cross or not, they are symmetrical.

REPLAYS OF SOURCES

    It is premised that nothing appearing as a mental phenomenon could be caused only by sources. It is premised that nothing appearing could be caused if no nervous functions treated and changed neuronal sources into things appearing. Some nervous functions which treat and change a neuronal source into things appearing as mental phenomena can be called the "Replay" of the source or Replaying the source.
    Replays are the hardest or impossible to make clear. The border between sources and replays is vague, and they overlap. It is possible that some replays begin with some sensory cells' excitements and transmissions. Then, sensory cells are as important as neurons are. Moreover, it is possible that replays are intrinsic to some neurons' and some sensory cells' excitements and transmissions in themselves. Moreover, it is possible that their excitements and transmissions in themselves are replays.
    As was explained earlier, the same kind of continuous sensation and memory has the same kind of continuous sensation and sensory image's source. As for replays, things are a little different. Not only, Different kinds of sensations and memories have different kinds of replays but also in the same kind of sensation and memory, the sensation and the memory have different replays, and the replay of the sensation's source and that of the sensory image's source are different. For example, in the visual kind of sensation and memory, the replay of the visual sensation's source and that of the visual sensory image's source are different and are not a continuous function.
    However, in the same kind of sensation and memory, the replay of the sensation's source and that of the sensory image's source are not the same but alike, and are not in the same place but in close places. For example, in the visual kind of sensation and memory, the replay of the visual sensation's source and that of the visual sensory image's source are alike and in close places. For example, though extreme, it is possible, because of the disorders of some nervous functions, that visual hallucination is caused when the visual sensory image's source which usually reach its own replay reaches that of the visual sensation's source which is close to its own, and that auditory hallucination is caused when the auditory sensory image's source which usually reach its own replay reaches that of the auditory sensation's source which is close to its own.

PROCESSING FUNCTIONS OF SOURCES

    Some functions which process a neuronal source in some ways other than replays can be called the "Functions Processing" the source or Processing the source.
    Things appearing beyond sensory organs, for example, things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes are cubic and beyond both eyes, and some nervous functions which make them so are a processing function of a visual sensation's source. The same applies to things appearing on auditory sensations with both ears and things appearing on olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities. Though the third's being cubic and beyond both nasal cavities are vague in human beings, it must be clearer in some other species of mammals like dogs, cats, and so on. Human olfactory sensations were more clear once upon a time, and they must have degenerated.
    It is premised that a symmetrical pair of neuronal groups' excitement and transmission as a neuronal source, the functions processing the pair, and their replay cause things appearing beyond sensory organs.

SENSATIONS' FIELDS AND IMAGES' FIELDS

    As was defined earlier, the part of the material and bodily source which is premised to be represented as things appearing as mental phenomena could be called the Reproducible Source of the things appearing. The reproducible source's space of things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes is what is called the "visual field". The reproducible source's space of things appearing on a sensation can be called the "Sensation's Field" in general, and, in particular, a Visual (Sensation's) field, an Auditory (Sensation's) field, or so. In addition, the reproducible source's space of things appearing as a sensory image can be called the "(Sensory) Image's Field" in general, and in particular, a visual (sensory) image's field, an auditory (sensory) image's field, or so.
    The following are the examples of the width and depth of sensations' fields.

○Visual field with both eyes
    The space of 180°ahead in human beings, light-years.

○Auditory field with both ears
    The space of 360° around, kilometers.

○Olfactory field with both nasal cavities
    The space of 360° around, meters in human beings.

○Balancing field
    The space of the head.

○Taste field
    The space of the tongue.

○Somatic field
    The space of the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, ligaments.

○Autonomic field
    The space of the mucous membranes, cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and so on.

    While the spaces of reproducible sources are included in things in themselves, they are premised to be represented as things appearing as mental phenomena, and they appear. For example, the space containing the sea, the horizon, and the sky appears on a visual sensation with both eyes.

OVERLAPS OF REPRODUCIBLE SOURCES' SPACES

    First, in things appearing on each kind of sensation and sensory image's source, the reproducible source's space of the things appearing on the sensation and that of the sensory image overlap in most of their parts. For example, when I see a person for the first time in years and when I think that he or she has grown a little older, in things appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image, his or her present face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and his or her face which appeared years ago appearing as a visual sensory image as if with both eyes overlap. In such a way, I find his or her aging. Such overlap is caused by the consistency of the same kind of neuronal source which was explained earlier.
    Moreover, in the different kinds of things appearing, some reproducible sources' spaces overlaps. For example, birds' chirps appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears are heard from the space of the forest appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes. Such overlap is caused by the consistency of different kinds of sources which was explained earlier.

SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF SENSORY IMAGES ON SENSORY ORGANS

    In each of [s1-1] visual sensations with one eye, [s2-1] auditory sensations with one ear, [s3-1] olfactory sensations with one nasal cavity, [s4] balancing sensations, [s5] taste sensations, [s6] somatic sensations, [s7] autonomic sensations, [i1-1] recollections of visual sensory Images with one eye, [i2-1] recollections of auditory sensory images with one ear, [i3-1] recollections of olfactory sensory images with one nasal cavity, [i4] recollections of balancing sensory images, [i5] recollections of taste sensory images, [i6] recollections of somatic sensory images, and [i7] recollections of autonomic sensory images, the reproducible source's space is the same as the sensory group's source's space, that is, the space where the sensory group exists and functions. [s1-1]-[s7] can be called Sensations "on Sensory Organs", and [i1-1]-[i7] can be called Recollections of Sensory Images as if on a Sensory Organ.

SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF SENSORY IMAGES BEYOND SENSORY ORGANS

    In each of [s1-2] visual sensations with both eyes, [s2-2] auditory sensations with both ears, [s3-2] olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities, [i1-2] recollections of visual sensory images as if with both eyes, [i2-2] recollections of auditory sensory images as if with both ears, and [i3-2] recollections of olfactory sensory images as if with both nasal cavities, the reproducible source's space is not the same as the sensory group's source's space, that is, the space where the sensory group exists and functions, and the things appearing are cubic and beyond the sensory group's source's space. [s1-2]-[s3-2] can be called Sensations "Beyond Sensory Organs", and [i1-2]-[i3-2] can be called Recollections of Sensory Images as if Beyond Sensory Organs.
    Each of those sensations is a symmetrical pair of neuronal sources, the nervous functions processing the pair, and the replay of the pair.

SOURCES' BEING SENSED AND BEING RECOLLECTED AS IMAGES

    A sensation source's being replayed can be called its "Being Sensed", a sensory image's source's being replayed, an individual image's source's being replayed, a complex image's source's being replayed, an image's source's being replayed can be called its "Being Recollected" (as a Sensory Image, as an Individual Image, as a Complex Image, or as an Image). In addition, a perception's source's being replayed can be called its "Being Perceived", and an association's source's being replayed can be called its "Being Associated". In addition, a complex image's source's being recollected, a perception's source' being perceived, or an association's source's being associated can be called its Being Recollected (as an image).
    As was explained earlier, it is probable that neuronal sources and replays overlap. Whether or not they overlap, replays and the sources which is being replayed are premised to directly cause things appearing as mental phenomena. Accordingly, it is premised that things appearing on sensations are caused whenever and as soon as their sources are sensed, and that things appearing as images are caused whenever and as soon as their sources are recollected. Accordingly, that a source is sensed and that the thing appearing on the sensation is caused can be called the thing's being sensed, that a source is recollected as an image and that the thing appearing as the image is caused can be called the thing's being recollected as an image.
    In addition, the sources which were sensed milliseconds (several thousandths of a second) ago or which are being sensed can be called "Sources Just Sensed", and the same can apply to Sources Just Recollected as Images. It is not sources which have not been sensed yet but sources just sensed that are recognized and generate individual images' sources. In addition, as will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", some sources just recollected as images cause the excitements and transmissions of some image to emotion neuronal ways, and cause some feelings, desires, egos, and so on. If sources which have not recollected yet caused them, they could be what is called unconsciousness. Accordingly, the distinction between the sources which have not been recollected yet and those just recollected is important.
    By the way, images' sources are also called Images in these books. That is, the word of images sometimes designates their sources in these books.
    That the source which is premised to cause a thing appearing on a sensation intensely or faintly is sensed can be called its Being Sensed Intensely or Faintly, and that the source which is premised to cause a thing appearing as an image intensely or faintly is recollected can be called its Being Recollected (as an Image) Intensely or Faintly. A neuronal source whose concentration, resolution, or extent is large or small can be sensed or recollected intensely or faintly. For example, a visual sensation's source whose concentration is large can be sensed brightly. Though a sensation's source and sensory images' sources are a continuous one, their intensities are not always interrelated. For example, sometimes, a person who was sensed far away on a visual sensation with both eyes is close recollected as an image, and some spoken words which were sensed quietly are loudly recollected as images.

FLOWS OF SOURCES

    Neuronal sources are neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions or activations and activities which retain such things as were explained earlier in such ways as were explained earlier. Those excitements and transmissions can be looked upon as their going, coming, or flowing through some neuronal groups. Those activations and activities are their being memorized and stored and can be looked upon as their stagnating. In addition, neuronal sources sometimes disappear when those neuronal groups have some disorders. In addition, when those neuronal groups converge, some of the sources go through, and the others disappear. When they diverge, one neuronal source sometimes generates more than one identical one. In addition, some neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions which can no longer be called neuronal sources diverge from some neuronal sources. In addition, in each kind of continuous sensation and memory, the sensation's source and the sensory image's source are a continuous one. Such a continuous source could be called the same kind of (continuous) sensation and sensory image's source, each kind of (continuous) sensation and sensory image's source, or a continuous sensation and sensory image's source. Let us look over the first half of such continuous sources' flow, stagnation, disappear, convergence, and divergence. The last half will be explained in detail in the following chapter.
    If some parts of a sensory group are disordered and do not exist or function, the following parts of the neuronal source are not caused, that is, do not excite or transmit, and those parts are not sensed. For example 1, when the eyes are tightly closed, nothing can be seen. For example 2, when the retinae have some disorders, at least a part of the visual field has a defect. Even if a sensory group functions, if some parts of the following neuronal group are disordered and do not exist or function, that is, do not excite or transmit, those parts of the neuronal source disappear on the way and are not sensed. For example, if the optic nerves have some disorders owing to a pituitary tumor, at least a part of the visual field has a defect.
     Some neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions diverge from some sensation's neuronal sources and cause some reflexive or autonomic functions. As for reflexes, for example, some sensory nerves in a narrow sense diverge and join to some motor nerves, and their excitements and transmissions cause tendon reflex. As for autonomic functions, from the beginning, autonomic nerves diverge wildly, and their excitements and transmissions cause various autonomic functions like the increase or decrease of heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and so on.
    The following (1)(2)(3)(4)(5) can be distinguished in the flow.

(1) The part of a neuronal source which has not been sensed yet
(2) That which is being sensed, that is, being replayed
(3) That which has already been sensed and has not been recollected yet
(4) That which is being recollected, that is, being replayed.
(5) That which has already been recollected

(1)(2) is a sensation' s source. (3)(4)(5) will be explained closely in the following chapter. (5) causes feelings, desires, egos, and so on which will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".
    Anyway, the time of (1)(2)(4)(5) is milliseconds, and that of (3) is from milliseconds to tens of years. That is because (3) can be memorized and stored in such ways as will be explained in the following chapter.

MEMORIES

EACH KIND OF MEMORY

    Some properties which some parts of a visual sensation's neuronal source just sensed on a visual sensation has are recognized, those parts are cut out and generated as individual visual images' sources. Though they also compose a complex image's sources, they compose a visual sensory image' source at the last stage of replay. That is, the visual sensation's source and the visual sensory image's source are a continuous one. Accordingly, visual sensory images are similar to things appearing on visual sensations. The same applies to auditory sensations' sources and auditory sensory images' sources, olfactory sensations' sources and olfactory sensory images' sources, and so on. Accordingly, there are kinds like the visual kind and the auditory kind traversing things appearing as mental phenomena, sources, sensations, memories, recollections, and so on. The source in which a sensation's source and a sensory image's source are a continuous one in such a way can be called the "Same Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source", Each Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, or a Continuous Sensation and Sensory Image's Source in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source or a Visual (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, the Auditory Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source or an Auditory (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, or so. In addition, such a continuous source and the functions dealing with it can be called the Same Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory, Each Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory, or a Continuous Sensation and Memory in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory or a Visual (Continuous) Sensation and Memory, the Auditory Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory or an Auditory (Continuous) Sensation and Memory, or so. In addition, the part of a neuronal source following the part just sensed and the functions dealing with it can be called a Kind of memory, Each Kind of Memory, or a Memory in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of Memory or a Visual Memory, the Auditory Kind of Memory or an Auditory Memory, or so.
    However, the difference of the degree of the development of such kinds among species of animals is large. In human beings, because they hear, speak, read, and write words, visual and auditory kinds of memories are developed very much, and the other kinds of memories are overwhelmed or replaced and hardly exist or function. Accordingly, most of the explanation in this chapter is that of visual and auditory kinds of memories. In other species, it is probable that some other kinds of memories are developed more than in human beings. Above all, it is probable that olfactory kinds of memories are developed in some species of terrestrial vertebrates. However, such explanation will be omitted in these books.
    Most of the functions which will be explained in this chapter function in each kind of memory. A few functions function beyond each kind. In this chapter, if there are no words like "functioning in each kind of memory", the sentences will imply it. When some functions "function beyond each kind memory", such words will never be omitted.
    The following words of recognition, cut, generation, renewal, memorization, storage, arousal, recollection, and so on designate concrete and countable functions functioning in each kind of memory. For example, if a neuronal group diverges into a hundred small ones, there are a hundred or less of memorizations, or storages. Accordingly, they are used as countable nouns in these books.

EACH KIND OF MEMORIAL NEURONAL GROUP DIVERGING ONE AFTER ANOTHER

    In each kind of memory, some properties which some parts of the neuronal sources just sensed and just recollected have are recognized, and those parts are cut out and generated as individual images' sources. These functions are caused while they go through a neuronal group diverging one after another. Such a neuronal group can be called (Each Kind of) "Memorial Neuronal Group Diverging" (One after Another). Each kind of memory has one neuronal group diverging one after another. Though, strictly, there is one pair, a pair of neuronal groups is looked upon a neuronal group in these books.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' (SOURCES') RECOGNITIONS, CUTS, AND GENERATIONS

    In each kind of memory, not only the kind of sensation's source just sensed but also the kind of individual sensory image's source just recollected go through the kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, and some properties which some parts of them have are recognized. By these recognitions, not only individual images' sources' generations which will be explained in this section but also individual images' sources arousals on the basis of similarity which will be explained in one of the later sections are caused.
    In each kind of memory, while some parts of the kind of sensation's source just sensed and the kind of individual sensory image's sources just recollected go through the kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, some properties like frequencies, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes, and so on which those parts of the neuronal sources has are recognized, and those parts are classified by some nervous functions on the basis of similarity one after another. This can be called Individual Images' (Sources') "Recognition and classification", Recognition, Being Recognized and Classified, or Being Recognized. For example 1, in the visual kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, the spatial arrangement of a jaw, a mouth, a nose, two eyes, two ears, and a head which the part of a mammal's face of the visual sensation's source has is recognized, and that part is recognized and classified as a mammal's face. Next, the proportion of the size of the head to those of some others, the density and distribution of hair, and so on are recognized, and that part is recognized and classified as the face of a human being, and the same are repeated.
    In addition, in each kind of memory, while the kind of sensation's source just sensed and the kind of individual sensory image's source just recollected go through the kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, while some properties which some parts of the sources have are recognized, and while those parts are classified one after another, some of those parts are cut out by some nervous functions. This can be called the Individual Image's (Source's) "Cut" or Being Cut (Out). For example, the parts of the face are cut out in the above examples.
    Individual images' sources are generated by being recognized and cut out in such ways. For example, after the properties of the spatial arrangement of a jaw, a mouth, a nose, two eyes, two ears, and a head, and properties of some others are recognized and after that part is cut away off the background of the sky, the forest, town, and so on, an individual image's source of a particular human being's face is generated. An individual image's (source's) recognition and cut can also be called the Individual Image's (Source's) Generation or Being Generated. An individual image's generation consists of its recognition, classification, and cut. In addition, the individual images sources which are being or has just been recognized, classified, and cut out can be called individual images' Sources Just Generated.
    More than one individual image's source can be generated from a sensation's source just sensed. For example, individual images' sources of his or her face, body, hair, clothes, shoes are generated from a particular person sensed on a visual sensation.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' (SOURCES') MEMORIZATIONS AND STORAGES

    Individual images' sources just generated are memorized and stored in the following way.
    There are some, actually, a lot of selective and specialized neuronal groups, which were explained earlier, in each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another which individual images' sources just generated go through. While each of them goes through, it activates a selective and specialized neuronal group. That is, each neuron in each source just generated which excites and transmits with a certain frequency activates a selective specialized neuron in a selective and specialized neuronal group which has the capability of being activated and exciting and transmitting with that frequency. This can be called the Individual Image's (Sources') "Memorization" or Being Memorized.
    While it decrease and increase by reactivation, the activity of the selective and specialized neuronal group where an individual image's source has been memorized is retained for a while. This can be called the Individual Image's (Source's) "Storage" or Being Stored.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' (SOURCES') RENEWALS

    Every time the same properties which some parts of a sensation's source just sensed and some individual images' sources just recollected are recognized, those parts are generated, memorized, and stored as individual images' sources in the same way as was explained in the above sections, the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the same individual images sources are activated, and their activities are retained. This can be called the individual images' (sources') "Renewals" or Being Renewed.
    Because the activities of all neuronal groups are being reduced with time, the activities of neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources which are not renewed are reduced and extinguished. That is, such individual images are "forgotten".
    The substance of images' renewals is no more than their generations, and their renewals are included in their generations. However, when it needs to be emphasized that they are being renewed when they are stored, the words of their "being generated or renewed" or so are used in these books. However, if those words are always used, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when those words are unnecessary, it will be called their Generation or Being Generated in these books.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' (SOURCES') CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF SIMILARITY

    In each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, individual images' sources are recognized, cut out, generated or renewed, memorized, and stored. As a result, the more similar sources are, the closer branch they go through and are memorized and stored in. This can be called Individual Images' (Sources') Classification or Being Classified on the Basis of Similarity. By this classification, similar images' sources can be recollected spatially and temporally close, and can compose a complex image. For example, in the visual kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, the individual images' sources of particular human beings are memorized and stored closer to one another than those of other animals are. Accordingly, the individual images' sources of human beings can be recollected spatially and temporally closer than those of other animals can, they can compose a complex images of general human beings, and human beings are distinguished from other animals. Though we sometimes use "tree structures when we classify things, their prototype has already existed and functioned in nervous systems.

EACH KIND OF MEMORIAL NEURONAL GROUP CONVERGING ON THE REPLAY

    When the neuronal groups memorizing and storing some individual images' sources excite and transmit, those individual images' sources proceed to the replay. This is their arousals. However, while there are a lot of neuronal group memorizing and storing individual images' sources, there is one (pair of) replay in each kind of memory, and so the neuronal ways from the former to the latter converge. Accordingly, not all the individual images' sources arising reach the replay, and not all of them are replayed or recollected, and some of them sometimes disappear. Such neuronal ways converging on the replay can be called (Each Kind of) Memorial Neuronal Group Converging (on the Replay). In addition, each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another and memorial neuronal group converging on the replay can be called (Each Kind of) Memorial Neuronal Group (Diverging and Converging). After all, memorial neuronal groups diverge and converge.

AROUSALS OR RECOLLECTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF SIMILARITY

    In each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, some properties which some parts of the sensation's source just sensed and the individual images' sources just recollected have are recognized, individual images' sources are generated (or renewed), memorized, and stored in the above way. Moreover, those just generated not only are memorized and stored but also do arise and can be recollected instantly. Such instant recollections are an instant memory which will be explained later. However, not only those just generated but also those which were generated, memorized, and stored in the past and which are similar to them arise and can be recollected in the following way.
    In each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, the branches which those just recognized and generated go through, of course, excite and transmit because those excitements and transmissions are neuronal sources in themselves. However, not only those branches, but also some of the branches which diverge from them excite and transmit. As was explained earlier, the closer branches are, the more similar individual images' sources have gone through them and been memorized and stored somewhere along them. Accordingly, the excitements and transmissions of those branches cause those of the neuronal groups memorizing and storing some similar individual images' sources, and they arise and can be recollected. Accordingly, after all, not only the individual images' sources just recognized and generated but also some of those which were generated, memorized, and stored in the past and which are similar to them arise and can be recollected. This can be called Arousals or Recollections of Individual Images(' Sources) "on the Basis of Similarity". For example, a particular human being is recognized, the individual images' sources of a lot of particular human beings arise on the basis of similarity, they compose a complex image's source of general human beings, and that particular human being is perceived as a human being.
    Individual images' sources' arousals or recollections on the basis of similarity make it possible for us to recognize and think of general things in advance of particular things. For example, it is not that this or that particular tiger is dangerous, but that general tigers are so. If we always examined whether each individual is dangerous or not, we could not survive. In human beings, such recollections of images of general things have been developed, and what is called "instinct" has been degenerated. We exist through the former.
    In such ways, complex images are almost recollected through recollections of individual images on the basis of similarity. Accordingly, they can be called Recollections of Complex Images(' Sources) on the Basis of Similarity, too.

NEURONAL WAYS AMONG INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF SIMILARITY

    In individual (complex) images' sources' arousals on the basis of similarity, the branches from recognitions to neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources of each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another or some neuronal ways paralleling it can be looked upon as indirect neuronal ways among individual images' sources. Accordingly, they can be called "Neuronal Ways among Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Similarity".
    In order for individual images' sources to be recognized, generated, and classified, they need to be activated to a degree innately. However, it is probable that their activities are increased when individual images' sources are generated or renewed.

ACQUIRED GENERATIONS OF IMAGES' SOURCES

    Anyway, the properties which some parts of the neuronal sources just sensed have are recognized and those parts are cut out and are generated as individual images' sources for the first time. Accordingly, it can be said that all individual images' sources are acquiredly generated. Moreover, because all images' sources consist of individual ones, it can be said all images' sources are acquiredly generated.

AROUSALS OR RECOLLECTIONS OF THE SAME KIND OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGE'S SOURCE ON THE BASIS OF SIMILARITY AND NEURONAL WAYS AMONG THE SAME KIND OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGE'S SOURCE ON THE BASIS OF SIMILARITY

    Neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of similarity are only in or along each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging and cannot be among different kinds of them. When this needs to be emphasized, they can be called Neuronal Ways among the Same Kind of Individual Image's Source on the Basis of Similarity or Neuronal Ways among Each Kind of Individual Image's Source on the Basis of Similarity.
    Accordingly, in the arousals or recollections through them, only the same kind of individual image's source arises and can be recollected. When this need to be emphasized, this can be called Arousals or Recollections of the Same Kind of Individual Image's Source on the Basis of Similarity or Arousals or Recollections of Each Kind of Individual Image's Source on the Basis of Similarity.

AROUSALS OR RECOLLECTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGES SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF TEMPORAL CLOSENESS AND NEURONAL WAYS AMONG INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF TEMPORAL CLOSENESS

    Not only among the branches of the same kind of memorial neuronal group diverging and converging, but also among the branches of different kinds of them, there are some, actually, many neuronal ways. They are entirely distinct from neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of similarity which were explained above. They are not activated innately but activated acquiredly on the basis of temporal closeness when some individual images' sources are generated or renewed and memorized temporally close. Next time some of the individual images' sources arise, those activated neuronal ways excite and transmit, some others arise, too. After all, some individual images' sources which were generated or renewed and memorized temporarily close in the past arise and can be recollected temporarily close. This can be called Arousals or Recollections of Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness, and those neuronal ways can be called Neuronal Ways among Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness.

AROUSALS OR RECOLLECTIONS OF THE SAME KIND OF AND DIFFERENT KINDS OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGES SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF TEMPORAL CLOSENESS AND NEURONAL WAYS AMONG THE SAME KIND OF AND DIFFERENT KIND OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF TEMPORAL CLOSENESS

    Because neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness are not only among the same kind of but also among different kinds of memorial neuronal groups diverging and converging, not only the same kind but also different kinds of individual sensory images' sources arise and can be recollected, and a complex image's sources which consists of not only the same kind of but also different kinds of individual sensory images' sources arise and can be recollected through them. When this needs to be emphasized, this can be called Arousals or Recollections of the Same Kind of and Different Kinds of Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness, and those neuronal ways can be called Neuronal Ways among the same kind of and different kinds of Individual Images' sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness".
    For example, when a child's mother often get angry and utter furious voice, in the child's nervous system, the neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness between the individual visual images' sources of the mother's furious face and the individual auditory images' sources of her furious voice are activated, and the child anticipates her furious voice only when it perceives her furious face. Without neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness, auditory images of a voice could not be recollected from visual perception of a face.
    As was explained earlier, the complexes of complex images are included in complex images, and associations' sources are included in complex images' sources. Temporal closeness is dominant in large complex images and associations. Without neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness, there could be no associations or thinkings.
    Some of the things that are caused temporarily close are cause and effect. Without neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness, we could not think about cause and effect.
    Spoken words are more dominant than written words in human beings. However, without written words, there could be no steady transmission of ideas, accordingly, no culture or science and technology. Without neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness, there could be no transformation of spoken words into written words, accordingly, no culture or so.

IMAGE TO IMAGE NEURONAL WAYS

    Neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of similarity and neuronal ways among them on that of temporal closeness can be called Neuronal Ways among Individual Images Sources or Image to Image Neuronal Ways.
    By their activations and activities and excitements and transmissions and those of neuronal group memorizing and storing individual images' sources, individual images' sources arise and can be recollected spatially and temporally close on the basis of similarity and temporal closeness and can compose complex images' sources.
    By the way, the spatial closeness of individual images' sources composing complex images' sources is secured by the consistency of sources explained earlier.
    Out of neuronal ways among individual images' sources, that is, image to image neuronal ways, those on the basis of similarity are innately activated, and those on the basis of temporal closeness are acquiredly activated. However, as was explained earlier, all the images' sources are acquiredly generated including individual images', sensory images', and complex images'. However, such complicated images' as are recollected in human beings, that is, ideas are generated mainly by the acquired activations of neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness. Human being speak and write words and transmit ideas in and beyond their generation. For example, none of Ptolemaic theory or Copernican theory, creationism or the theory of evolution, aristocracy or democracy, capitalism or communism, or so can be generated in individuals in a generation. They are generated through discussions, lessons, readings, and so on by efficiently activating neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness which predecessors went though. In addition, though they develop somewhat by thinkings in each individual, without their activations, that development would disappear in seconds, and we would rethink them every time they disappear.

COMPLEX IMAGES' SOURCES' GENERATIONS OR RENEWALS, MEMORIZATION AND STORAGE, AND AROUSALS OR RECOLLECTIONS

    The above generations, memorizations, storages of some individual images' sources and the above activations and activities of neuronal ways among the individual images sources can be looked upon as the generation, memorization, and storage of a complex image.
    In addition, every time some individual images sources are renewed, the neuronal ways among them are activated, and those can be looked upon as a complex image's renewal.
    In addition, the arousals of some individual images' sources on the basis of similarity and on that of temporal closeness, and the excitements and transmissions of the neuronal ways among them, can be looked upon as a complex image's arousal.
    In addition, it can be looked upon as recollections of complex images' sources that some of those individual images' sources which arose are recollected.

FUNCTIONS BEYOND EACH KIND OF SENSATION AND MEMORY

    After all, individual images' sources' recognitions, generations or renewals, and memorizations and storages, the activations and activities and excitements and transmissions of neuronal ways among individual images sources on the basis of similarity, and individual images' sources' arousals or recollections on the basis of similarity function only in each kind of memory and cannot function beyond each kind. In contrast, the activations and activities and excitements and transmissions of the neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness, and individual images sources' arousals or recollections on the basis of temporal closeness function not only in the same kind of memory but also among different kinds of memories and can function beyond each kind. In addition, sensations cannot function beyond each kind. Accordingly, it is only them that function beyond each kind of sensation and memory.

THE LOCATION OF MEMORIAL NEURONAL GROUPS

    Each kind of sensation, memorial neuronal group diverging and converging, and recollection are localized to a pair of lobes in the cerebrum. For example, the visual kind is localized to a pair of occipital lobes, and the auditory kind is localized to a pair of temporal lobes.
    Neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of similarity is a part of each kind of memorial neuronal group converging and diverging.
    In contrast, the neuronal ways among the same kind of and different kinds of individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness stretch their axons from a lobe to not only the same one but also different ones. Those axons occupy a considerable part of the cerebral medulla.

DETAILS OF INDIVIDUAL (COMPLEX) IMAGES' SOURCES' AROUSALS

    When we are suddenly waken up from deep sleep or coma, only some sensations' sources are sensed, and no images' sources are recollected. In each kind of sensation and memory, at the first stage (individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of similarity), some properties which some parts of the sensation's source just sensed have are recognized, and those parts are cut out, are generated as individual images sources, are memorized and stored, and arise. Simultaneously, some of the branches which are diverged from the branches which those individual images' sources just generated go through excite and transmit, and those excitements and transmissions cause some of the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources similar to them. After all, some individual images' sources similar to them arise. At the second stage (individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of temporal closeness), the neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness from some parts of the neuronal groups which those individual images' sources go through excite and transmit, and those excitements and transmissions cause those of some of the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources which were generated, memorized, and stored temporally close together with them in the past. After all, some individual images' sources which were generated, memorized, and stored temporally close together with them in the past arise. At the third stage, some of the individual images' sources which arose at the first and second stages are recollected, some properties which some of them have are recognized, they go through each kind of memorial neuronal ways diverging one after another, and the same are repeated. The time of the first and second steps are less than several tenths of a second. The time of the third step can be seconds because it is a repetition. For example, the former is a time from being waken in a hospital until recognizing its staff as strangers. Actually, because we usually wake up while we are dreaming, the contents of the dream are recollected from the starting point. Simultaneously, the bed room is perceived, the windows are perceived, the world out of them are recollected, the situations where we are are recollected, what happened yesterday are recollected, what will happen today are recollected (anticipated), and the same are repeated. Simultaneously, egos start thinking, "Was it a dream? Why did I have such a strange dream?"

THE MEANING OF AROUSALS

    From the beginning, the word of "Arousal" or Arising was defined as that having a general meaning. That a part of a function which can cause or change its necessary and direct part is caused or changed can be called the function's Arousal or Arising. Simply, even if a function arises, it is not always caused, and it sometimes stop. Also in recollections of images, the word of arousal or arising is used in that sense, and even if images' sources arise, they are not always recollected. The reason will be explained in the following section.

NEURONAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS' DISAPPEARING

    While a neuron (u) is exciting and transmitting by the transmission of another neuron (s), even if another neuron (t) transmits to the neuron (u), the neuron (u) goes on exciting and transmitting by the transmission of the neuron (s) with the same frequency as that of the neuron (s), regardless of, simply, ignoring the transmission of the neuron (t). That can be called (s)'s excitement and transmission's "Going Through" or Coming Through, and (t)'s excitement and transmission's "Disappearing".
    While a neuronal group (U) is exciting and transmitting by the transmission of another neuronal group (S), even if another neuronal group (T) transmits to the neuronal group (U), the neuronal group (U) goes on exciting and transmitting by the transmission of the neuronal group (S) with the same spatial and temporal position, frequency, concentration, spatial and temporal arrangement, and their changes as those of the neuronal group (S), almost regardless of the transmission of the neuronal group (T). That can be called (S)'s excitement and transmission's "Going Through" or Coming Through and (T)'s excitement and transmission's "Disappearing".
    As was explained earlier, the neuronal group from recognitions to unitary neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources is a diverging one, and the neuronal group from them to the replay is a converging one. A converging neuronal group has a lot of synapses which can be called excitements and transmissions' "concourses". In such a neuronal group which has such a lot of concourses, it is a limited number (N) of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center that does not disappear but go through and reach their destination.

LIMITING RECOLLECTIONS OF COMPLEX IMAGES

    As was explained in the above section, when many neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions are caused in a converging neuronal group, a limited number (N) of them which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center go through and reach their destination while making the others disappear. In addition, as was explained earlier, in each kind of memory, the neuronal ways from the neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual sources to the replay converge. Those were able to be called each kind of memorial neuronal group converging on the replay. Accordingly, even when many individual images' sources arise, a limited number (N) of them reach the replay and are recollected at once.
    This can be explained in the following way when a reproducible source's space which was explained earlier is payed attention to. Every reproducible source's space is limited. It is a limited number of sources that can occupy such a limited space. For example, the reproducible source's space of a visual sensory image as if with both eyes, in a human being, is about 180°ahead in the same way as that of a visual sensation with both eyes, and when a huge complex image like a soaring wall occupies it, the others hardly appear.
    Accordingly, in each kind of memory, a limited number (N) or less of complex images' sources reach the replay and recollected. This can be divided into the following two cases.

(1) When N or less of complex images' sources arise, all of them are recollected.
(2) When more than N of complex images' sources arise, N of them which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center are recollected.

The above case of (2) can be called a recollection's "Saturation" or Being Saturated.
    However, that limited number (N) varies depending on the situation. When large complex images' sources which consist of a lot of individual images' sources are recollected, they occupy most of the reproducible source's space, and the number N gets small. Simply, when we think complicated things, N gets smaller.

    In general, limiting functions, limited functions, and so on can be defined in the following way.
There are some sets each of which (F = (f1,f2,…)) has the following properties in each of the individuals of the species of, at least, higher mammals including human beings.
(1) F go through a common process (P).
(2) In a situation (S),
(2-1) in the case (C1) where not more than a number (N), which fluctuate in another situation (FS), of F arise, all of them are caused with their simple tendencies (ST) to be caused, and
(2-2) in the case (C2) where more than N of F arise, in another situation (LS) which limits F which are caused in a time (LT) to not more than N, N of F which have the largest tendencies (TEO) to be caused containing those to exclude others in LS.
(3) Out of the above, there is some difference among the individuals of the same species and of the same age in those tendencies (ST and TEO), and there is little difference in the others.
In the above, the set of functions (F), the common process (P) which F go through, and the situation (LS) which limits F can be called a "Limiting Function" of the individual in the situation (S), the set (F = (f1,f2,…)) can be called the "Limited Functions" belonging to the limiting function, the situation (LS) which limits F can be called the limiting function's or the limited functions' "Limiting Situation", the time in which F are limited can be called the limiting function's "Limiting Time", a limited function's tendency to be caused in C1 can be called the limited function's "Simple Tendency (to Be Caused)", and a limited function's tendency in C2 can be called the limiting function's "Tendency (to Be Caused) Containing That to Exclude Others".
    Moreover, when the tendency (TEO) to be caused containing that to exclude others in C2 is large, the simple tendency (ST) to be caused in the C1 is large, too. Accordingly, ST can be ignored, and TEO can be called the limited function's tendency (to be caused) of the individual in the situation (S). Moreover, in a limiting function of an individual and in a situation, the matrix which has the individual's tendencies of the limited functions' outlines which can arise in the individuals of the same species and of the same age as elements can be called the Tendencies or Habit of the limiting function of the individual in the situation (S). In addition, the set of the tendencies or habits of a liming function of an individual in all the situations where the individuals of the same species and of the same age can be can be called the Tendencies or Habit of the limiting function of the individual.

Let us apply this to recollections of complex images.
    Because a recollection of complex images involves not a kind but some kinds of arousals and replays of individual images, it is actually a "complex" limiting function. Then, the number (N), limiting situation (LS), and so on go complicated. All the same, it is true that a limited number (N) or less of complex images are recollected, that they are limited by a "complex" limiting situation, and so on, and it is a limiting function though it is a complex one.

[Situations of recollections of complex images]

    The direct situations of recollections of complex images are some kinds of properties which are recognized and which some parts of some sensations' sources just sensed or some individual images' sources just recollected have. The arousals of individual images' sources begin with these recognitions on the basis of similarity and then on that of temporal closeness. Moreover, their indirect situations are the material and bodily sources which cause those neuronal sources and the materials and functions which cause them. For example, when the building of our school or office is perceived, the interpersonal relations in it are recollected.

[Limiting situations of recollections of complex images]

    That some kinds of memorial neuronal groups from neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources to the replay converges and that the complex images' sources which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center reach the replay while making the others disappear are the limiting situations in recollections.

[The limiting time of recollections]

    It is a time of milliseconds (several tenths of a second). That is, in a time of seconds or more, N cannot be defined.

[The situation where N fluctuates in recollections]

    It is the totality of the spatial and temporal sizes and positions of the complex images' sources which are recollected in some kinds of memorial neuronal groups converging on the replays. When a large complex image is recollected at the center, N gets smaller and can be one. In contrast, when small complex images' sources are recollected on the periphery, N gets larger. For example, when a person who is very important for the self are recollected, N gets smaller, and when people who are not so important for the self are recollected, N gets larger.

[limited functions of recollections of complex images]

    Let the set of the complex images' sources which can be generated in the individuals of the same species and of the same age and which can arise in a certain situation (S) be G = (g1,g2,…). Then, it can be looked upon as their tendency's being nothing that some of G are not generated from the beginning in an individual. In addition, it can be looked upon as their complete stops that some of G are generated but that they do not excite and transmit at all. In addition, it can be looked upon as their arousals that some of G excite and transmit and that some parts of them go through some kinds of memorial neuronal groups converging on the replays. In addition, it can be looked upon as G's being caused that G reach the replays and that G are recollected. Moreover, G are caused with the limitation by the limiting situations. Accordingly, the set of the complex images' sources (G) which can be generated in the individuals of the same species and of the same age and can arise in a certain situation (S) are limited functions and are limited functions of recollections of complex images.
    However, when we look into them a little more closely, we find the following. The individual images composing a complex image are recollected spatially temporally close, and so they are recollected in a lump to a degree. However, it is possible that some individual images composing a complex image are recollected and that the others are not. Such an image as suffer partial defects may be ineffective. However, it participates in the situations where N fluctuates. For example, the more such complex images are recollected, the smaller N gets.
    All the same, individual images are recollected in a lump as a complex image, and the individual images which are diffused and isolated can be ignored. Accordingly, in these books, only complex images are paid attention to as far as recollections of images are concerned.

[Some kinds of memorial neuronal groups converging on the replays which complex images' sources go through and those kinds of replays as the common process which limited functions go through]

    Some kinds of memorial neuronal groups converging on the replays which complex images' sources go through and those kinds of replays are the common process which limited functions go through.

[Limiting functions of recollections of images]

    The set of the complex images' sources which can arise in the situation (S) in the individuals of the same species and of the same age, the limiting situations, some kinds of neuronal groups converging on the replays, and the replays are a limiting function. It can be called the (Limiting) Recollection (of (Complex) Images(' Sources), a (Limiting) Recollection, or (Complex) Images' (Sources') Being Recollected (with Limitation). When it needs to be emphasized that a recollection is a limiting function, the words of a "Limiting" Recollection or "with Limitation" will be used.

ONE KIND OR SOME KINDS OF RECOLLECTIONS OF COMPLEX IMAGES

    When we only take account of one kind of arousal and replay, a complex image, which consists of some kinds of individual sensory images, is metaphorically sliced into one kind of sensory image. We need to take account of some kinds of arousals and replays in the nervous system of an individual in order to keep the original shape of a complex image. When they need to be distinguished, the former can be called One Kind of (Limiting) Recollection (of (Complex) Images(' Sources)), and the latter can be called Some Kinds of Recollections (of (Complex) Images(' Sources). Anyway, the words of (Limiting) Recollections (of (Complex) Images(' Sources))" usually designate the latter in these books.

RECOLLECTIONS OF COMPLEX IMAGES WITH INTENSITY

    As was explained earlier, each thing appearing as a mental phenomenon has quantity as a property like brightness, distance, loudness, clearness, intensity, and so on. Such quantity can be called the "Intensity" of the thing appearing or "Intensity Appearing". Each individual image has its intensity, too. In addition, each complex image has its intensity, too, as the average of the intensities of the individual images which compose it. It is premised that such intensity is fundamentally caused by the property of the source of a thing appearing like the density of its excitement and transmission.
    However, some intensity appearing is premised to be caused by some inevitable properties of recollections. For example, images fade in, reach its peak, and fade out. Such change of intensity is not merely caused by the properties of sources. The complex of the intensity caused by the properties of sources and that caused by those of recollections can be called the Intensity of Recollections, and recollections accompanying such intensity can be called (Limiting) Recollections (of (Complex) Images(' Sources)) with Intensity, Their Being Recollected Intensely or Faintly (with Limitation), or so. After all, the recollection of images is some kinds of limiting recollections of complex images' sources with intensity in the nervous system of an individual in these books. They are designated by the simple words of the recollection of images, images' being recollected, or so in these books.

PERCEPTIONS

    In a kind of sensation and some kinds of memories, it is a perception that the sensation's source is sensed, that some properties which some parts of that source just sensed have are recognized, and that some complex images' sources are recollected spatially and temporally close to those parts on the basis of similarity and on that of temporal closeness. For example, it is a perception of a particular person that the visual sensation's source is sensed, that the properties which the part of his or her face of that source just sensed has are recognized, and that some complex images' sources consisting of the visual individual images' sources of his or her face in the past and the auditory ones of his or her name and spoken words and some complex images' sources of general human beings are recollected spatially and temporally close to that part. In such a way, he or she is recognized as that person and recognized as a human being, and his or her subtle change, for example, his or her aging is recognized.

ASSOCIATIONS

    Some properties which some parts of those complex images' sources just recollected in a perception explained above have are recognized, some complex images' sources are recollected on the basis of similarity and on that of temporal closeness, some properties which some parts of those complex images' sources just recollected have are recognized, and the same are repeated. Such a series of recollections is an association.
    A series of complex images recollected in an association can be looked upon as a huge complex image which is prolonged temporarily. Such can be included in complex images. In addition, an association can be looked upon as a recollection prolonged temporarily. Such can be included in recollections.
    When N of complex images are recollected with limitation in the first recollection, even if each of N is recognized and causes A of complex images' arousals and if N multiplied by A arise in the second recollection, N of them are recollected with limitation. Moreover, not all the N of complex images just recollected are recognized in the second recollection. The complex images which are recollected in associations are limited in such a way. For example, the perceived building of school or office causes the recollection of some interpersonal relations in it, but the most important one is recognized and causes the recollection of the way to cope with it.

PERCEPTIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS

    The following (1)(2)(3) are possible as the relation of perceptions and association.

(1) A new association starts from a new perception.
(2) An old association is interrupted by a new perception, and a new association starts from the new perception.
(3) An old association is changed by a new perception, and the association changed starts.

(1) seems to happen when we wake up in the morning. However, usually, because we have been dreaming when we wake up, it is (3). For example, when we wake up from a dream and when we perceive our bed room, we start to doubt the reality of the dream, and start to wonder why we had such a dream, and so on. Pure (1) happens when we are suddenly awaken from deep sleep other than REM sleep or from complete loss of consciousness. However, such a state may well be looked upon as being still "stupor". (2) happens when an unexpected thing happen suddenly. For example, it happens when we are visited by an unexpected person on a holiday which had no schedule and when we start to wonder whether we should make some coffee or tea for him or her. (3) is our daily life.
    In such ways, associations do not expand unlimitedly. As long as we are awake or are dreaming, some complex images are recollected continuously, but not all of them are continuous as a clear association.

LINGUAL IMAGES

    In each human being, from the neonatal period to the senile period, many spoken words are sensed on an auditory sensation, many written words and signs are sensed on a visual sensation, and many complex images' sources of words are generated, memorized, stored, and recollected. Such sources can be called Lingual Images' Sources or Lingual Images.
    While a lot of lingual images' sources are generated, a lot of images' sources other than lingual images' are generated, and the neuronal ways among them are activated. In such a way, more and more complicated images' sources are generated, and more and more complicated recollections, perceptions, associations, thinkings, and so on are developed.
    In addition, language has grammar. That grammar has already contained the pattern of association and thinking. Accordingly, complicated associations and thinkings are developed through the acquisition of language.
    Lingual images' sources are sensed, generated, some of them are recollected, and some of them are spoken, written, and transmitted. Those are "Words" or "Language".

IDEAS OR THOUGHTS

    Each of what are called "ideas" or "thoughts" like Copernican system, the theory of evolution, liberal right, democratic system, and so on is a huge complex image or a series of complex images as are recollected in an association. In addition, they are transmitted with long words. They are not formed only by sensations, perceptions, and memories. Their formation in individuals needs not only them but also egos and thinkings which will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". In addition, their formation in the human society needs transmission, discussion, and so on with words, pictures, movies, and so on.

MEMORIZATIONS AND STORAGES OF COMPLEX IMAGES OR IDEAS

    If complex images or ideas were not memorized or stored, we would need to sense, perceive, memorize, think, and form them again and again from nothing. We do not need to do so. When they are recollected, associated, and thought, the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources which compose them and the neuronal ways among them are activated. Next time their opening parts are recognized, most of them can be recollected or associated. Those activations and activities in themselves can be looked upon as the memorizations and storages of complex images or ideas' sources.

BEING FORGOTTEN

    The activities of the neuronal groups which are acquiredly activated decrease when neglected. The activities of the neuronal groups storing the individual images' sources composing a complex image's source and those of the neuronal ways among them also decrease when neglected, and the possibility of that complex image's source's being recollected disappear. This can be called the (complex) image's (source's) Being Forgotten or the thing's Being Forgotten.

LOSS OF MEMORY

    Because of some causes, in an animal individual, the irreversible loss of the possibilities of all the complex images' sources' being recollected can be called "Loss of Memory", Memories' Being Lost, complete forgetting, or forgetting all.
    Only the animals having memories lose memories. The animals having no memories cannot lose them. As long as an animal exists and functions, loss of memory is rarely caused. Are brain death, vegetative state, and so on any exceptions? However, they are looked upon as death. It is clear that loss of memory is caused when the animal dies.

RENEWALS OF MEMORIES

    After a complex image's source was generated, memorized, and stored, when the sensation's source which caused it, that complex image's source in itself, or those similar to it is sensed or recollected and recognized, the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources composing it and the neuronal ways among them whose activities are being reduced are activated again. This can be called the (complex) Image's (Source's) Renewal or Being Renewed, the Renewal of Its Memory, or so.
    As was explained earlier, though every complex image is being forgotten, when it is renewed frequently, its activity are retained, and it is not forgotten. Simply, what is seen, heard, felt, and thought again and again cannot be forgotten. Renewals of Memories are important parts of memories. If there were no renewals, complex images would only be forgotten, and there would be no memories. Accordingly, not only renewals of memories are included in memories but also when renewals needs to be emphasized, memories are called Memories and Renewals in these books.

VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS CHANGING SENSATIONS

    Concerning visual sensations, we can move our eyeballs, head, and go closer to a thing so that it can be seen largely and clearly. Concerning auditory sensations, though we cannot move our auricles like some other animals, we can move our head and go closer to a thing so that it can be heard loudly and clearly. We can do the same concerning olfactory sensations. Concerning balancing sensations, we can change our bodies' movements and postures to reduce dizziness. Concerning taste sensations, if we do not put any pieces of food into our mouth, we cannot taste it, and we can chew it well to make its taste intense and clear. Concerning somatic sensations, if we want to know a thing's touch, we can touch it, and if it is too hot or spiny, we can let go of it. Concerning autonomic sensations, though they are not as clear as somatic sensations, if we have severe palpitation and dyspnea, we should rest, if we are hungry, we should eat, and if we are thirsty, we should drink. Such voluntary movements like moving one's eyeballs, moving one's head, going closer to the source can be called Voluntary Movements "Changing Sensations".
    There is little possibility that any parts of the sources which are not sensed intensely or clearly by voluntary movements changing sensations are recognized or generated, memorized, or stored or renewed as individual images or complex ones. For example, things which are only sensed vaguely on the periphery of the visual field with no movement of our eyeballs or head are rarely done so.
    In addition, there is little possibility that any parts of the sources which are not sensed intensely or clearly by voluntary movements changing sensations are overlapped with complex images, that is, perceived.
    The possibility is larger that some parts of the sources which are sensed intensely and clearly by voluntary movements changing sensations are recognized and generated, memorized, and stored or renewed as individual images or complex ones.

ATTENTION

     However, that possibility gets much larger in the following cases. As will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES ― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", each ego can manipulate images which are being recollected in the ways of bringing them closer, transforming, combining, dissolving, and so on. The possibility is much larger that the complex images' sources which are recollected and manipulated by egos are memorized and stored or renewed and that their activities are maintained. That is because, though images are vague and transient, egos hold them steady to a degree by manipulating them.
    Even if egos do not manipulate the complex images when they are generated, if they are recollected and if the ego manipulate them after a while, they are memorized and stored steadily. For example, after we see a person for the first time, if we think of him or her again and again like what is he or she, why he or she behaved in that way, and so on, we can hardly forget him or her.
    In such a way, an ego's manipulating complex images' sources can be called the ego's "Attention" to the sources or the ego's Paying Attention to the sources. After all, we can hardly forget what we paid much attention to.

OTHER FUNCTIONS SIMILAR TO MEMORIES

    Besides the memories which have been explained so far, afterimages, sensory memories, instant memories, and short-term or long-term memories can be recognized which are similar to them or are included in them. They will be explained in the following sections.

AFTERIMAGE

    Each neuron's one super-short-term excitement and transmission which compose a neuronal group's excitement and transmission continues for milliseconds (several thousandths of a second). In contrast, every reproducible source changes every moment. For example, even if we trace it with voluntary movements changing sensations which were explained in one of the above sections, a running animal's spatial arrangement of the limbs which is included in visual reproducible sources do so. In such a way, after a reproducible source have changed or disappeared, the neuronal source continues exciting and transmitting at least for milliseconds. As a result, what is called an "afterimage" is caused at least for milliseconds.
    It is significant that temporal changes are appearing at present like tracks by afterimages.

SENSORY MEMORIES

    While the neuronal sources just sensed is processed with recognitions, cuts, and so on, some of them sometimes remain as they are without those processes for several tenths of a second or for seconds. This can be called "Sensory Memories". For example, the short words spoken by another person and sensed on an auditory sensation, which were not paid attention to, are sometimes paid attention to after several tenths of a second. This is a sample of auditory sensory memories. However, only short spoken words can be paid attention to in such a way, and long spoken words cannot. In addition, only when there has been some silence after the words were spoken, they can be paid attention to in such a way. In addition, when the words have been being spoken without a pause, they cannot be paid attention to in such a way.
    A sensory memory is guessed to be caused either by a prolonged afterimage or by a specialized neuronal group's long excitement and transmission.
    Sensory memories also help temporal changes appear at present.
    It seems that they are useful to retain past happenings as they were, but they are too transitory to retain them. Sensory memories are useful in compensating the lack of attention as they are in the above example.

RECOLLECTIONS OF PAST HAPPENINGS

    If any past events were memorized in the same way as movies or videos do, the neurons of a human being, whose number is the largest of all the animals on the earth, would be insufficient. Recollections of past events share common complex images. For example, the persons who often enter those events like parents, partner, children, and friends are shared. It sometimes happen that some of those who enter an event are of the present age though the event occurred ten years ago, but it will not cause serious problems.
    Anyway, not only past things but also present and future things occur to us. Those are included in recollections in these books. It is present and future things that we have anxiety about and expectation for. Most of our thinking is occupied with how to do at the present and in the future.

INSTANT MEMORIES

    While the individual image's sources which have just been generated is memorized and stored, they are recollected instantly for less than seconds and disappear. This can be called "Instant" Memories, Instant Recollection of images, Instant Recollection, or images' Being Recollected instantly, and such images can be called Instant Images.
    By afterimages and sensory memories which were explained above and by instant memories, temporal changes are appearing at present. Simply, by comparing the past which are remaining at present and the present, we know changes. Instant memories are included in memories and recollections in these books.
    While the basic memories explained earlier are caused by way of generation→memorization→storage→arousal→recollection, instant memories can be caused either by the same way or by way of generation→arousal→recollection where there are no memorization or storage.

SHORT OR LONG MEMORIES

    After a complex image's source is generated and memorized and stored, when it is not paid any attention to, the activities of the neuronal group memorizing and storing the individual images' sources composing it and those of the neuronal ways among them decrease and disappear in a short time, maybe within seconds. When it is paid attention to within seconds, their activities are retained, and it can be recollected after more than seconds. This can be called Short Memories. Of course, they are included in memories.
    However, each of us does not need to think too much. When each of us rethinks of the perceived or recollected things, some short memories have already been established. For example, we do not forget a person for hours who we are interested in. In contrast, within seconds, we will forget people who we pass by on the way to school or office unless they are very handsome, beautiful, or strange.
    However, they are forgotten within days without any more attention. In order for things to be stored for more than days, those things need to be paid attention to again and again every several hours or days. This can be called "Long Memories". Of course, they are included in memories. However, again, we do not need to think too much. In our daily life, what are so important that we should not forget them cannot help being seen, heard, thought of, and paid attention to again and again.

COMPLEX IMAGES' SOURCES = IMAGES

    Again, when the words of "complex images' sources" are always used, sentences are complicated. Accordingly, they are also called Images in these books.

ONTOGENESIS OF SENSATIONS AND MEMORIES

    In human beings, the sensations excluding visual and auditory ones are fully developed at delivery. At the age of 6 months, visual and auditory ones are fully developed, too.
    Complex images' sources start to be generated in the late prenatal period, and they are steadily generated after delivery. The memories in themselves explained so far are fully developed around the age of 3. In addition, the abilities to listen to and speak words are almost developed around the age of 3. Accordingly, we cannot remember the experiences before it. After it, memories are slowly developed, and complex images' sources slowly increase while they are generated, forgotten, and renewed. Memories in themselves and the quantity of complex images' sources stored reach the peak around the age of 15 and decrease slowly after it.

PHYLOGENESIS OF SENSATIONS AND MEMORIES

    Animals have some sensations by definition in these books. In general, terrestrial vertebrates and some terrestrial arthropods have the most complicated sensations of all the animals on the earth. That is because auditory and olfactory sensations cannot be much evolved underwater. In addition, some mammals have the most complicated sensations of all the vertebrates. That is because they have the largest cerebrums and sensory organs. It cannot be said that human beings have the most complicated sensations. At least, human beings' olfactory ones have degenerated. In the sensations of human beings, visual ones and auditory ones are more complicated, and olfactory ones are simpler. Though the distinction between somatic sensations and autonomic ones is clear in vertebrates, it is vague in the other animals. Anyway, the functions which are premised to cause something appearing on a sensation including touches, pains, hotness, coldness, smells, tastes, and so on can be called Sensations. For example, if anything is appearing on a sensation in a jellyfish or sea anemone, the function causing it is a sensation, and otherwise, it is merely a kind of response to stimuli.
    These books define sensations in the above way. In the same way, they define memories in the following way. The functions which are premised to cause something appearing as images, that is, recollections of images and the functions between recollections and sensations are called Memories in these books. Accordingly, if no recollections of images can be caused in an animal, it cannot be said that it has memories.
    At least, vertebrates have memories. Human beings have the most complicated and the richest memories, some mammals have comparatively complicated and rich ones.
    All the animals that have memories have sensations. That is because some properties which some parts of the sources just sensed have are recognized, and those parts are cut out and generated as individual images' sources for the first time. The animals which have sensations and memories evolve from the animals which have sensations and no memories. Perceptions, associations, feelings, desires, egos, thoughts, and so on contain some recollections of images. Accordingly, the animals having such functions have sensations and memories. The animals having such functions evolve from the animals which have sensations and memories and none of such functions.
    Accordingly, sensations or sensations and the functions which could not exist without them can be called "Sensations or More". In addition, sensations and memories or sensations and memories and the functions which could not exist without them can be called "Memories or More".
    The relation of mental emotions→egos→thinkings is the same as that of sensations→memories. For example, all the animals having egos have sensations, memories, mental emotions, and they evolve from the animals having such functions and no egos.
    Human beings have the most complicated memories or more of all the animals so far on the earth. Moreover, on the earth from now on, it is possible that some animals having more complicated memories or more than human beings will evolve from them or from some other animals. From the beginning, human beings can evolve, too.

References

EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES
― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS

FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE
― A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS


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