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SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES

    This "SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES" can be called "this book". This book, "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES" and "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE" can be called "These Books". These books were once called with the titles of "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES," "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS," and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" respectively, but they were changed into the current ones, which, we think, are more specific. These books can also be looked upon as a book, and each of them can also be looked upon as a chapter constituting it. These books as a book can also be called "A TRILOGY ON PSYCHOLOGY". These books, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY," "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY," "SEPARATING EACH STATE POWER INTO THE TWO SYSTEMS OF THAT OF THE RULE OF LAW PROTECTING LIBERAL RIGHTS AND THAT OF THE HUMAN RULE SECURING SOCIAL RIGHTS," and "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS" can also be called These Books.

THINGS IN THEMSELVES AND THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

THINGS IN THEMSELVES AND THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    Things excluding time and space are completely divided into the two groups of things in themselves and things appearing as mental phenomena which will be explained below. That is, excluding space and time, there are no remains or overlaps in this division.
    Material things, material functions, bodies, bodily functions, nervous systems, nervous functions, neurons, neurons' excitements and transmissions, molecules, atoms, nuclei, neutrons, protons, electrons, universal gravitation, electrostatic force, magnetic force, and so forth can be called "Things in Themselves" or Things Themselves.
    In contrast, sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, tastes, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, images, ideas, and so on can be called "Things Appearing as Mental Phenomena," Things Appearing as Phenomena, or Appearing Things. They can also be called "Phenomena" or Mental Phenomena. However, we need to distinguish things appearing on sensations, things appearing as images, things appearing to me, things appearing to you, things which appeared in the past, things which will appear in the future, things appearing to me at present, things appearing to each of us at the then present, and so forth. We can distinguish them more easily by using the words of "things appearing" "on -," "as -," "in -," "at -," "to -," or the like than by using those of "Phenomena" or the like. Therefore they are mainly called "Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena)" in these books. In order to prevent misunderstanding, it is better to add the words of "as mental phenomena." However, when they are always added, sentences will be complicated like "things appearing as individual images as mental phenomena." Therefore they are not always added in these books.
    Things appearing as mental phenomena consist of things appearing on sensations and things appearing as images. Things appearing on sensations include things appearing on visual sensations and things appearing on auditory sensations. For example, a sight is a thing appearing on a visual sensation, and a sound is a thing appearing on an auditory sensation. Things occurring to me, things which are thought, expected, remembered, and imagined are included in things appearing as images. The details of appearing things will be explained in the chapter "THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA."
    In things appearing (as mental phenomena), the time when none of them exist is nothing, and the time (1) when some of them existed jump over that (2) when none of them existed to that (3) when some of them will exist, and the first time (1) and the third (3) are continuous. For example, if we suddenly fell into a deep sleep or a loss of consciousness and suddenly woke from it, we would feel that the time of the sleep or the loss of consciousness was nothing or a moment. This is not true when that sleep contains dreams or accompanies nocturnal awakening or when that loss of consciousness accompanies gradual decrease and increase.

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL THINGS AND THEIR PROPERTIES

    That a thing has spatial extent or is a point, a line, or a plane can be called the thing's being "Spatial," and that a thing has temporal extent or is a moment can be called the thing's being "Temporal."
    While things excluding space and time are completely divided into things in themselves and things appearing (as mental phenomena), things excluding space and time are completely divided into spatial and temporal things and their properties which will be explained below.
    The things which are spatial and temporal, that is, the things which have spatial extent or are points, lines, or planes and have temporal extent or are moments can be called "Spatial and Temporal Things." For example, material things, bodies, nervous systems, neurons, sights, and sounds are spatial and temporal things.
    Each spatial and temporal thing has some things which are not completely spatial. The things which a spatial and temporal thing has and are not completely spatial can be called the "Properties" or Attributes of the spatial and temporal thing, the Properties or Attributes which the spatial and temporal thing has, the things which the spatial and temporal thing has as Properties or Attributes, or the Properties or Attributes attributed to the spatial and temporal thing. For example 1, universal gravitation is not completely spatial and is one of the properties which every material thing has. For example 2, a neuron's excitement and transmission is not completely spatial and is one of the properties attributed to every neuron.
    Every spatial and temporal thing has spatial relative positions, temporal relative positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes as properties. Spatial positions and temporal positions are all relative properties. When that relativity do not need to be emphasized, with the word "relative" omitted, spatial relative positions can be called "Spatial Positions," and temporal relative positions can be called "Temporal Positions."
    Moreover, most properties of spatial and temporal things have some things which are not completely spatial. For example 1, universal gravitation has direction and quantity, which are not completely spatial. For example 2, excitement and transmission has frequency and duration, which are not completely spatial. The things which a property of a spatial and temporal thing has and are not completely spatial, too, can be called the Properties of the property, the Properties which the property has, the things which the property has as Properties, or the Properties attributed to the property. For example, universal gravitation has direction and magnitude as properties of the property. Moreover, each of the properties (1) of a spatial and temporal thing often has some properties (2), and each of the properties (2) sometimes have some properties (3), and the same are repeated. Then, (1)(2)(3), and so forth can be called First Properties, Second Properties, Third Properties, and the forth of the spatial and temporal things. However, in most cases, the distinction between them is not significant. In the cases that the distinction between them is not significant, all of them can be called the Properties of the spatial and temporal thing, the Properties which the spatial and temporal thing has, or the like.
    Things in themselves and things appearing as mental phenomena each consist of their own spatial and temporal things and their properties.

spatial and temporal thingsproperties
things in themselvesspatial and temporal things in themselvesproperties of spatial and temporal things in themselves
things appearing
as mental phenomena
spatial and temporal things appearing
as mental phenomena
properties appearing as mental phenomena


    The spatial and temporal things which are included in things in themselves can be called Spatial and Temporal Things in Themselves. Material things, bodies, nervous systems, and neurons are included in spatial and temporal things in themselves.
    The properties of spatial temporal things which are included in things in themselves can be called the Properties of Spatial and Temporal Things in Themselves or Properties in Themselves.
    Including spatial and temporal things in themselves, every spatial and temporal thing has spatial positions, temporal positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, their changes as properties. Moreover, spatial and temporal things in themselves excluding vacuums have mass, universal gravitation, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so forth as properties in themselves.
    The spatial and temporal things which are included in things appearing as mental phenomena can be called Spatial and Temporal Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena). For example, sights, sounds, smells, tastes, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, images, and ideas are appearing spatial and temporal things. It turns out that most of the example enumerated earlier was their example. However, appearing properties, which will explained below, are included in appearing things.
    The properties of spatial temporal things which are included in things appearing as mental phenomena can be called the Properties of Spatial and Temporal Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena) or Properties Appearing (as Mental Phenomena).
    Including appearing spatial and temporal things, every spatial and temporal thing has spatial positions, temporal positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes as properties. Moreover, for example, color as a quality and brightness as a quantity are appearing properties attributed to every spatial and temporal thing appearing on a visual sensation, and high-low of sound as a quality and loudness as a quantity are appearing properties attributed to every spatial and temporal thing appearing on an auditory sensation.
    Thus, not only appearing spatial and temporal things but also their properties appear. For example, colors and brightness appear on a visual sensation, and high-low and loudness appear on an auditory sensation. Simply, we see colors and hear tones. Therefore the words of "appearing properties" will be used more often than those of "properties of appearing spatial and temporal things" in these books.
    When they are defined in the above ways, it turns out that mass, universal gravitation, and so forth are not appearing properties but properties in themselves. It is premised that the wavelength of light included in properties in themselves is represented as colors included in appearing properties and that the wavelength of sound wave included in properties in themselves is represented as high-law included in appearing properties.

WHOLES AND PARTS

    A spatial and temporal thing has the spatial whole, spatial parts, the temporal whole, and temporal parts. For example 1, a neuron has its cellular membrane and its contents as the spatial whole and has a neuronal body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon diverging into a lot of small ones at its terminal as spatial parts. For example 2, things appearing on a visual sensation have the continuity of sights from awakening to falling asleep as the temporal whole and has that of day sights and that of night ones as temporal parts.
    While a spatial and temporal thing has the spatial whole and parts and the temporal whole and parts, a property has the whole and parts of its own which are different from them. The latter are not as clear as the former. For example, an excitement and transmission, which is a property of a neuron, has [1] postsynaptic transmission, [2] excitement, [3] presynaptic transmission, and [4] pause as parts of a property, and they are not as clear as a neuronal body, dendrites, and an axon which are spatial parts of a neuron.

THINGS

    There are some recognitions, which will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES", of some properties or attributes in the beginning of every mental function like recollections of images, perceptions, associations, mental emotions, egos, thinkings, and so on. In addition, some parts of sensations' sources which have some properties are cut and generated as individual images sources for the first time. Therefore animals including human beings can perceive, associate, or think only what already has some properties. Therefore every common noun designates a thing which already has some properties. For example, the word "water" has designated a thing which has being the most clear, being the most fluid, and being tasteless and odorless as properties since before the distinction between solids, liquids, and gases and the discovery of the elements of hydrogen and oxygen. Therefore, including things in themselves, things appearing as mental phenomena, spatial and temporal things, properties, first properties, second properties, and so on, what already have some properties can be called "Things." Things include things in themselves, things appearing as mental phenomena, spatial and temporal things, and properties which have been being explained.

NECESSARY PROPERTIES

    Moreover, everything has some properties without any of which it could not be looked upon that thing in our daily lives and science. For example, a neuron without the ability to excite or transmit could not be looked upon as a neuron. The properties without any of which a thing could not be looked upon as that thing in our daily lives and science can be called the "Necessary Properties" of or for the thing. For example, the necessary properties of a neuron are being a cell, having a neuronal body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon, and having the ability to excite and transmit.
    When a thing's necessary properties are caused, the thing has already been caused, generated, developed, or formed.
    When a thing's necessary properties continue, the thing continues. That a thing keeps its necessary properties and gets, loses, or changes some other properties is looked upon as the thing's "changing" or being changed. Changing thus is included in continuing.
    A thing's losing some of its necessary properties is looked upon as the thing's being "changed into" another thing, being disordered, aging, dying, or the like. For example, a neuron's completely losing its ability to excite and transmit is looked upon as its being disordered, aging, or dying.
    When a thing causes, changes, or affects some other things, it is directly or indirectly, often indirectly, that it does so. Some details of that indirectness matter, and others do not. For example, though it is considerably indirectly that an idea is associated from another, the detail of that indirectness does not matter in our daily lives and most of humanities and social sciences. In addition, if the words like "directly" or "indirectly" were always used, sentences would be complicated. Therefore, as long as a thing (A) is the main cause of another (B), with the words like "directly" or "indirectly" omitted, the descriptions like A's "causing," "changing," or "forming" B are done in these books.

MATERIAL THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

MATERIAL THINGS

    The spatial and temporal things in themselves which consist of some particles like molecules, ions, atoms, neutrons, protons, electrons, and so forth and which they go out of and come into but which retain their necessary properties can be called "Material Things," Matter, or Substance. Genes, cellular membranes, cells, neurons, nervous systems, bodies, and so forth, too, are no more than material things though they are described as living, having life or the like. In addition, though we look upon nervous systems as special things which have mind, spirit, or the like, they are included in bodies and in material things.
    Vacuums are distinct from the space in itself and are included in spatial and temporal things in themselves. In addition, as long as there are no barriers, every particle passes through them. In addition, concerning the properties like mass, universal gravitation, potential energy, and kinetic energy, vacuums can be looked upon as having those of zero quantities. Therefore vacuums are included in material things in these books. Now that material things include vacuums, the set of material things are the same as that of spatial and temporal things in themselves.
    Material things have not only spatial positions, temporal positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes but also mass, universal gravitation, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so forth as properties. They are the properties attributed to every material thing.

FUNCTIONS

    There are some properties (F) each of which has the following properties of (a) and (b).

(a) The whole or part of each of the properties (F) is caused or changed directly or indirectly by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties.
(b) The whole or part of each of the properties (F) causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties directly or indirectly.

    The properties (F) each of which has the properties of (a) and (b) can be called "Functions."
    Some functions are always caused and changed. For example, every material thing has universal gravitation as a property, and its universal gravitation is changed by that of all other material things and changes that of all other material things. Therefore universal gravitation is a function and is always caused and changed.
    In contrast, some functions are not always caused or changed. Some functions are caused or changed only when some other material things or properties are caused or changed. For example, the whole or part of a neuron's excitement and transmission are caused by the whole of some other neurons' or sensory cells', and the whole of its excitement and transmission causes the wholes or parts of some other neurons', muscle cells' excitement and contraction, or secretory cells' excitement and secretion. Therefore a neuron's excitement and transmission is a function and is caused only when some other properties are caused.
    The functions which material things, bodies, nervous systems, or the like have can be called material functions, bodily functions, nervous functions, or the like. Functions and material functions are the same. (Material) functions include bodily functions and nervous functions. Human functions include walking upright on two legs, running alike, doing the crawl, the butterfly, and so on, speaking words, writing words, calculating, playing, studying, working, and interpersonal functions.
    Again, the whole or part of a function is caused or changed directly or indirectly by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties and causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties directly or indirectly. Indirectly in a strict sense, those other material things or properties are endless both retrogradely and anterogradely, and we cannot enumerate all of them. For example 1, what can cause a neuron's excitement and transmission include some other neurons or sensory cells' excitements and transmissions, photons, sound waves, physical or chemical stimuli, and what cause or change them, and so they are endless. In addition what can be caused by a neuron's excitement and transmission include some other neurons' excitements and transmissions, muscle cells' excitements and contractions, secretory cells' excitements and secretions, sensations, memories, voluntary movements, involuntary movements, and what are caused or changed by them, and so they are endless. In our daily lives and science, the self-evident of such endless things are omitted. In addition, the excessively indirect are omitted. Also in these books, they have been omitted and will be omitted. For example, when neurons' excitements and transmissions are explained, the supply of oxygen and glucose is omitted as self-evident.
    As was explained earlier, every property has the whole and parts of its own, and functions are included in properties. Therefore every function has the whole and parts of its own. For example, a neuron's excitement and transmission has postsynaptic transmission, exceeding of threshold, excitement, presynaptic transmission, and pause as parts of a function.

NEURONS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    Nervous systems are not composed only of neurons. They are composed of neurons, neuroglial cells supporting them, their own immune cells, various membranes, cerebrospinal fluid, and so on. Neurons can exist and function by their support in a broad sense. All the same, the most important for mental functions are neurons' excitements and transmissions.
    A neuron consists spatially of a neuronal body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon diverging into a lot of small ones at its terminal.
    Sensory cells include not only those in a narrow sense in skins, bones, striated muscles, mucous membranes, and so on but also visual cells, auditory cells, taste cells, and so on in these books. Metaphorically, the first runners of the series of cells causing sensations are sensory cells. However, not only are they the first cells to excite and transmit but also they convert the photons, sound waves, heat, pressure, and particular substances like salt and sugar outside nervous systems into cells' excitements and transmissions inside.
    Muscle cells include striated muscle cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiac muscle cells, and their excitements and contractions are caused by neurons' excitements and transmissions. Secretory cells include endocrine cells and exocrine cells, and their excitements and secretions are caused by neurons' excitements and transmissions.
    A neuron stretches an "Axon" long, the axon diverges one after another into a lot of small ones, and many "Axonal Terminals" come closest to a lot of parts of the cellular membranes of some other neurons, muscle cells, or secretory cells. Thus, one axon diverges into a lot of small ones, and so one neuron comes close to not always one but sometimes more than one neuron, muscle cell, or secretory cell.
    Though a sensory cell does not have such a long process as a neuron has as an axon, a sensory cell stretches some processes, such processes diverge into a lot of small ones, and many terminals come close to some neurons. Such processes of a sensory cell is also called Axons, and such terminals are also called Axonal Terminals in the same way as a neuron's are in these books.
    A neuron or a sensory cell (A) stretches its axon, its axon diverges into a lot of axonal terminals (a), and they comes closest to the parts (b) of the cellular membranes of some other neurons or muscle cells or secretory cells (B). However, there is a cleft between each a and each b. Each a, each b, and the cleft between them can be called a "Synapse" between A and B, and the cleft can be called a "Synaptic Cleft." By the way, synaptic clefts are full of not air but intercellular fluid. Of course, the inner part of a cell is full of intracellular fluid.
    In each synapse, the correspondence of a and b is one to one, and, after all, that of A and B is one to one. In each synapse, A can be called the "Presynaptic" Cell, and a's material things, functions, or the like can be called the Presynaptic Material Things, the Presynaptic Functions, or the like, and B can be called the "Postsynaptic" Cell, and b's material things, functions, or the like can be called the "Postsynaptic" Material Things, the Postsynaptic Functions, or the like.
    In each synapse, when many neurotransmitters are released from the axonal terminal (a) of the cell (A) to the synaptic cleft, they bind with a lot of receptors on the part (b) of the membrane of the cell (B).
    We could say the above when we paid attention to a synapse. When we pay attention to not a synapse but a cell, we can say the following. A neuron or sensory cell (A) comes close to some other neurons, muscle cells, or secretory cells (Bs) and forms a lot of synapses. This can be called A's "Joining" to Bs. In addition, a neuron, muscle cell, or secretory cell (B) has some other neurons or sensory cells (As) come close to itself and has them form a lot of synapses. This can be called B's "Being Joined" to by As. In addition, some other neurons or sensory cells by which a neuron is joined to can be called the neuron's "Directly Preceding Cells," and some other neurons, muscle cells, or secretory cells which a neuron join to can be called the neuron's "Directly following Cells." After all, a neuron is joined to by some directly preceding cells, and joins to some directly following cells. That is, one neuron is joined to by not always one but sometimes more than one directly preceding cell and joins to not always one but sometimes more than one directly following cell.
    Now, in every cell including a neuron, almost always, with its cellular membrane made a border, and with extracellular part made a reference point, the electrical potential where the intracellular part is negative is formed.
    Each neuron (N) has the following function.

[1] Postsynaptic Transmission
    In each of a lot of synapses between N and some of N's directly preceding cells, many neurotransmitters are released from the axonal terminal of the presynaptic cell into the synaptic cleft, they bind with the receptors on N's membrane, and N's electrical potentials of intracellular part change. In N, such many changes of electrical potential are summed including subtraction. This can be called N's "Postsynaptic Transmission" from some of N's directly preceding cells or N's "Being Transmitted" to by some of N's directly preceding cells.

[1-1] Exceeding of the Threshold
    Some sums of N's intracellular potentials change in the positive direction and exceed a certain threshold. This can be called N's "Exceeding of the Threshold" or Exceeding the Threshold.

[1-2] Misfire
    Not a sum of the potentials exceeds the threshold. This can be called (N)'s "Misfire" or Misfiring.

[2] Excitement
    When the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] in [1] is caused even in one part of N's membrane, the potentials' changes exceeding the threshold spread around the membrane of N including its axon as if they burst. This can be called N's "Excitement," Exciting, or being Excited.
    N's excitement's spreading through N's axon is specifically called N's "Conduction." Conductions are included in excitements in these books.

[3] Presynaptic Transmission
    The potentials' changes exceeding the threshold reach the axonal terminals of N, and the neurotransmitters are released from the axonal terminals into the synaptic clefts between N and its directly following cells. This can be called N's "Presynaptic Transmission" or "Transmitting" to its directly following cells.
(Moreover, [1]-[4] can be caused in each of N's directly following cells, and the same can be repeated.)

[4] Pause
    Only for milliseconds (several thousandths of a second), N is not able to excite. That can be called N's "Pause" or "Pausing." Thereafter N can excite and repeat [1]-[4]. From the beginning, [1]-[4] are caused in the time of hundreds or thousandths of a second. Therefore N can repeat [1]-[4] at the frequency of tens or hundreds times a second.

    The above [1-1][2][3][4] can be called N's "Excitement and Transmission" or "Exciting and Transmitting."
    Let the directly preceding cells of a neuron (N) be A, B,… and let its directly following cells be X, Y,…. A, B,…'s [3]s and N's [1] can be called the transmission from A, B,… to N or A, B,…'s transmitting to N. N's [3] and X, Y,…'s [1]s can be called the transmission from N to X, Y,… or N's transmitting to X, Y,…. Even if A, B,… transmit to N, N does not always excite and transmit. When N's [1] end up with misfire [1-2], N does not excite or transmit. In contrast, when not [1-2] but exceeding of threshold [1-1] is caused, N excites and transmits unless something unusual happen like its axon is cut and like its neurotransmitters are depleted.
    A sensory cell is excited by some photons, sound waves, physical and chemical stimuli, and so forth and transmits in the same way as a neuron does. This can be called a Sensory Cell's Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting.
    A muscle cell excites in the same way as a neuron does by being transmitted to by some neurons, but it does not transmit in that way but contracts. This can be called the Muscle Cell's Excitement and Contraction or Exciting and Contracting.
    A secretory cell excites in the same way as a neuron does by being transmitted to by some neurons and secretes, but it does not transmit in that way but secretes. This can be called the Secretory Cell's Excitement and Secretion or Exciting and Secreting.
    When the properties or attributes which are common to all of them are explained, neurons, sensory cells, muscle cells, and secretory cells are referred to as "Neurons" in these books. That is, neurons represent them in these books.
    In addition, the words of "excitement and transmission," "transmission," and so on designate a concrete and countable function which each neuron or neuronal group has. For example, if there are a hundred neurons, there can be a hundred or less of excitements and transmissions at once. Therefore those words are used as countable nouns in these books.
    After all, a neuron can be transmitted to by not always one but sometimes more than one directly preceding cell and can transmit to not always one but sometimes more than one directly following cell.
    The whole of [1-1][2][3][4] or the part of [1-2] of a neuron's excitement and transmission is caused by the wholes of [1-1][2][3][4] of some of its directly preceding cells' excitements and transmissions, and the whole of [1-1][2][3][4] of a neuron's excitement and transmission causes the wholes of [1-1][2][3][4] or parts of [1-2] of its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions. Therefore neurons' excitements and transmissions are functions.
    A neuron's excitement and transmission as a function has each of [1-1][1-2][2][3][4] as a part of a function.
    Like a neuron either excites and transmits or ends up with misfire, some functions have more than one choice. Rather, most functions of animals, which are complex, usually have more than one choice. For example, animals' escaping functions have various choices of running away at once, hiding at once, hiding after running away for a while, running away after counterattacking for a while, and so forth.
    However, concerning a neuron's excitement and transmission, it is better to look upon misfire [1-2] as a half-way part of the whole of [1-1][2][3][4]. Thus, in some functions, only a part is sometimes caused. In addition, it is probable that none of the other material things or properties which the whole could cause are caused only by a part's being caused. For example, in neurons' excitements and transmissions, none of the directly following cells' excitements and transmissions are caused only by misfires' being caused.
    Not only the whole of [1-1][2][3][4] but also, each of the parts of [1-1][2][3] is a function. That is because, the directly preceding cells' excitements and transmissions cause [1-1] or [1-2] which can be looked upon as a part of [1-1], [1-2] causes [2], [2] causes [3], and [3] causes [1-1] or [1-2] of its directly following cells. Thus, in some functions, some of their parts are functions, too.
    When the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is caused, the following [2][3][4] are caused, and the whole of the excitement and transmission is caused. Even if a neuron is transmitted to by some of its directly following cells, when [1-1] is not caused, the following parts are not caused, the whole is not caused, and it ends up with misfire [1-2]. If its axon should be cut or if its neurotransmitters should be depleted, its presynaptic transmission [3] would not be caused even if [1-1] is caused. However, the cells which do not have any abilities to transmit thus do not satisfy the necessary properties of neurons and can no longer be looked upon as neurons.

SHORT-TERM REPETITION OF EXCITEMENT AND TRANSMISSION

    The [1-1][2][3][4] which has been explained is one excitement and transmission continuing for milliseconds (thousandths of a second). This can be called a neuron's "One (Super-short-term) Excitement and Transmission" or Exciting and Transmitting Once (for Super-short time). Practically, once it is caused, it is repeated at a certain frequency of tens or hundreds times a second continually for seconds. Such a repetition can be called a neuron's "Short-term (Continual) Repetition" of Excitement and Transmission or Repeating Excitement and Transmission (Continually) for a Short Time. However, almost every neuron either does such repetition or, from the beginning, does not excite and transmit anyway. Therefore such repetition can also be called a neuron's Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting, and the words of excitement and transmission usually designate such a short-term continual repetition in these books. Short-term continual repetition need to be clearly distinguished from long-term intermittent repetition as will be explained later.

NECESSARY FUNCTIONS, OBJECTS, AND SO ON

    As was defined earlier, the properties without which a thing could not be looked upon as that thing can be called the Necessary Properties of or for the thing. For example, the ability to excite and transmit is one of the necessary properties of neurons, and so a cell without that ability could not be looked upon as a neuron. A neuron has the ability to excite and transmit as a necessary property.
    Now, the functions which a material thing has as properties or which a material thing has the tendencies or abilities to cause as necessary properties can be called the Necessary Functions of or for the material thing, the Necessary Functions which the material thing has, or the Necessary Functions attributed to the material thing. For example, neurons have the ability to excite and transmit as a necessary property, and they have excitements and transmissions as a necessary function.
    Moreover, functions also have their properties and their necessary properties. By definition, a function has the following necessary property:

the whole or part of a function is caused or changed by the wholes or parts of

(1) some other material things or properties

and causes or changes the wholes or parts of

(2) some other material things or properties.

    Moreover, some of (1) or some of (2) are sometimes involved in some of the function's necessary properties. For example, a neuron's excitement and transmission which cannot cause any striated muscle cells' excitements and contractions cannot be called the excitement and transmission of a neuron of a motor nerve, and its (1) involves some striated muscle cells' excitements and contractions. When some of (1) are involved in some of the necessary properties of a function, the involved can be called the function's Necessary Causes, and when some of (2) are included in some of the necessary properties of a function, the involved can be called the function's Necessary Objects or Effects. For example, the necessary objects of the excitements and transmissions of the neurons of motor nerves are muscle cells' excitements and contractions.
    Moreover, in a function, there is a part which is essential for the wholes or parts of its necessary objects to be caused or changed and which causes or changes necessary objects the least indirectly in it. Such a part can be called the function's "Necessary and Direct Part." For example, if a neuron's [3] presynaptic transmission is not caused, none of its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions, some of which are its necessary objects, are caused. In addition, it causes them the least indirectly in a neuron's excitement and transmission. Therefore presynaptic transmissions [3] are the necessary and direct part of neurons' excitements and transmissions.

DECISIVE PARTS OF FUNCTIONS

    However, concerning some functions, the following can be said. As long as the functions satisfy its necessary properties, when a certain part of each of them is caused or changed, its necessary and direct part is certain to be caused or changed, too, and the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are certain to be caused or changed, too. For example, in a neuron's excitement and transmission, when its exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is caused, its presynaptic transmission [3] is also caused, and the wholes or parts of its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions, some of which are its necessary objects, are also caused. Such a part can be called the function's "Decisive" part. For example, in a neuron's excitement and transmission, the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is its decisive part, and presynaptic transmission [3] is its necessary and direct part. Like this example, in some functions, their necessary and direct parts and their decisive parts do not overlap. In others, those parts overlap completely or incompletely. Moreover, in some functions, those parts and their wholes coincide. For example, it is true of universal gravitation.

FUNCTIONS' FUNCTIONING

    In a function, that none of its necessary and direct part is caused or changed, practically that none of its decisive part is caused or changed, and as a result that none of the whole or part of its necessary objects are caused or changed cannot be called the function's functioning. For example, in a neuron's excitement and transmission, that its presynaptic transmission [3] is not caused, practically that its exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is not caused, and as a result that none of its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions, some of which are its necessary objects, are caused cannot called the neuron's excitement and transmission's functioning. Therefore that the necessary and direct part of a function is caused or changed, practically that its decisive part is caused or changed, and as a result that the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are caused or changed can be called the function's "Functioning" to its necessary objects. For example, in a neuron's excitement and transmission, that its presynaptic transmission [3] is caused, practically that its exceeding of threshold [1-1] is caused, and as a result that the wholes or parts of its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions, some of which are its necessary objects, are caused can be called the neuron's excitement and transmission's functioning to them. In addition, when the necessary objects are self-evident, with them omitted, a function's functioning to its necessary objects can be called the function's Functioning. In addition, a function's functioning can also be called the function's Being Caused. That is, the words of a function's being caused and those of its functioning designate the same thing. In addition, when the link between a material thing (1) and one of its necessary functions, the link between that function and one of its objects, and the link between that object and the material thing (2) which have it are self-evident, that function's functioning to that objects can be called that material thing (1)'s Functioning to that material thing (2). For example, the excitement and transmission of a neuron of a motor nerve's functioning to the excitement and contraction of a striated muscle cell can be called that neuron's functioning to that striated muscle cell.

FUNCTIONS' TIMELY FUNCTIONING

    Usually in living things, above all, in animals, a function functions by being functioned to by the functions which are its necessary causes. Therefore, even when the mere description like "a function's functioning" is done, it is better to modify the word of "functioning" with that of "timely." We are relieved by such timeliness. For example, if the neurons directly following sensory cells excited and transmitted without being transmitted to by them, sensations would be chaotic and we would feel pain without any stimulation, disorder, or inflammation. However, if the words like "timely" or "by being functioned to by …" were always used, sentences would be complicated. Therefore they are used only when such timeliness need to be emphasized.

MATERIAL THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    Excluding space and time, things in themselves are either spatial and temporal things in themselves (1) or their properties, their properties' properties, and so forth (2), and those properties (2) are either functions (2-1) or properties other than functions (2-2). The words like material things, matter, substances, living things, animals, and human beings are vague on whether or not they mean both (1) and (2). In these books, those words means both (1) and (2). Moreover, when it is necessary to emphasize that those words means functions, too, the words like a Material Thing and its Material Functions, a Material Thing and its Functions, a Living Thing and its Living Functions, a Living Thing and its Function, or the like will be used in these books.
    Once the meanings of those words are defined so and after the vacuum was included in material things as was done in one of the above chapters, the words "material things and their functions" or "material things" designate all things in themselves excluding space and time.
    The words like a material thing's "existing" or a material thing and its functions' existing are vague on whether or not they also means those functions' (timely) functioning. In these books, those words means it, too. Moreover, when it is necessary to emphasize that they means it, too, the words like a material thing and its functions' "Existing and Functioning", the material thing's Existing and Functioning, or the like will be used in these books.
    However, when those words are always used, sentences will be complicated. Therefore the words like a Material Thing's Existing, an Animal's Living, or the like will usually be used in these books, and, even then, those words mean functions' (timely) functioning, too.
    By the way, sometimes, a function is recognized, and thereafter the material thing which it is attributed to is recognized. For example, in the history of biology, after the functions of heredity and evolution were found, the material things of genes was found. In such a case, the words of a function, a property, a function or property and the material thing which it is attributed to, or the like are used in these books.

POSSIBILITIES

    The possibility of a thing's existing or functioning or being caused or changed can be called the Possibility of the thing, too.
    The possibility of a thing includes the possibilities of some other things. For example, the possibility of a neuron's exciting and transmitting includes the possibilities of some directly preceding cells' exciting and transmitting, the supply of oxygen, glucose, and so forth. From the beginning, the possibilities of all the things that the living things on the earth including human beings have includes the possibilities of the sun, the earth, plants' photosynthesis, the food chain from microorganisms to plants to smaller animals, and so forth.

SITUATIONS AND THE NATURE

    Living things, living functions, animals, animal functions, individuals, individual functions, human beings, human functions, and so on will be defined later. Before they are defined, their situations and nature will be defined.
    As was explained above, the possibility of some things include the possibilities of some other things. Those other things can be called the "Situation" or the "Nature" of or for the things. In addition, the situation of some things without which they could not exist or function can be called the " (Necessary) Situation" or the "Nature" of or for the things. For example, the sun, the earth, sunlight, oxygen, carbon dioxide, plants' photosynthesis, the food chain from microorganisms to plants to some other animals, and so on are the nature for a species of animals. The nature of some living things includes some other living things. For example, the nature for human beings includes some other animals, plants, microorganisms. In addition, the nature for some individuals of a species of living things includes some other individuals of the same species. For example, the nature for a human individual includes some other human beings and their interpersonal functions. It may be unnatural that such a thing as contains some other human beings and human functions is called his or her nature. When the word of "nature" is unnatural, the nature for some things can be called the (Necessary) Situation of or for them.
    It is impossible to enumerate all the material things and their functions included in the nature or the situation for something. For example, when we enumerate the necessary situation of a neuron's excitement and transmission, it involves some of its directly preceding cells' excitements and transmissions, the supply of oxygen, glucose, and so forth, the palpitation of the heart, the respiration, the digestion and absorption of food, the chain of food, and so forth, and they are endless. This is the same as the material things and their functions causing or changing the whole or part of a function are endless, which has already been explained. In our daily lives and science, out of them, those which are self-evident and too indirect are omitted. These books, too, have omitted and will omit them. For example, when the necessary situation for a neuron's excitement and transmission is explained, the explanation of plants' photosynthesis, food chains, and so forth are omitted. Of course, it is not omitted when the nature for the living things on the earth is explained.

TENDENCIES AND ABILITIES

    The possibility of a thing includes the possibilities of some other things. In contrast, the part of the possibility inside a thing can be called the thing's Own Possibility. Out of things' own possibilities, tendencies and abilities, which will be explained below, are significant. Anyway, the tendency or ability of a thing is one of its own properties, and does not include the possibilities, tendencies or abilities of any other things.
    A thing's own possibility to be caused or changed in the case that it is presupposed that there are no external resistances to that thing can be called its "Ability" or Capability (to be caused or changed). Pure abilities are hard to measure in the real world where there are some resistances and can barely be measured in examiners or special rooms where the resistances involved are removed or induced from the data in the real world. According to those findings, for example, a neuron's ability to excite and transmit is having a lot of receptors on the cellular membrane, stretching its axon, making it diverge into a lot of axonal terminals, and forming a lot of synapses, releasing a lot of neurotransmitters from its axonal terminals, and so forth. General neurons' abilities to excite and transmit are increased and formed by long-term intermittent repetition, which will be explained later.
    In contrast to abilities' excluding external resistances, a thing's, own possibility including that to be caused or changed against resistances including direct or indirect competitions can be called its "Tendency" (to be caused or changed). For example, when a lot of excitements and transmissions of neuronal groups are caused in a converging neuronal groups which will be explained later, those exciting and transmitting the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center go through, while making the others disappear, and reach the destination. Such earliness, continuity, density, width, and closeness to the center of a neuronal group's excitement and transmission are its tendency to be caused in a converging neuronal group.
    As will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES," tendencies matter in limited egos, and abilities matter in intentional functions. The abilities of intentional functions which is particular to human beings include the ability to walk upright on two legs, to run alike, to do the crawl, the butterfly, and so on, to speak words, to write words, to calculate, to play, to study, to work, to cope with interpersonal relations. Indeed there are some resistance to them, but tendencies do not much matter. For example 1, though there are resistances to walking like slopes or bad whether, there is no problem if the ability to walk is steady. For example 2, though there are resistances to working, studying, or playing like the hindrance by other persons, it is not the ability to do it but that to cope with interpersoal relations that cope with such hindrance.

    When the link between one material thing and one necessary function which it has is self-evident, the tendency or ability of that function can be called the Tendency or Ability of that material thing. For example, the ability of a neuron's excitement and transmission can be called that neuron's ability.
    The increase of the ability of a thing can be called the "Activation" of the thing or the thing's being Activated.

ABILITIES OF NEURONS

    The ability of a neuron('s excitement and transmission) is having a lot of able receptors on the cellular membrane, stretching its axon, making it diverge into a lot of axonal terminals, and forming a lot of synapses, releasing a lot of able neurotransmitters from its axonal terminals, and so forth. Thus, not only neurons but also neurotransmitters and receptors have their abilities. Their abilities are those to change the extra-intracellular voltage when they are bound.
    A neuron's ability is decreased temporarily for seconds by the short-term continual repetition which was explained earlier, that is, simply, excitement and transmission. However, the ability is increased by the short-term continuous repetition's being repeated intermittently in the long time from seconds to years. In contrast, the ability is decreased without such repetition. This is the substance of the importance of repetition in learning which is experienced in our daily lives and science. Such a long-term intermittent repetition of short-term continuous repetition can be called a neuron's excitement and transmission's "Long-Term Intermittent Repetition" or Being Repeated Intermittently in a Long Time. A neuron's ability is increased by such repetition and is decreased by little or no such repetition. Mainly, such repetition increases the tendencies of recollections of images, which will be explained later in this book, and the abilities of intentional functions and the tendencies of limited egos, which will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES."

PROMOTIONS⇔RESTRAINTS

    The words of "excitement and transmission," "transmission," "ability," and "activation" explained earlier, "promotion" and "restraint" which will be explained below, and so forth designate concrete and countable things which each neuron, neuronal group, or the like has. For example, for a neuron, if there are ten directly preceding cells, there can be ten or less of promoting or restraining transmissions, and when the sum of the voltages caused by them exceeds a certain threshold, the neuron excites and transmits. Therefore those words are used as countable nouns in these books.
    For example, concerning a neuron's excitement and transmission, its whole either is caused or is not caused, and so it is what is called "all or nothing." Concerning such all-or-nothing things, the following can be said.
    By a function (P)'s functioning to another (all-or-nothing) thing (Q), when the possibility of the thing (Q)'s being caused or changed gets larger, the function (P) can be called the "Promotion," Prompt, Promoting Function, or Prompting Function for the the thing (Q) or P's Promoting or Prompting Q.
    In contrast to promotions, by a function (R)'s functioning another thing (S), when the possibility of the thing (S)'s being caused or changed gets smaller, the function (R) can be called the "Restraint" or Restraining Function on the thing (S) or R's Restraining S.
    Though it is the promoting transmissions and restraining transmissions of neurons that are typical of promotions and restraints, they can be found in interpersonal relations and the society. For example 1, violence often restrain some individuals' functions. That is a kind of violation of liberal rights. However, by restraining the violence which restrains some individuals' functions, some kinds of power can prevent them from being restrained. That is a kind of protection of liberal rights. For example 2, some kinds of power can promote human functions by supplying water and food, medicine, information, and so forth. That is a kind of security of social rights. In addition, they can be found in the animal bodies outside nervous systems. For example, when a group of endocrine secretory cells secretes a kind of hormone exceedingly, another group secretes another kind of hormone which restrains their secretion. That is a part of homeostasis. Also in each nervous system, there are promoting transmissions and restraining ones, as will be explained below.
    Now in a nervous system, when a neuron's transmission (PT) promotes its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions by reducing extra-intracellular voltage and by facilitating exceeding of the threshold, PT can be called the Promoting Transmission, Promotion, Prompting Transmission, or Prompt for its directly following cells or PT's Promoting or Prompting its directly following cells.
    In contrast to promoting transmissions, when a neuron's transmission (RT) restrains its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions by increasing extra-intracellular voltage and by making exceeding of the threshold more difficult, RT can be called the Restraining Transmission or Restraint on its directly following cells or the neuron's Restraining its directly following cells.
    Sometimes, a neuron is joined to by more than one directly preceding cell and gets a mixture of promoting and restraining transmissions. Usually in such a case, when it has got more promoting ones, it excites and transmits, and when it has got more restraining ones, it does not. All the same, more strictly, the sum of the voltages caused by them is the question.
    The restraints in nervous systems are important for rest and sleep and the reduction of pain and anxiety or fear. Simply, we cannot sleep or rest without restraints.
    Next, concerning the things which are not all-or-nothing ones, the following can be said. Each of them has some kinds of quantities and some kinds of qualities. Concerning each kind of quantity, simply increasing or decreasing it can be called Promoting or Restraining it. Concerning each kind of quality, changing it can only be called Promoting or Restraining it, and it matters how to change it. For example, concerning the quality of public armed forces like the police and the military, changing them in the way that they cannot violate liberal rights and democratic and separative systems can be called restraining it, and changing it in the way that they can protect those rights and systems can be called promoting it.

FUNCTIONS' STOPS

    In contrast to a function's functioning, a function's not functioning, that is, its necessary and direct part's not being caused or changed, practically its decisive part's not being caused or changed can be called the function or the material thing (whose ling with the function is clear)'s "Stop" or Stopping. A function's stop includes that its necessary and direct part and decisive part are not caused and that some other parts are caused. Of course, it includes that no parts are caused. For example, a neuron's stop includes that its postsynaptic transmission [1] is caused but that its presynaptic transmission [3] is not caused, that is, that its misfire [1-2] is caused. Of course, it include that even its misfire [1-2] is not caused.
    Functions' stops, above all, neurons' stops are very important for mental functions. As will be explained in the chapters below, because some series of neurons actually joining in a neuronal group excite and transmit and the others stop, it is premised that the subtleness of sight, sound, pain, and the like appear. If all the neurons in a neuronal group either excited and transmitted or stopped, sights would be completely white or black in all the visual field, sounds would be piercingly loud or deadly silent, and the pain would be terribly severe or boringly senseless in all the body including the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints. So that their subtleness can appear, some neurons need to excite and transmit at high density and others at low density. From the beginning, so that density can exist, some series of neurons actually joining in a neuronal group need to excite and transmit, and the others need to stop.
    Thus, most of functions' stops can be looked upon as functions. Functions' stops which are looked upon as functions are included in functions in these books.
    Promotions and restraints are functions changing the properties of other things, and so they are included in functions. That a function promotes or restrains some other things and as a result that the latter is caused or is not caused can be called the former's "Causing" or "Stopping" the latter respectively. Such causing or stopping are also included in functions. For example, that a neuron releasing the neurotransmitters of GABA restrains its directly following cells and that the latter is not caused can be called the former's stopping the latter, and such stopping is included in functions.
    In human relations and the human society, it might be better that such stopping is called "Deterring." For example, there are some "deterrence theories."

FUNCTIONS' AROUSALS

    That a part (P) of a function which can cause or change its decisive part (DP) is caused or changed can be called the function's "Arousal" or Arising. A function's arousal includes that P is caused or changed but that DP is not caused or changed. That is, it is probable that a function does not function and is not caused and does stop even if it arises. A function's arising does not always mean its functioning or being caused. For example, that a neuron's postsynaptic transmission [1] is caused is its excitement and transmission's arising. Even if [1] is caused, when the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is not caused, that is, when [1] end up with the misfire [1-2], presynaptic transmission [3] is not caused, and the neuron does not excite or transmit and does stop. This is the neuron's (excitement and transmission's) arising but stopping.
    The following is one of the most important example of arousals. As will be explained later, usually, though a lot of images' sources arise, a limited number (n) of them are recollected. This is the substance of our daily thought that we cannot think of more than one thing at once.
    The following is the case as far as neurons' excitements and transmissions and some other living functions are concerned. If no pause [4] was caused, the neuron could transmit to and function to its directly following cells. All the same, it is impossible for [1-1][2][3] to be caused and for [4] not to be caused. Though, by definition, it is a neuron's functioning that presynaptic transmission [3] which is a necessary and direct part is caused, it is a neuron's functioning, practically, that the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] which is a decisive part is caused, and, more practically, that the whole of [1-1][2][3][4] is caused.

COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE STOPS

    In contrast to a function's arising, a function's not even arising can be called the function's "Complete" Stop or Completely Stopping. In contrast to a function's complete stop, a function's arising and not functioning can be called the function's "Incomplete" Stop or Stopping Incompletely.
    Though the word of "incomplete" may make a bad impression, each of us need to stop functions falling into a vicious circle, which will be explained in "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE," not completely but incompletely in the first stage in order to decrease the tendencies falling into a vicious circle.

LIVING THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

LIVING THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    The material things which have the property (1) of synthesizing some macromolecules like proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, that (2) of consisting of them, and that (3) of reproducing some material things which have the same necessary properties as they have can be called "Living Things." For example, a gene has the property (1) of synthesizing proteins and nucleic acid, that (2) of consisting of them, and that (3) of replicating itself, and is not only an important part of a larger living thing but also itself a living thing. Living things include genes, cells, individuals, and so forth.
    The functions which living things have can be called Living Functions. Living functions include biogenesis, reproduction, growth, aging, death, grouping, spontaneous mutation, and evolution.
    Living thing and their properties, their properties' properties, and so forth including functions can be called "Living Things and Their Living Functions," Living Things and Their Functions, or Living Things. A living thing and its functions' existing and functioning can be called its "Living" or "Life." A living thing and its functions' coming to exist and function can be called its "Being Borne" or "Birth," and its coming not to exist or function can be called its "Dying" or "Death." For example, not only individuals but also cells which compose individuals are dying sooner or later.
    Living things are included in material things, and living functions in material functions. However, material things excluding living things can also be called Material things, and material functions excluding living functions can also be called Material Functions.

INDIVIDUALS

    There are some living things which can be living things when they are spatially separated from the other living things. The living things which can be living things when they are spatially separated from the other living things can be called "Individuals." Most animals like insects, fishes, birds, horses, cows, dogs, cats, monkeys, human beings, and so forth found in our daily lives are individuals.

BODIES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    There are some individuals whose functions of sensations or recollections of images are premised to cause some things appearing as mental phenomena and which have motor functions. Such individuals can be called "Bodies" or "Animals." For example, it is premised that the neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions from the retinas to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes cause things appearing on a visual sensation. In addition, a neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions from frontal lobes via spinal cords to motor nerves and striated muscles' contraction cause voluntary movements. An individual having such functions is a body or an animal of vertebrates.
    The functions which bodies have can be called Bodily Functions, Physical Functions, or Animal Functions. Bodily functions include expansion and contraction of hearts, blood vessels, and lungs, neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions, muscular groups' excitements and contractions, secretory groups' excitements and secretions, involuntary movements, voluntary movements, instinctive functions, sensations, memories, and recollections of images.
    Bodies and their properties, their properties' properties, and so forth including functions can be called "Bodies and their Bodily Functions," Bodies and their Functions, or Bodies, Animals and Their Animal Functions, Animals and Their Functions, or Animals.

ANIMALS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    Bodies can be called "Animals," Animal Bodies, or Animal Individuals, too, and bodily functions can be called Animal functions, too. However, in our daily lives, the word of bodies is used for the contrast with minds or spirits and does not imply them. Neither does it imply things appearing as mental phenomena. In contrast, the word of animals and the words of human beings can imply them. Therefore bodies and their functions and the things appearing as mental phenomena which some parts of them are premised to cause can be called Animals and their Animal Functions, Animals and their Functions, or Animals. That is, the words of animals and their functions are different from those of bodies and their functions in that the former sometimes implies things appearing as mental phenomena.

HUMAN BEINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    The animals which belong to the species of "Homo sapience" can be called "Human Beings," the functions which human beings has can be called "Human Functions," and human beings and their properties, their properties' properties, and so forth including functions can be called "Human Beings and their Human Functions," Human Beings and Their Functions, or Human Beings. Moreover, for the same reason explained in the above section, human beings and their functions and the things appearing as mental phenomena which some parts of them are premised to cause can be called Human Beings and Their Human Function, Human Beings and Their Functions, Human Beings, Human Individuals, Individuals, Individual Persons, Persons, or Each of Us.
    Human functions include not only the bodily functions enumerated earlier but also walking upright on two legs, running alike, doing the crawl, butterfly, and so forth, speaking words, writing words, calculating, playing, studying, working, and interpersonal functions.
    Material things include living things, living things include animals, and animals include human beings. Material functions include living functions, living functions include animal functions, and animal functions include human functions.

NEURONAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

NERVOUS SYSTEMS

    An organ which consists of neurons and sensory cells and neuroglial cell supporting them, cerebrospinal fluid containing them, dura maters, pia maters, and arachnoid membranes enclosing them, and so forth can be called a "Nervous System" or Neuronal System. Not only central nervous systems but also peripheral ones and autonomic ones are included in nervous systems. Moreover, sensory cells, sensory group, and sensory organs in a narrow sense like eyeballs, inner ears are included in nervous systems in these books. Moreover, sensory cells and neurons also distribute the organs and tissues like skins and tongues which cannot looked upon as sensory organs in a narrow sense. Concerning them, only the sensory cells and the neurons are included in nervous systems in these books.
    The following can be called "Neuronal Groups."

UNITARY NEURONAL GROUPS

    A group of neurons where neuronal bodies gather into what is called a nucleus or ganglion and where the axons bunch into what is called a nerve can be called a "Unitary Neuronal Group."
    Each neuron in a unitary neuronal group is joined to by some neurons in some other unitary neuronal groups. This can be called a unitary neuronal group's Being Joined to by some other neuronal groups. Each neuron in a unitary neuronal group joins to some other neurons in some other unitary neuronal groups. This can be called a unitary neuronal group's Joining to some other neuronal groups. Accordingly, a neuronal group is joined to by not always one but sometimes more than one neuronal group and joins to not always one but sometimes more than one neuronal group.

SENSORY GROUPS

    A group of sensory cells can be called a "Sensory Group."
    Though a sensory cell does not have such a long process as a neuron has as an axon in a narrow sense, it joins and has the ability to transmit to some neurons with some short processes in the same way as a neuron does. In addition, a sensory group joins to some unitary neuronal group in the same way as a unitary neuronal group does. Such sensory groups are included in unitary neuronal groups in these books.
    In contrast, not a sensory group is joined to or transmitted to by any neuronal groups. Sensory groups are made to excite and transmit by such situations outside nervous systems as photons, sound waves, pressure, heat, and inflammation. Such situations are direct ones for nervous systems. The sources of photons, sound waves, and heat and the causes of inflammation, and so forth are their indirect situations. In a complex neuronal group causing a sensation, the sensory group is metaphorically a first runner.
    In taste sensations, olfactory sensations, somatic sensations, and autonomic sensations, their sensory cells do not gather orderly into their sensory organs in a narrow sense but diffuse randomly into general organs or tissues like tongues, nasal cavities, skins, and mucus membranes. All the same, the set of sensory cells diffusing thus but causing a kind of sensation is also called a Sensory Group in these books. In addition, the organs or tissues where such sensory cells diffuse are sometimes called Sensory Organs (in a Broad Sense) in these books.

COMPLEX NEURONAL GROUPS

    Linear neuronal groups, neuronal ways, diverging neuronal groups, converging neuronal groups, and paired neuronal groups which will be explained below, and the mixtures of some of them can be called "Complex Neuronal Groups." However, they can extend endlessly. Therefore, out of them, that which can cause a unitary nervous function like a kind of sensation and a kind of memory is re-called a Complex Neuronal Group in these books.

LINEAR NEURONAL GROUPS

    When each neuron or sensory cell in a unitary neuronal group or sensory group [A] joins to a neuron in another unitary neuronal group [B], each neuron in [B] joins to a neuron in another unitary neuronal group [C], and the same are repeated; [A][B][C]… can be called a "Linear Neuronal Group."

NEURONAL WAYS

    When a unitary neuronal group, sensory group, or complex neuronal group [A] joins to another unitary neuronal group [B], [B] joins to another unitary neuronal group [C], and [C] joins to another unitary or complex neuronal group, a muscle group, or a secretory group [D], and when [A][D] have some clear functions like sensations, memories, and movements, secretion, and when [B][C] do not have any clear functions other than excitements and transmissions; [B][C] can be called the "Neuronal Way" from [A] to [D].

DIVERGING NEURONAL GROUPS

    When each neuron or sensory cell in a unitary neuronal group or sensory group [A] joins to some neurons in each of some neuronal groups [B][B'], each neuron in each of [B][B'] joins to some neurons in each of some unitary neuronal groups [C][C'][C''][C'''], and the same are repeated; [A][B][B'][C][C'][C''][C''']… can be called a "Diverging" Neuronal Group. In addition, neuronal groups diverging wildly can be called Diffusing ones.
    For example, the neuronal group which individual images' sources which are being generated go through, which will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES," is a diverging neuronal group, and the neuronal group which impulses go through, which will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES," is a diffusing neuronal group.

CONVERGING NEURONAL GROUPS

    When each neuron, muscle cell, or secretory cell in a unitary neuronal group, muscle group, or secretory group [Z] is joined to by some neurons in each of some unitary neuronal groups [Y][Y'], each neuron in each of [Y][Y'] are joined to by some neurons in each of some unitary neuronal groups [X][X'][X''][X'''], and the same are repeated; [Z][Y][Y'][X][X'][X''][X''']… can be called a "Converging" Neuronal Group.
    For example, the neuronal group from the unitary neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources to the neuronal group replaying sources, which will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES," is a converging neuronal group. Therefore, though a lot of individual images' sources arise, a limited number or less of them are recollected.

PAIRED NEURONAL GROUPS

    In most nervous systems, there are some pairs of neuronal groups, and the two neuronal groups composing each pair are symmetrical though some parts of them cross and some parts join to each other. For example, in each of vertebrates' nervous systems, there is a pair of neuronal groups from the retinae via optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes though optic nerves cross. Such paired neuronal groups are included in neuronal groups and in complex neuronal groups in these books.
    As will be explained later, it is premised that paired neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and some functions processing them cause things appearing beyond sensory organs. For example, your face appearing to me on a visual sensation with both eyes seems to be in the position beyond my eyes. In contrast, when I close my right eye, your face appearing on a visual sensation with my left eye seems to be in the position of my left eye. In addition, because there is a pair, an individual which suffer a disorder in one of the pair sometimes survive the disorder. That is true of not only nervous systems but also eyes, ears, lungs, kidneys, limbs, testicles, ovaries, and so forth. In addition, because neuronal groups compose a pair also in the cerebrum, the dominant hemisphere matters. For example, in a right handed person, the left hemisphere is often dominant in general. In this case, even if the right one suffers a moderate disorder, sometimes, mental and bodily functions do not have serious trouble.

NEURONAL GROUPS

    The above unitary neuronal groups, sensory group, complex neuronal groups (linear neuronal groups, neuronal ways, diverging neuronal groups, converging neuronal groups, and paired neuronal groups) and the mixtures of some of them each of which can cause a unitary nervous function like a kind of sensation and a kind of memory are called Complex Neuronal Groups in these books.

SERIES OF NEURONS ACTUALLY JOINING

    In a complex neuronal group, not all the neurons join directly or indirectly. If all did so, for example, a spot in the retina might become all the field in the visual area on the occipital lobe.
    In a complex neuronal group, each series of neurons which actually join directly or indirectly can be called a "Series of Neurons Actually Joining." When they are defined so, a neuronal group can be redefined as the bunch of a lot of series of neurons actually joining.
    In a series of neurons actually joining, all the neuron's exciting and transmitting can be called the series' Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting, and not all the neurons' exciting and transmitting can be called the series' Not Exciting and Transmitting or Stopping. Metaphorically, if one of the runners drops the baton, all is over. However, that happens in nervous systems as rarely as in stadiums.

NEURONAL GROUPS RETAINING SPATIAL RELATIVE POSITIONS

    When we imagine that the bunch of the axons of a neuronal group is cut in a round slice in the same way as a stem of asparagus is cut, it turns out that each series of neurons actually joining has a spatial relative position in the slice as a property or attribute. Unless neurons join to or are joined to by others in one-to-many way or in many-to-one way again and again or axons are tangled, the spatial relative position of each series of neurons actually joining is retained to a great degree. Otherwise, for example, a straight line appearing on a visual sensation would be irregular curves. Such neuronal groups as the spatial relative position of each series of neurons actually joining is retained to a great degree can be called "Neuronal Group Retaining Spatial Relative Position."
    Most neuronal groups are ones retaining spatial relative position. This is because, in phylogenesis and ontogenesis, such development as neurons' joints go one-to-many or many-to-one and axons go tangled are far more difficult than straight development.
    In such a neuronal group's excitement and transmission, the spacial relative position of whether each series of neurons actually joining excites and transmits or stop is retained. Thereby the density of excitements and transmissions and its spatial position and arrangement is also retained. For example, the series transmitting shadows excite and transmit at law density, and those transmitting highlights excite and transmit at high density, and those are retained at least from the retinas to the occipital lobes. The neuronal groups and ways which the sources of sensations and images go through need to retain spatial relative positions and to be neuronal groups retaining spatial relative positions.
    In contrast, the neuronal groups which cause smooth muscles' contractions or endocrine glands' secretions do not need to retain them. All the same for the above reason, they also retain them more or less.

NEURONAL GROUPS' INSTANT EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    In a series of neurons actually joining in a neuronal group, the time (T) from the time when the neuron which is, so to speak, the first runner excites and transmits to the time when the neuron which is, so to speak, the last runner excites and transmits can be called "Intra-Series Transmitting Time (T)." In every neuronal group, the difference of T is thousandth or hundredths of a second, and can be ignored. Such neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions can be called neuronal groups' "Instant" Excitements and Transmissions or Exciting and Transmitting Instantly.
    In a neuronal group's instant excitement and transmission, not only the spatial relative positions but also the temporal relative positions of series of neurons actually joining's excitements and transmissions are retained to a great degree. Otherwise, for example, the movement of an object performing uniform linear motion appearing on a visual sensation would be zigzag running. In addition, in a neuronal group's instant excitement and transmission, the frequencies of series of neurons actually joining's excitements and transmissions are retained. Otherwise, for example, even the color of an object appearing on a visual sensation would change randomly. Therefore neuronal groups' instant excitements and transmissions can also be called Neuronal Groups' Excitements and Transmissions Retaining Temporal Relative Positions.

NEURONAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    In summary, a neuronal group's excitement and transmission is the instant excitement and transmission retaining temporal relative positions more or less of a neuronal group retaining spatial position more or less. In addition, neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions retaining spacial and temporal positions to a great degree can be called the Instant Excitement and Transmission Retaining Temporal Relative Positions of a Neuronal Group Retaining Spatial Positions.
    More in details, neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions can be defined as follows. In a neuronal group, which retains spatial relative positions more or less, some series of neurons actually joining's instantly exciting and transmitting while retaining temporal relative positions more or less and the other series' stopping can be called the Neuronal Group's Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting.
    In contrast, in a neuronal group, all the series's stopping can be called the Neuronal Group' s Stop or Stopping.
    In addition, the presynaptic transmissions of the neurons which belong to the unitary neuronal group which is, so to speak, the last runner in a complex neuronal group can be called the complex neuronal group's Presynaptic Transmission or Transmitting. In contrast, the postsynaptic transmissions of the neurons which belong to the unitary neuronal group which is, so to speak, a first runner in a complex neuronal group can be called the complex neuronal group's Postsynaptic Transmission or Being Transmitted.

NEURONAL GROUPS' INNATE OR ACQUIRED ACTIVATIONS

    In order for memory or what is called "learning" to exist and function, first, neurons activatable acquiredly need to exist and function, and second, neuronal groups containing them need to exist and function. For example 1, when I see another particular person, in order for his or her eyes to be memorized, the part of some neuronal groups which memorizes the white of his or her eyes needs to be activated at high density, and the part which memorizes their pupils needs to be activated at low density. For example 2, in order for children to learn that mosquitoes bite skins, it is necessary that there are some neuronal ways between the neuronal group memorizing and storing mosquitoes' images and those memorizing and storing biting's images and that those neuronal ways are activated when their skins are bitten by mosquitoes. Such activations can be called Neuronal Groups' Acquired Activations or Being Acquiredly Activated.
    In contrast, the neuronal groups causing sensations, pleasure or displeasure sensations, drives, instinctive functions, and autonomic functions have already been activated enough to cause those functions when the neuronal groups' frames have been completed. Otherwise, the babies of even higher animals cannot exist. Such activations can be called Neuronal Groups' Innate Activations (by Genes) or Being Activated Innately (by Genes).

THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    As was explained earlier, sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, taste, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, images, ideas, colors, brightness, high-law and loudness, and so forth can be called Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena). Things appearing as mental phenomena's existing or being premised to exist can be called things' Appearing (as Mental Phenomena). For example, the display of my personal computer, its keyboard, my hands striking it are appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, the sounds of striking the keyboard are appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears, and slight hunger is appearing on an autonomic sensation to me, a writer of this book, at present.
    The words "things appearing (as mental phenomena)" sometimes designate sights, images, and so on and sometimes designate things in themselves like material things, bodies, and so on which are premised to be represented as appearing things. The words "things appearing (as mental phenomena)" designate the former, that is, sights, images, and so on in these books. For example, material things' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction which are premised to be represented as sights are not appearing things, but sights are appearing things. The words "things' appearing" sometimes designate sights, images, and so on's existing or being premised to exist and sometimes designate their being represented as sights, images, and so on. The words "things' appearing" designate the former in these books.
    Qualities like color, high-low of sound, and so on, quantities like brightness-darkness, loudness-silence, and so on, spatial positions, temporal positions, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, their changes are the properties or attributes of appearing spatial and temporal things, and they appear. Therefore they can be called Appearing Properties or Attributes.
    The above apply to the following words.

(1) Words like "appearing properties" and "properties' appearing" where the word of "things" in "appearing things" and in "things' appearing" are replaced by other words.
(2) Words like "things appearing on a sensation," "things appearing as an image," "things' appearing on a sensation," and "things' appearing as an image" where the modifiers like "on a sensation" and "as an image" are attached to the verb "appear."
(3) Words like "things which appeared to me in the past" and "things which will appear to me in the future" where the tense in a broad sense of the verb "appear" is changed.

BASIC KINDS OF THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    The following are basic kinds of things appearing as mental phenomena.

(s)In general, things appearing on a kind of sensation or things appearing on sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a sensation

(s1)In general, things appearing on the visual kind of sensation or things appearing on visual sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a visual sensation
    Sights, colors, brightness, written words, and so on
(s1-1)In general, things appearing on the visual kind of sensation with one eye or things appearing on visual sensations with one eye, and in each individual, things appearing on a visual sensation with one eye
    Sights which are planar and are localized to one eye
(s1-2)In general, things appearing on the visual kind of sensation with both eyes or things appearing on visual sensations with both eyes, and in each individual, things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes
    Sights which are three-dimensional or stereoscopic and beyond both eyes
(s2)In general, things appearing on the auditory kind of sensation or things appearing on auditory sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on an auditory sensation
    Sounds, voices, high-low, loudness, spoken words, and so on.
(s2-1)In general, things appearing on the auditory kind of sensation with one ear or things appearing on auditory sensations with one ear, and in each individual, things appearing on an auditory sensation with one ear
    Sounds which are spatial points and are localized to one ear
(s2-2)In general, things appearing on the auditory kind of sensation with both ears or things appearing on auditory sensations with both ears, and in each individual, things appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears
    Sound sources which are three-dimensional or stereoscopic and beyond both ears
(s3)In general, things appearing on the olfactory kind of sensation or things appearing on olfactory sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on an olfactory sensation
    Smells, fragrances, odors, and so on
(s3-1)In general, things appearing on the olfactory kind of sensation with one nasal cavity or things appearing on olfactory sensations with one nasal cavity, and in each individual, things appearing on an olfactory sensation with one nasal cavity
    Smells which are planar and are limited to one nasal cavity
(s3-2)In general, things appearing on the olfactory kind of sensation with both nasal cavities or things appearing on olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities, and in each individual, things appearing on an olfactory sensation with both nasal cavities
    Smell sources which are three-dimensional and beyond both nasal cavities
(s4)In general, things appearing on the balancing kind of sensation or things appearing on balancing sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a balancing sensation
    Dizziness, appearing acceleration, appearing rotation, and so on
(s5)In general, things appearing on the taste kind of sensation or things appearing on taste sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a taste sensation
    Tastes, sweetness, saltiness, sourness, bitterness, and so on
(s6)In general, things appearing on the somatic kind of sensation or things appearing on somatic sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a somatic sensation
    Pain, itches, hotness, coldness, and so on in skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, and so on
(s7)In general, things appearing on the autonomic kind of sensation or things appearing on autonomic sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on an autonomic sensation
    Pain, itches, hotness, coldness, and so on in mucous membranes, digestive systems, circulatory systems, and so on, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, and so on

(i)In general, things appearing as a kind of sensory image, a kind of sensory image, things appearing as sensory images, or sensory images and in each individual, things appearing as a sensory image or a sensory image

(i1)In general, things appearing as the visual kind of sensory image, the visual kind of sensory image, things appearing as visual sensory images, or visual sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as visual sensory images or a visual sensory images (plural forms also in an individual)
(i1-1)In general, things appearing as the visual kind of sensory image (as if) with one eye, the visual kind of sensory image (as if) with one eye, things appearing as visual sensory images (as if) with one eye, or visual sensory images (as if) with one eye, and in each individual, things appearing as a visual sensory image (as if) with one eye or a visual sensory image (as if) with one eye
(i1-2)In general, things appearing as the visual kind of sensory image (as if) with both eyes, the visual kind of sensory image (as if) with both eyes, things appearing as visual sensory images (as if) with both eyes, or visual sensory images (as if) with both eyes, and in each individual, things appearing as a visual sensory image (as if) with both eyes or a visual sensory image (as if) with both eyes
(i2)In general, things appearing as the auditory kind of sensory image, the auditory kind of sensory image, things appearing as auditory sensory images, or auditory sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as an auditory sensory image or an auditory sensory image
(i2-1)In general, things appearing as the auditory kind of sensory image (as if) with one ear, the auditory kind of sensory image (as if) with one ear, things appearing as auditory sensory images (as if) with one ear, or auditory sensory images (as if) with one ear, and in each individual, things appearing as an auditory sensory image (as if) with one ear or an auditory sensory image (as if) with one ear
(i2-2)In general, things appearing as the auditory kind of sensory image (as if) with both ears, the auditory kind of sensory image (as if) with both ears, things appearing as auditory sensory images (as if) with both ears, or auditory sensory images (as if) with both ears, and each individual, things appearing as an auditory sensory image (as if) with both ears or an auditory sensory image (as if) with both ears
(i3)In general, things appearing as the olfactory kind of sensory image, the olfactory kind of sensory image, things appearing as olfactory sensory images, or olfactory sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as an olfactory sensory image or an olfactory sensory image
(i3-1)In general, things appearing as the olfactory kind of sensory image (as if) with one nasal cavity, the olfactory kind of sensory image (as if) with one nasal cavity, things appearing as olfactory sensory images (as if) with one nasal cavity, or olfactory sensory images (as if) with one nasal cavity, and in each individual things appearing as an olfactory sensory image (as if) with one nasal cavity or an olfactory sensory image (as if) with one nasal cavity
(i3-2)In general, things appearing as the olfactory kind of sensory image (as if) with both nasal cavities, the olfactory kind of sensory image (as if) with both nasal cavities, things appearing as olfactory sensory images (as if) with both nasal cavities, or olfactory sensory images (as if) with both nasal cavities, and in each individual, things appearing as an olfactory sensory image (as if) with both nasal cavities or an olfactory sensory image (as if) with both nasal cavities
(i4)In general, things appearing as the balancing kind of sensory image, the balancing kind of sensory image, things appearing as balancing sensory images, or balancing sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as a balancing sensory image or a balancing sensory image
(i5)In general, things appearing as the taste kind of sensory image, the taste kind of sensory image, things appearing as taste sensory images, or a taste sensory image, in each individual, things appearing as a taste sensory image or a taste sensory image
(i6)In general, things appearing as the somatic kind of sensory image, the somatic kind of sensory image, things appearing as somatic sensory images, or somatic sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as a somatic sensory image or a somatic sensory image
(i7)In general, things appearing as the autonomic kind of sensory image, the autonomic kind of sensory image, things appearing as autonomic sensory images, autonomic sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as autonomic sensory images or autonomic sensory images (plural forms also in an individual)

    Simply, things occurring to me at present, past things remembered at present, future things expected at present, unreal things imagined at present, ideas, concepts, and so forth are images.
    When the word "images" is used, visual sensory images occur to us, but that word is also used about auditory sensory images, olfactory sensory images, and so on in these books. For example 1, when a person who is not present here occurs to us, his or her face appears as a visual sensory image, his or her spoken words appear as an auditory sensory image, and his or her touch appears as a somatic sensory image. In addition, his or her smell with that of tobacco, alcohol, perfume, or the like sometimes appears as an olfactory sensory image. For example 2, when some events on the next day in school or office are expected at home, its buildings and people appear as a visual sensory image, their words and the sound of chimes appear as an auditory sensory image. From the beginning, we think with some visual and auditory sensory images of words. Otherwise, we could not think without writing words or speaking words aloud.
    The above are the most basic things appearing as mental phenomena, and the following are comparatively basic things appearing as mental phenomena.
    Strictly, palpitation, dyspnea, and so on contain not only things appearing on an autonomic sensation but also things appearing on a somatic sensation which accompany the chest's expansion and contraction, and are not pure things appearing on an autonomic sensation. Even so, each of palpitation, dyspnea, and so on is looked upon as a thing appearing on some sensations. A thing appearing on sensations which consists of things appearing on more than one kind of sensation and which are looked upon as a thing appearing on some sensations can be called a "Thing Appearing on a complex sensation."
    However, the following definitions, too, will be made in these books. Things appearing on sensations which are premised to be caused by the nervous function which contains some sensory nerves in a narrow sense and which does not contain any other sensory nerves in a broad sense can be called Things Appearing on the Somatic Kind of Sensation or Things Appearing on Somatic Sensations. In contrast, things appearing on complex sensations which is premised to be caused by the nervous functions which contain some autonomic nerves are also called Things Appearing on the Autonomic Kind of Sensation or Things Appearing on Autonomic Sensations in these books. That is, when things appearing on complex sensations contain some things appearing on autonomic sensations, they are also called Things Appearing on Autonomic Sensations in these books. The reason why things appearing on autonomic sensations are given priority to thus is that mental emotions and egos contain autonomic sensations, as will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES."
    Things appearing on autonomic sensations are the vaguest of all things appearing on sensations. Things appearing as autonomic sensory images are the vaguest of all appearing things, and they may not exist, but, because they may exist, they were enumerated in the above list.
    Things appearing on visual sensations with one eye, things appearing on visual sensations with both eyes, things appearing on auditory sensations with one ear, and so forth are each homogeneous in a sense. For example, all things appearing on visual sensations with both eyes have colors and brightness as properties and are three-dimensional or stereoscopic and beyond both eyes, and they are homogeneous in such a sense. In contrast, things appearing on autonomic sensations and things appearing as autonomic sensory images are not homogeneous but heterogeneous. For example, palpitation, dyspnea, and nausea do not resemble one another at least, and they are far from homogeneous. The homogeneous are premised to be caused by an identical function. For example, things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes are premised to be caused by paired neuronal groups' excitement and transmission from the retinas to optic nerves (they cross here) to visual areas on occipital lobes. In contrast, the heterogeneous cannot be premised to be caused by an identical function. Therefore, as far as things appearing on the autonomic kind of sensation and things appearing as the autonomic kind of sensory image are concerned, even in each individual, the plural forms like things appearing on autonomic "kinds" of "sensations" or on autonomic "sensations" are usually used in these books.

THINGS APPEARING ON THE SAME KIND OF SENSATION AND SENSORY IMAGE = THINGS APPEARING ON EACH KIND OF SENSATION AND SENSORY IMAGE

    Though visual sensory images are not as clear as things appearing on visual sensations, the former resemble the latter; though auditory sensory images are not as clear as things appearing on auditory sensations, the former resemble the latter; the same applies to olfactory sensory images, balancing sensory images, and so forth. For example, though another person's face appearing as a visual sensory image is not as clear as his or her face appearing on a visual sensation, the former resembles the latter, and though another person's voice appearing as an auditory sensory image is not as clear as his or her voice appearing on an auditory sensation, the former resembles the latter. That is because, for example, things appearing both on visual sensations and as visual sensory images have colors and brightness as necessary properties, and things appearing both on auditory sensations and as auditory sensory images have high-law and loudness of sounds as necessary properties. Thus, the things appearing on sensations and the sensory images which have common necessary properties, excluding clearness, can be called Things Appearing on the "Same Kind" of Sensation and Sensory Image or Things Appearing on "Each Kind" of Sensation and Sensory Image in general, and in particular, Things Appearing on the Visual Kind of Sensation and Sensory Image, Things Appearing on the Auditory Kind of Sensation and Sensory Image, and so forth.
    It is in things appearing on the same kind of sensation and sensory image that things appearing on a sensation and things appearing as a sensory image are alike. It is not beyond each kind that they are alike. For example, a thing appearing on a visual sensation and a thing appearing as an auditory sensory image are not alike at all. More concretely, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation and his or her voice appearing as an auditory sensory image are not alike at all.

THINGS APPEARING ON PLEASURE OR DISPLEASURE SENSATIONS

    Some pleasure or displeasure almost always appear on sensations. For example, the pain on the skins appears on a somatic sensation, and palpitation, dyspnea, hunger or repletion, thirst, and nausea appear on autonomic sensations, and they are pleasure or displeasure. For example 1, moderate hunger is sometimes pleasure, and excessive hunger is often displeasure. For example 2, though excessive palpitation and dyspnea are always displeasure, moderate palpitation and respiration are sometimes pleasure. (s3)-(s7) have such pleasure or displeasure as properties or attributes. (s3)-(s7) which have some pleasure or displeasure as properties can be called "Things Appearing on Pleasure or Displeasure Sensations" in general, and in particular, Things Appearing on Pleasure or Displeasure Olfactory Sensations, Things Appearing on Pleasure or Displeasure Balancing Sensations, Things Appearing on Pleasure or Displeasure Taste Sensations, Things Appearing on Pleasure or Displeasure Somatic Sensations, and Things Appearing on Pleasure or Displeasure Autonomic Sensations.
    The pain, itches, hotness, coldness, and so on in the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, ligaments, and so on are included in things appearing on a pleasure or displeasure somatic sensation. That is because those tissues or organs are reached mainly by sensory nerves in a narrow sense. In contrast, those in the mucous membranes, digestive systems, circulatory systems, and so on are included in things appearing on pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations. That is because those tissues or organs are reached mainly by autonomic nerves.
    Excluding things appearing on visual sensations and things appearing on auditory sensations, things appearing on sensations are things appearing on pleasure or displeasure sensations. They are psychologically significant because they have pleasure or displeasure as properties or attributes. Neither things appearing on visual sensations nor things appearing on auditory sensations are things appearing on pleasure or displeasure sensations. For example, eyes' or ears' pain is a thing appearing on a somatic sensation, a thing appearing on an autonomic sensation, or a metaphor for mental pain. Though things appearing on visual sensations and things appearing on auditory sensations have no pleasure or displeasure, they are psychologically significant because the visual sensory image and the auditory sensory image which are caused from them occupy most part of sensory images. After all, (s3)-(s7) are significant for emotions, and (s1)(s2) are so for memories, perceptions, associations, and so forth.
    Things appearing on a pleasure or displeasure sensation have some spatial and temporal parts where pleasure is dominant and the other spatial and temporal parts where displeasure is dominant. In things appearing on a pleasure or displeasure sensation, some spatial and temporal parts where pleasure is dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Pleasure Sensation," and the other spatial and temporal parts where displeasure is dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Displeasure Sensation."
    After all, we can decide whether a thing appearing as mental phenomenon is pleasure or displeasure only according to how it affects what. As will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES," the autonomic sensations which cause functional impulses are pleasure ones.

THINGS APPEARING ON SENSORY ORGANS ⇔ THINGS APPEARING BEYOND SENSORY ORGANS

    Each of (s1-1)(s2-1)(s3-1)(s4)(s5)(s6)(s7)(i1-1)(i2-1)(i3-1)(i4)(i5)(i6)(i7) appear in or on the place where their own sensory group excites and transmits, and do not appear beyond that place. For example 1, when each of us closes the right eye, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with the left eye appears on the left eye, and does not appear beyond it. For example 2, the pain of skins appearing on a somatic sensation appears on the skin, and this place is where the sensory group excites and transmits.(s1-1)(s2-1)(s3-1)(s4)(s5)(s6)(s7)(i1-1)(i2-1)(i3-1)(i4)(i5)(i6)(i7) which appear in or on the places where their own sensory groups excite and transmit, and do not appear beyond those places can be called "Things Appearing on (their) Sensory Organs."
    In contrast, (s1-2)(s2-2)(s3-2)(i1-2)(i2-2)(i3-2) are three-dimensional or stereoscopic. More significantly, they appear beyond the places where their own sensory groups excite and transmit. For example 1, while each of us is opening both eyes, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes is three-demensional or stereoscopic and appear beyond both eyes. (s1-2)(s2-2)(s3-2)(i1-2)(i2-2)(i3-2) which are three-dimensional and stereoscopic and appear beyond where their sensory groups excite and transmit can be called "Things Appearing Beyond (their) Sensory Organs."
    Though the explanations of sensory images are omitted in the following explanations, they are the same as those of things appearing on sensations.
    In things appearing on somatic sensations and things appearing on autonomic sensations where their own sensory organs or groups are not clear, the spaces where things appear are the same as those where their own sensory cells are distributed. The space where things appearing on a somatic sensation appear are that of the skins, striated muscles, bones, tendons, ligaments, and joints where sensory cells in a narrow sense are distributed. The space where things appearing on autonomic sensations are that of mucous membranes, circulatory systems, respiratory systems, and so on where the sensory cells in a broad sense in an autonomic nervous system are distributed.
    The space where things appearing on auditory sensations with one ear appears and that where things appearing on balancing sensations appears are no more than points. That is because the spatial positions and arrangements of their sensory groups in a broad sense in inner ears represent not the spatial positions and arrangements in or out of the body but sounds' high-low of sound and some other qualities.

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL THINGS AND PROPERTIES APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    As was explained earlier, things appearing as mental phenomena are divided into spatial and temporal things and their properties or attributes appearing (as mental phenomena). For example, the sight of a tree is a spatial and temporal thing appearing on a visual sensation, and its colors and brightness are properties appearing on a visual sensation. A little more closely, the spatial and temporal things of the leaves of the tree appearing on a visual sensation have the color of green as a property, those getting the sunlight directly have that of bright green as a property, and those in the shadow which are not getting the sunlight directly have that of dark green as a property. Thus, more closely, it is found that the first property of the quality of color has the second property of the quantity of brightness. However, even when a spatial and temporal thing (0) has a first property (1) and when the first property (1) has a second property (2), such a representation as "(0)'s having (1)(2) as properties" are made in these books.
    In things appearing on each kind of sensation and sensory image, appearing spatial and temporal things are alike, and appearing properties are alike. For example, in things appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image, the colors of a person's face appearing on a visual sensation and the colors of that person's face appearing as a visual sensory image are alike.
    Properties appearing on visual and auditory sensations do not include any pleasure or displeasure. Properties appearing on olfactory, balancing, taste, somatic, and autonomic sensations include pleasure or displeasure. Properties appearing as sensory images do not include any pleasure or displeasure. For example, what seem to be pleasure or displeasure in mental emotions like anxiety, fear, and so on are the pleasure or displeasure which things appearing on autonomic sensations have as properties, as will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES."
    Things appearing on sensations and things appearing as sensory images, which has already been explained, are spatial and temporal things or their properties. Individual images which will be explained later are spatial and temporal parts of sensory images. Complex images which will be explained later consist spatially and temporally of individual images. Things appearing on perceptions consist spatially and temporally of some parts of things appearing on sensations and complex images. Therefore all things appearing as mental phenomena are spatial and temporal things or their properties. Simply, they do not transcend space and time.

THINGS APPEARING INTENSELY OR FAINTLY

    Every spatial and temporal thing appearing as a mental phenomenon has some kinds of quantities like brightness or darkness, loudness or quietness, distance, size, intensity, clearness or vagueness, and so forth as properties, and such kinds of quantities appear. In addition, such kinds of quantities reflect some kinds of quantities of some things in themselves. For example, intense thirsty appearing on autonomic sensations reflects high osmotic pressure of body fluid. Such kinds of quantities can be called "Quantities" or "Intensities" Appearing (as Mental Phenomena). In addition, appearing things whose appearing quantities are large or small can be called Things Appearing "Intensely or Faintly." A thing appearing intensely or faintly's appearing can be called the Thing's Appearing Intensely or Faintly.
    Some examples of appearing quantities will be enumerated below. They are also represented by the words of "intensity," "intense or faint," or "intensely or faintly" in these books.

○Brightness
    This word represents a kind of appearing quantity which everything appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image has.

○Distance, farness, or closeness
    This word represents a kind of appearing quantity which everything appearing beyond sensory organs, that is, everything appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image with both eyes, everything appearing on the auditory kind of sensation and sensory image with both ears, and everything appearing on the olfactory kind of sensation and sensory image with both nasal cavities have.

○Loudness
    This word represents a kind of appearing quantity which everything appearing on the auditory kind of sensation and sensory image has.

○Clearness
    This word represents a kind of appearing quantity which everything appearing has. In things appearing on a visual sensation, the periphery is vague and the central part is clear. In general, things appearing on somatic sensations are clearer than things appearing on autonomic sensations. In general, things appearing on sensations are clearer than things appearing as sensory images. Clearness appearing on visual sensation can be likened to the resolution of photography. Usually, the larger the number of sensory cells in retinas is, the larger clearness appearing on visual sensations is like the larger the number of photodetector is, the larger the resolution of photography is. In addition, if the lenses of a person's eyes suffer from cataract, the clearness declines like if the lens of a camera go dirty, the resolution declines.

〇Spatial size
    Things appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image and things appearing on the somatic kind of sensation and sensory image have clear spatial sizes. For example 1, in things appearing on visual sensations with both eyes, we can guess the size of things in front of us. For example 2, in things appearing on somatic sensations, we can guess the width of the skin's pain or itch even if we cannot see the skin lesion. However, some other kinds of appearing things have spatial sizes though they are vague. In things appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears and on an olfactory sensation with both nasal cavities, sound and smell sources appear, and their sizes appear, too. For example 1, we find that the sound source of a chorus is larger than that of a soloist even if we close our eyes. For example 2, in a human being, smell sources in things appearing olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities are very vague, but maybe some other animals can smell the sizes of their natural enemies. In addition, the spatial sizes in things appearing on autonomic sensations are vague, too. Nonetheless, for example, the inflammation on the whole of the stomach's mucous membrane would be felt differently from that on a small part of it.

〇Temporal duration and frequency
    These kinds of quantities appear in every kind of appearing things. They are serious for us in things appearing on displeasure sensations, that is, pain. Continuous or continual moderate pain is as serious as temporary intense pain. In addition, when the frequency of the same pain is gaining, it is serious.

○Intensity
    In a narrow sense, this word represents appearing quantities which pain, hotness, coldness, and so on appearing on somatic sensations and palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, and so on appearing on autonomic sensations have. In addition, this word is used to designate the quantity of pleasure or displeasure which things appearing on pleasure or displeasure sensations have as properties or attribute. Moreover, brightness appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image can be represented as the intensity of light, and loudness appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image as the intensity of sounds. As was explained earlier, in these books, the word of intensity is used to designate all kinds of appearing quantities.

THINGS APPEARING AS IMAGES = IMAGES

THINGS APPEARING AS INDIVIDUAL IMAGES = INDIVIDUAL IMAGES

    In a sensory image, there are some spatial and temporal parts each of which has the following properties:

(1)that each has some properties,
(2)that each sometimes separates from the other parts,
(3)that each sometimes moves independently of the other parts,
(4)that each sometimes fuses with some of the other parts, and
(5)that each sometimes appear and disappear independently of the other parts.

The parts of a sensory image each of which has the above properties (1)-(5) can be called "Things Appearing as Individual Images," Individual Images, Thing Appearing as Individual Sensory Images, or Individual Sensory Images in general, and in particular Things Appearing as Individual Visual Images or Individual Visual images, Things Appearing as Individual Auditory images, Individual Auditory images, or the like. In most cases, an individual image appears, comes closer, goes further, and fade out. For example, in a visual sensory image, the individual visual image of a certain person's body which has the spatial arrangement of the head, trunk, arms, and legs as a property appears, separates from the background, comes closer, goes further, and fades out or fuses with the background again. From now on, the words "an individual image" will usually be used for simplification. They are general words, and individual images include individual visual images, individual auditory images, and so on.
    As will be explained later in the chapter "MEMORIES," some properties which a part of a neuronal source just sensed are recognized and that part is cut out and generated as an individual image's source. Therefore each individual image has already got some properties, has already been separated, and is either of the visual kind, of the auditory kind, or the like. In addition, it is the minimum unit in images. Such minimum units compose the other kinds of images explained below.

THINGS APPEARING AS IMAGES = IMAGES

    Things appearing as complex images, things appearing on perceptions, and things appearing on associations, which will be explained in the following sections, can be called "Things Appearing as Images" or "Images."

THINGS APPEARING AS COMPLEX IMAGES = COMPLEX IMAGES

    More than one individual image appears spatially and temporally closer to one another than to the other individual images and things appearing on sensations. For example, a particular person's face appearing as individual visual images with both eyes, his or her spoken words and names appearing as individual auditory images with both ears, and so on appear spatially and temporally closer to one another than to the other particular persons' faces appearing as individual visual images with both eyes, their spoken words and names appearing as individual auditory images with both ears, and so on. More than one individual image which appears spatially and temporally closer to one another than to the other individual images and things appearing on sensations can be called "Things Appearing as a Complex Image," a Complex Image, or a Group of Individual Images.
    Moreover, more than one complex image appears spatially and temporally closer to one another than to the other complex images and things appearing on sensations, and the same are repeated. For example, many human beings appearing as complex images appear spatially and temporally closer to one another than to apes, horses, cows, sheep, and so on appearing as complex images. The former are the image of general human beings. Moreover, for example, human beings, apes, horses, and so on appearing as complex images appear spatially and temporally closer to one another than to birds, fishes, and so on appearing as complex images. The former is the image of mammals. That is because human beings are more similar to apes, horses, and so on than to birds, fishes, and so on, and because modern people know biological classification, the theory of evolution, and so on. More than one complex image which appears spatially and temporally closer to one another than to the other complex images and things appearing on sensations and which can be produced by the repetition of this can be called Things Appearing as a Complex Image, a Complex Image, or a Group of Complex Images.
    Every complex image consists spatially and temporally of a lot of individual images or some complex images. After all, every complex image consists spatially and temporally of a lot of individual images.
    A complex image usually consists of more than one kind of individual sensory image, that is, different kinds of individual sensory images. For example 1, a particular person appearing as a complex image consists of his or her faces and bodies appearing as individual visual images, his or her spoken words and names appearing as individual auditory images, and so on. For example 2, a general human being appearing as a complex images consists of a lot of particular persons' faces and bodies appearing as individual visual images, spoken words of "man," "woman," "human," "being," "Homo," "sapiens," and so on appearing as individual auditory images, and so on. When it needs to be emphasized that a complex image consists of different kinds of individual sensory images, it can be called a Complex Image of Different Kinds.
    However, a few kinds of individual sensory images are usually dominant in a complex image. Above all, in human beings, individual visual images and individual auditory ones are dominant. For example, individual visual ones are dominant in complex images in mathematical or physical thinking where numerical formulas are often used, and the auditory ones are dominant in complex images in daily thinking where spoken words are usually used. The complex images where individual visual images are dominant, those where auditory ones are dominant, those where visual ones and auditory ones are dominant, or the like can be called "Visual (Complex) Images," "Auditory (Complex) Images," "Visual and Auditory (Complex) Images," or the like. When they have been defined so, it is no exaggeration to say that complex images are visual ones, auditory ones, or visual and auditory ones in human beings.
    Though some examples of the following have already been enumerated, in human beings, the images of language, that is, lingual images are generated. That is, language is not only the means of transmission but also that of associations and thinkings. The images of spoken words are auditory images, and those of written words are visual images.
    Complex images are the substance of what is called "Ideas." About particular things and general things, please refer to "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS." The things which have temporal extent of more than seconds, general things, functions, and so on all appear as complex images, and do not appear on sensations, as sensory images, or as individual images. What are called abstract things appear as complex images, too. For example 1, a certain person which has a temporal extent of years appears as a complex image consisting of his or her faces and bodies appearing as a lot of individual visual images, his or her spoken words and names appearing as a lot of individual auditory images, and so on. For example 2, general human beings appear as a complex image consisting of a lot of particular persons' faces and bodies appearing as individual visual images, certain spoken words "man," "woman," "human," "being," "Homo," and "sapiens" appearing as individual auditory images, erect bipedalism appearing as individual visual images, crowds in the cities appearing as individual visual and auditory images, and so on. For example 3, universal gravitation appears as a complex image consisting of the arrows representing vectors appearing as individual visual images, spoken words of "Universal" and "Gravitation" appearing as individual auditory images, and so on.

SENSORY IMAGES AND COMPLEX IMAGES

    Both sensory images and complex images consist of individual images. However, the former do so on the basis of whether they are visual, auditory, or the like, and the latter do so on the basis of spatial and temporal closeness. The former are like what is made by slicing the latter, and the former make no what is called sense by itself. It is the latter that is important for feelings, desires, egos, thinkings, and so on which will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES," and the former can be nearly ignored there. In addition, the latter are significant for our daily lives, literature, and art. Nonetheless, the former cannot be ignored in this book, which explain memories in the final chapter. The reason is simply explained here. At the final stage of a memory, individual visual images are replayed by the visual kind of replay and comprise a visual sensory image, individual auditory images are replayed by the auditory kind of replay and comprise an auditory sensory image, and the same applies to individual olfactory images, individual balancing images, and so forth.

THINGS APPEARING ON PERCEPTIONS

    Sometimes, some things appearing on some kinds of sensations (A) appear, immediately thereafter some complex images (B) and appear spatially and temporally closer to them than to any other appearing things or, sometimes particularly, overlap with them. This can be called A' s being perceived or perception as A or A's being recognized or being identified or recognition or identification as B particularly in the case of overlapping. In addition, A and B can be called "Things Appearing on a Perception" or "Things Appearing on a Recognition" or Identification particularly in the case of overlapping. The former and that latter are not distinct. Because appearing close includes overlapping, the former include the latter. For example, sometimes, a particular person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes appears, immediately thereafter his or her faces appearing as visual complex images with both eyes and his or her names appearing as auditory complex images with both ears appear spatially and temporally closer to A than to the other particular persons' or the background.
    Only in things appearing on sensations, we cannot recognize any part of them as a "thing." For example, we cannot recognize a part of a person's face as a particular or general human being. For the first time in things appearing on a perception when a part of things appearing on sensations (A) and some complex images (B) overlap with each other that part is recognized as a thing. For example, we can recognize a part of a person's face as that person when that part and his or her complex images overlap. Even if that part is the face of a stranger and his or her complex images have not been generated yet, when that part overlap with general human beings' complex images, we can recognize that part as one of general human beings.

A LIMITED NUMBER OR LESS OF IMAGES' APPEARING

    In a time of tenths of a second or less, a limited number or less of complex images appear, some of them appear intensely, and others appear faintly. For example, when each of us thinks of the self, its images appear intensely, the images of some other persons or the society appear faintly. That is the substance of some parts of what is called "consciousness."
    However, the limited number is not determined by species or individuals but varies in situations. For example, when some images appear very intensely, the number gets small. For example, when a boy or girl friend appears, the number is smaller than when he or she does not appear.

THINGS APPEARING ON ASSOCIATIONS

    In the time of tenths of a second or more, some things appearing on perceptions (A) appear, immediately thereafter some complex images (B) appear spatially and temporally close to A or overlap with A, immediately thereafter some other complex images (C) appear spatially and temporally close to B or overlap with B, and the same are repeated. This can be called B's Being Associated (as Complex Images) or Assocaition (Directly) from A, C's Being Associated or Association (Directly) from C, and so forth; B, C, and so forth's Being Associated or Association form A, C, D, and so forth's Being Associated or Association from B, and so forth; C, D, and so forth's Being Associated or Association (Indirectly) from A, D, E, and so forth's Being Associated or Association (Indirectly) from B, and so forth. In addition, A, B, and so forth can be called "Things Appearing on an Association." In addition, A and B's overlapping, B and C's overlapping, and so forth can be called A's Being Recognized or Identified or Recognition or Identification as B, B's Being Recognized or Identified or Recognition or Identification as C, and so forth. For example, when each of us wakes up in the morning, the window is perceived, our town is associated (as complex images), our office or school is associated, the people belonging to it are associated, and the same are repeated. This series of complex images are things appearing on an association.
    While complex images compose things appearing on an association, the latter can also be looked upon as one complex image though it is temporally prolonged. However, the series of those components appear in the time of tenths of a second or more. The complex images appearing in time of tenths of a second or less undergo such limitation as the water in one dam undergoes, as was explained in the above section. In contrast, a series of complex images appearing in the time of tenths of a second or more undergoes such limitation as the water in a series of dams undergoes. Therefore they can be distinguished. Complex images appearing in the time of tenths of a second or less can be called Complex Images "in a Narrow Sense," and a prolonged complex image appearing in the time of tenths of a second or more, that is, things appearing as an association can also be called a Complex Image in a Broad Sense. All the same, when they do not need to be distinguished, they are called Things Appearing as Complex Images (in a Broad Sense) or Complex Images (in a Broad Sense) in these books.

Things Appearing as Images = Images

    Now we have found the following three groups.

Group (1): Things appearing as complex images (in a narrow sense) = Complex images (in a narrow sense)
Group (2): Things appearing on perceptions
Group (3): Things appearing on associations

(1)(2)(3) contain (1), and the most significant for memories, emotions, egos, and thinkings are (1). In addition, if the words "things appearing as complex images in a narrow sense, things appearing on perceptions, or things appearing on associations," are always used, sentences would be complicated. Therefore (1)(2)(3) are also called Things Appearing as (Complex) Images (in a Broad Sense) or (Complex) Images (in a Broad Sense) in these books. That is, the word "images" or "complex images" designate complex images in a narrow sense, things appearing on perceptions, or things appearing on associations in these books.
    In addition, in the same way as in the above chapters, (1)(2)(3) where individual visual images individual auditory images, individual visual images and individual auditory images, or the like are dominant can be called Visual Images, Auditory Images, Visual and Auditory Images, or the like.

WORDS APPEARING AS IMAGES = LANGUAGE APPEARING AS IMAGES = LINGUAL IMAGES

    In human beings, spoken words are sensed on auditory sensations and are generated and memorized and stored and recollected as auditory images. In addition, written words and signs are sensed on visual sensations and memorized and stored and recollected as visual images. In addition, it is probable that Braille are sensed on somatic sensations and memorized and stored and recollected as somatic images. The images of spoken words, written words, signs, Braille, and so on can be called "Words Appearing as Images," "Language Appearing as Images," "Lingual Images," or the like.
    We are shown not only words but also the things which they designate by our elders like parents, or it is sometimes clear in situations which things they designate. Therefore, when lingual images are generated or renewed, the images of the things which they represent are also generated or renewed, and the neuronal ways among their sources are activated on the basis of temporal closeness. While those are repeated, when those words are perceived, those things which they represent, too, are associated, and those words come to have "meanings."
    Of course, language is means of transmission and storage, too. Through language, complicated complex images, that is, ideas are generated or renewed and memorized and stored and recollected and not only transmitted as spoken words but also transmitted and stored as written words and sighs beyond generations and regions. Thus, complicated ideas like the Ptolemaic system and the Copernican system, the Creation and Darwinism, and aristocracy and democracy are constructed in the human history. Some of them are dissolved or reconstructed but a lot of them are forgotten and lost.

INTENSITIES OF IMAGES

    Every image has intensity as a property as the average of the intensities of the individual images or parts of things appearing on sensations which it consists of. For example, when each of us thinks of a human being as an individual, its images appear more intensely than the images of the society.

COMPOSITION OF THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    Things appearing as mental phenomena are either (1) things appearing on sensations, (2) sensory images, (3) individual images, (4) (complex) images (in a narrow sense), (5) things appearing on perceptions, (6) things appearing on associations, (7) things appearing on emotions, (8) things appearing on egos, or (9) things appearing on thinkings. Out of them, (1) consist of (1), (2)(3)(4)(6) consist of (3), and (5)(7)(8)(9) consist of (1)(3). After all, all things appearing as mental phenomena consist spatially and temporarily of things appearing on sensations or individual images. As was explained earlier, all things appearing on sensations and all individual images are spatial temporal things or their properties. Therefore all things appearing as mental phenomena are spatial and temporal things or their properties. That is, they do not transcend space and time.

A CONTINUITY OF THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    As long as each of us is awake or is dreaming, something appearing as mental phenomena appears continuously. If we could close our eyes completely, we could hear something. If we could close our eyes and ears completely, we could feel our hands, masks, or the like blocking them. If things appearing on visual, auditory, and somatic sensations could be blocked, hunger or thirst could appear on autonomic sensations. If things appearing on sensations could be blocked, some images would appear continuously as long as each of us is awake or is dreaming. Such a continuity can be called a "Continuity of Appearing Things" or a "Continuity of Images." It is the substance of what is called a "Continuity of Consciousness," "Stream of Consciousness," or the like.
    When each of us is asleep and is not dreaming or is unconscious, nothing appears. All the same, as long as each of us wakes up or dreams again and has memories, appearing things are looked upon as intermittent. For example, when each of us wakes up in the morning, the events of yesterday and the schedules of today appear as images.

NERVOUS FUNCTIONS CAUSING THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

NERVOUS FUNCTIONS CAUSING THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    Every kind of things appearing as mental phenomena is premised to be caused by some things in themselves. For example, things appearing on a visual sensation are premised to be caused by the photons which reach the retinas, the material things and their functions which reflect, permeate, and refract the photons reaching the retinas, the neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinas to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so forth.
    In a nervous system, every kind of things appearing as mental phenomena is premised to be caused directly by (1) the nervous function as a source, (2) the nervous function replaying the source, and (3) the nervous functions dealing with the source in some ways other than replay. (1)(2)(3) can be called the "Nervous Function Causing the Kind of Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena)." For example, the neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinas to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so forth are the nervous function causing things appearing on a visual sensation.
    In addition, the nervous function causing things appearing on a sensation can be called a "Sensation," and that causing things appearing as a sensory image can be called the "Recollection (of the Sensory Image).
    These words imply the things appearing as mental phenomena caused by them in our daily lives. For example, when we use the word "sensation," not only eyes, ears, or nerves but also sights, sounds, touches, and so on occur to us. Therefore

(S) a sensation and the things appearing on the sensation which it causes
(R) the recollection of a sensory image and the sensory image which it causes

can also be called

(S') a Sensation
(R') the Recollection of a Sensory Image ( = a Recollection)

    The following is their details.

[nf] The nervous functions causing things appearing as mental phenomena
  [s]In general, a kind of sensation or sensations, and in each individual, a sensation
    [s1]In general, the visual kind of sensation or visual sensations, and in each individual, a visual sensation
      [s1-1]In general, the visual kind of sensation with one eye or visual sensations with one eye, and in each individual, a visual sensation with one eye
      [s1-2]In general, the visual kind of sensation with both eyes or visual sensations with both eyes, and in each individual, a visual sensation with both eyes
    [s2]In general, the auditory kind of sensation or auditory sensations, and in each individual, an auditory sensation
      [s2-1]In general, the auditory kind of sensation with one ear or auditory sensations with one ear, and in each individual, an auditory sensation with one ear
      [s2-2]In general, the auditory kind of sensation with both ears or auditory sensations with both ears, and in each individual, an auditory sensation with both ears
    [s3]In general, the olfactory kind of sensation or olfactory sensations, and in each individual, an olfactory sensation
      [s3-1]In general, the olfactory kind of sensation with one nasal cavity or olfactory sensations with one nasal cavity, and in each individual, an olfactory sensation with one nasal cavity
      [s3-2]In general, the olfactory kind of sensation with both nasal cavities or olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities, and in each individual, an olfactory sensation with both nasal cavities
    [s4]In general, the balancing kind of sensation or balancing sensations, and in each individual, a balancing sensation
    [s5]In general, the taste kind of sensation or taste sensations, and in each individual, a taste sensation
    [s6]In general, somatic kind of sensation or somatic sensations, and in each individual, a somatic sensation
    [s7]In general, autonomic kinds of sensations or autonomic sensations, and in each individual, autonomic sensations (a plural form also in an individual)
  [i]In general the recollection of a kind of sensory image or recollections of sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a sensory image
    [i1]In general, the recollection of the visual kind of sensory image or recollections of visual sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a visual sensory image
      [i1-1]In general, the recollection of the visual kind of sensory image (as if) with one eye or recollections of visual sensory images (as if) with one eye, and in each individual, the recollection of a visual sensory image (as if) with one eye
      [i1-2]In general, the recollection of the visual kind of sensory image (as if) with both eyes or recollections of visual sensory images (as if) with both eyes, and in each individual, the recollection of a visual sensory image (as if) with both eyes
    [i2]In general, the recollection of the auditory kind of sensory image or recollections of auditory sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of an auditory sensory image
      [i2-1]In general, the recollection of the auditory kind of sensory image (as if) with one ear or recollections of auditory sensory images (as if) with one ear, and in each individual, the recollection of an auditory sensory image (as if) with one ear
      [i2-2]In general, the recollection of the auditory kind of sensory image (as if) with both ears or recollections of auditory sensory images (as if) with both ears, and in each individual, the recollection of an auditory sensory image (as if) with both ears
    [i3]In general, the recollection of the olfactory kind of sensory image or recollections of olfactory sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of an olfactory sensory image
      [i3-1]In general, the recollection of the olfactory kind of sensory image (as if) with one nasal cavity or recollections of olfactory sensory images (as if) with one nasal cavity, and in each individual, the recollection of an olfactory sensory image (as if) with one nasal cavity
      [i3-2]In general, the recollection of the olfactory kind of sensory image (as if) with both nasal cavities or recollections of olfactory sensory images (as if) with both nasal cavities, and in each individual, the recollection of an olfactory sensory image (as if) with both nasal cavities
    [i4]In general, the recollection of the balancing kind of sensory image or recollections of balancing sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a balancing sensory image
    [i5]In general, the recollection of the taste kind of sensory image or recollections of taste sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a taste sensory image
    [i6]In general, the recollection of the somatic kind of sensory image or recollections of somatic sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a somatic sensory image
    [i7]In general, the recollections of autonomic kinds of sensory images or recollections of autonomic sensory images, in each individual, recollections of autonomic sensory images (a plural form also in an individual)

    Some of them will be supplemented below.
    As was explained earlier, at the stage of things appearing as mental phenomena, things appearing on "complex" sensations was found. That is because the nervous functions which are premised to cause them are complex ones. They can be called "Complex Sensations." Above all, complex sensations which contain the excitements and transmissions of both autonomic nerves and sensory nerves in a narrow sense can be found. For example, palpitation and nausea are so. All the same, the complex sensations which contain some autonomic nerves' excitements and transmissions are also called Autonomic Kinds of Sensations or Autonomic Sensations in these books, and the plural forms of those nouns is used even in the nervous system of an individual. That is because when a sensation contains a few autonomic nerves' excitements and transmissions, it can directly affects some feelings, desires, or egos which will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES."
    [s1]-[s7] are sensations which are basic to most vertebrates including human beings. In animals excluding vertebrates, the distinction between [s6] somatic sensations and [s7] autonomic sensations is vague. It is in terrestrial animals that [s2] auditory sensations and [s3] olfactory sensations can be developed to a great extent. This is because auditory sensations and olfactory sensations mainly respond to sound waves and particles respectively which spread in the air. There can be some other kinds of sensations. For example, some reptiles have a kind of sensation which uses infrared rays, and some dolphins or whales have a kind of sensation which uses supersonic waves. The explanations of such special sensations will be omitted in these books.
    Sensations excluding visual ones and auditory ones are "Pleasure or Displeasure Sensations" which are premised to cause things appearing on pleasure or displeasure sensations. In the phylogenesis, ontogenesis, and aging of sensations, somatic, autonomic, taste, and olfactory ones precede and survive the others. Therefore every animal having some sensations has some pleasure or displeasure sensations.
    Recollections of sensory images come clear in some mammals, above all, in human beings. Even in them, however, the recollections of sensory images other than those of visual kind and auditory kind are not clear. All the same, because it is possible that those other than them exist and function, they were enumerated above. All the same, most images are visual images, auditory images, or visual and auditory images. Therefore the explanation of images in these books are practically that of them.
    Though the word "recollection" often designates remembering some past events in our daily lives, it designates a nervous function causing images of not only past things but also present things, future things, and unreal things in these books.
    Though the neuronal function which is premised to cause things appearing as complex images will be explained in detail in the chapter "MEMORIES," it is called Recollections of Complex Images or Recollections of Images.

PERCEPTIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS

    The neuronal functions which are premised to cause things appearing on perceptions or things appearing on associations can be called Perceptions or Associations. The former consist of some sensations, some recollections of complex images (which will be explained in the chapter of "MEMORIES"), and some functions between them, and the latter consist of some recollections of complex images and some functions between them. Those functions between them are the recognitions, generations, memorizations, storages, arousals, recollections of individual images' sources, the excitements and transmissions of the neuronal ways among individual images' sources, and so forth (which will be explained in the chapter of "MEMORIES").

THINGS' BEING SENSED AND THINGS' BEING RECOLLECTED AS IMAGES

    The sensation's source of a thing's being replayed can be called the thing or the source's Being Sensed, and the complex image's source of a thing's being recollected can be called the thing or the complex image (source)'s Being Recollected (as an Image). In addition, the perception, recognition, or association's source being replayed can be called the thing or the source's Being Perceived, recognized, or Associated.
    Again, though the words "being recollected" often designate remembering some past things, they also designate present things' occurring, future things' being expected, and unreal things' being imagined in these books.

THE INDIVIDUALITY OF SENSATIONS, RECOLLECTIONS, AND MENTAL FUNCTIONS

    By definition, bodies of individuals of animals are separated from each other. Therefore none of the nervous system or the neuronal groups of an individual join to, transmits to, are joined to by, or are transmitted to by those of other individuals. Therefore it is premised that nothing appearing to any others appears to me. For example, though your face is appearing to me on my visual sensation, my face appearing to you on your visual sensation never appears to me. However, two animals' bodies which are to be two individuals are exceptionally born with them agglutinated in periphery. In those cases, their peripheral nervous system are sometimes intermingled, too. As a result, pain, hotness, and so on appearing to one of them on a somatic sensation or autonomic sensations sometimes appear to another, too. All the same, no central nervous systems have been intermingled. Therefore, as far as the animals on the earth so far are concerned, it has never happened that images appearing to some individuals appear to others, and that some individuals thinks what others thinks. Again, it has never happened as far as the animals including human beings on the earth so far are concerned. That is, it is not absolute truth that "the things appearing to you never appear to me, and the things appearing to me never appear to you."

THE SAME KIND OF CONTINUOUS SENSATION AND MEMORY = EACH KIND OF CONTINUOUS SENSATION AND MEMORY

    Visual sensory images resemble things appearing on visual sensations in things appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image, auditory sensory images resemble things appearing on auditory sensations in the auditory kind of sensation and sensory image, and the same applies to olfactory sensory images, balancing sensory images, and so forth. Ths, the kinds like the visual kind, the auditory kind, and so on were recognized at the stage of things appearing as mental phenomena.
    Moreover, because of the similarity of a kind of sensory image to things appearing on the same kind of sensation, we can guess that between

(1) a kind of sensation

and

(3) the recollection of the same kind of sensory image

there are

(2) some neuronal groups and their functions which are caused or changed by (1) and which cause or change (3),

and that (1)(2)(3) compose a small nervous system in the nervous system of an individual, and (1)(2)(3) are a continuous function. While (1)(3) cause something appearing directly, (2) do not do so directly. (2) can be called a "Kind of Latent Memory" or Latent Memories in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of Latent Memory or Visual Latent Memories, the Auditory Kind of Latent Memory or Auditory Latent Memories, or the like. (2)(3) can be called a Kind of Memory or Memories in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of Memory or Visual Memories, the Auditory Kind of Memory or Auditory Memories, or the like. (1)(2)(3) can be called the Same Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory or Each Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory or a Continuous Sensation and Memory in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory or Visual (Continuous) Sensation and Memories, the Auditory Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory or Auditory (Continuous) Sensation and Memory, or the like.
    Moreover, in each kind of continuous sensation and memory, there exist and function its own source, replay, and processing functions in a narrow sense which will be explained later. For example, there are visual source, visual replay, and visual processing functions in a narrow sense in the visual kind of continuous sensation and memory.
    Of course, the details of memories will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES." In addition, not only each kind of memory but also the integration of different kinds of memories will be explained in it.

SOURCES OF THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    Everything appearing as a mental phenomenon is premised to be caused by making something in itself a source. Something in itself which is premised to cause an appearing thing as a mental phenomenon as a source can be called the "Source" of the thing appearing as a mental phenomenon. In addition, in general, the source of things appearing on a sensation can be called the Sensation's Source, and in particular, a visual sensation's source, an auditory sensation's source, or the like. In addition, the source of things appearing as a sensory image, a thing appearing as an individual image, a thing appearing as a complex image, or the like can be called the sensory Image's Source, the individual image's Source, the Complex Image's Source, or the like. For example, the source of things appearing on a visual sensation, that is, a visual sensation's source is the photons which reach the retinas, the material things and their functions which reflect, permeate, and refract the photons reaching the retinas, the neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinas to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on. Moreover, the source of a thing appearing as a mental phenomenon is also called the "Thing" in these books. That is, the word "things" sometimes designate the sources of things appearing as mental phenomena in these books.
    The source of a thing appearing (as a mental phenomenon) can be divided into two parts of that in the nervous system and that out of it. The part of the source of an appearing thing which is in the nervous system can be called the "Neuronal Source" of the appearing thing. For example, the neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinas to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on is the neuronal source of things appearing on a visual sensation.
    A neuronal source is either a neuronal group's excitement and transmission or activation and activity. The details will be explained later.
    Anyway, some neuronal groups need to be generated and to exist so that their excitements and transmissions, activities, and so on can function. The functioning of some neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions or activations and activities as a neuronal source can be called the neuronal source's "Going," Coming, or Flowing through the neuronal groups. The following are the examples of the neuronal groups which some neuronal sources go through: in a visual sensation, the neuronal group from the retinas to optic nerves, crossing, to visual areas on occipital lobes; in an auditory sensation, the neuronal group from the inner ears to acoustic nerves, not crossing, to auditory areas on the temporal lobes; in a somatic sensation, the neuronal group from the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints to sensory nerves in a narrow sense, crossing, to sensory areas in a narrow sense on parietal lobes.
    When the neuronal group which some neuronal sources go through diverges or converges, the neuronal sources can diverge or converge, too. When they diverge, one neuronal source can cause more than one identical one. When they converge, some of them can go through and the others can disappear. When the neuronal group which some neuronal sources go through has a disorder, at least a part of it can disappear. For example, when the optic nerves are pressed by a pituitary tumor, it can cause visual field defect.
    The sensory group's part of a neuronal source can be called the "Sensory Group's Source," and it is different from sensations' sources defined earlier. Sensory groups' sources are included in sensations' neuronal sources. The following are the examples of some sensory groups' sources: in a visual sensation's source, the sensory group's excitement and transmission in the retinae; in an auditory sensation's source, that in the inner ears; in a somatic sensation's source; the excitements and transmissions of sensory cells in a narrow sense in the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints.
    The part of a source out of the nervous system can be called the "Material and Bodily Source." The following are examples of material and bodily sources: in a visual sensation's source, light sources→photons→material things' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction→photons; in an auditory sensation's source, sound source→the frequency and amplitude of its vibration→sound waves; in a somatic sensation's source, pressure, heat to, and inflammation in the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints.
    Thus, some material and bodily sources includes the internal or bodily situations like inflammation within the body. Moreover, for example, an autonomic sensation's source includes the blood concentration of oxygen, that of glucose, and osmotic pressures. They are premised to cause, dyspnea, hunger, and thirst respectively, which are vital for the existence of animals including human beings.
    It is premised that a part of a source is represented as some things appearing as mental phenomena and that the other part is not. For example 1, usually, no neuronal sources are represented as any things appearing on sensations. Simply, I have never seen my brain or nerves directly. Though I sometimes have a slight headache, what is represented as it is the stretch or vibration of the blood vessels, and it is not a neuronal source but a part of the material and bodily source. For example 2, concerning material and bodily sources, unless I look at the sun directly, it is not seen. Thus, we rarely see light sources in the daytime. In contrast, usually, material things' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction are premised to be represented as some things appearing on visual sensations, the frequency and amplitude of material things' vibration are premised to be represented as some things appearing on auditory sensations, and skins' inflammation are premised to be represented as some things appearing on somatic sensations. The part of a source which are premised to be represented as some things appearing as mental phenomena can be called the "Reproducible Part" of the source. For example, usually, material things' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction are the reproducible part of visual sensations' sources, the frequency and amplitude of material things' vibration are auditory sensations' reproducible part, and pressure to, heat to, and inflammation in the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints are somatic sensations' reproducible part.

THE SAME KIND OF CONTINUOUS SENSATION AND IMAGE'S SOURCE = EACH KIND OF CONTINUOUS SENSATION AND IMAGE'S SOURCE

    As will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES," in each kind of sensation and memory, the properties which some parts of the sensation's source have are recognized, and those parts are cut out and are generated as individual images' sources. Thereafter individual images' sources compose complex images' sources. Thereafter and after all individual images' sources are recollected as a sensory image's source. Therefore sensation's source and all kinds of images' sources are continuous ones in each kind of sensation and memory. All kinds of images can be called Images. For example, in the visual kind of sensation and memory, visual sensation's source and visual images' sources are a continuous one, and in the auditory kind of sensation and memory, auditory sensation's source and auditory images' sources are a continuous one. Therefore, in things appearing on each kind of sensation and sensory image, images are similar to things appearing on the same kind of sensation though the former are not as clear as the latter are. For example, a person's face appearing as a visual image is similar to the person's face appeared on a visual sensation in the past. The sensation's source and the images sources which are a continuous one thus in the same kind of sensation and memory can be called the "Same Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Image's Source," Each Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Image's Source, or a (Continuous) Sensation and Image's Source in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Image's Source, the Auditory Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Image's Source, or the like.

THINGS RETAINED BY NEURONAL SOURCES AND WAYS TO RETAIN THEM

(1) NEURONAL GROUPS RETAINING SPATIAL POSITIONS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    In (1) a neuronal groups retaining spatial positions' excitement and transmission, which was explained earlier, the spatial relative positions, the spatial arrangements, and the densities of series of neurons actually joining's excitements and transmissions are retained. As a result, the spatial relative positions and the spatial arrangements and the quantities of sources are retained.
    More concretely, the "shapes" or "forms" of things are retained in (1). Otherwise, for example, some things appearing on visual sensations would be distorted, and a ball would look like an amoeba.
    In addition, quantities like brightness of light, loudness of sound, and intensity of pain are fundamentally converted into the densities of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions by sensory groups, those densities are retained in (1). In (1), some series of neurons actually joining excite and transmit, and the others do not. Therefore there can be densities and quantities. One neuron in itself, which either excites and transmits or stops, cannot represent density or quantity. When neurons gather and compose a neuronal group retaining spatial relative positions, they can represent and retain density and quantity.
  After all, spatial closeness and some kinds of quantities as density are retained by (1). In contrast, spatial closeness and some kinds of qualities and some kinds of quaitities as frequency are retained by the following (2).

(2) NEURONAL GROUPS EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS RETAINING TEMPORAL RELATIVE POSITIONS

    In (2) a neuronal group's (instant) excitement and transmission retaining temporal relative positions which was explained earlier, the temporal changes and the frequencies of the neurons' excitements and transmissions are retained. As a result, the temporal changes and some kinds of qualities and some kinds of quaintities of sources are retained.
    Otherwise, for example, the movement of an object performing uniform linear motion appearing on a visual sensation would be zigzag running..
    In addition, the qualities like colors and high-law of sound of material and bodily sources and the quantities like the intensity of pain are converted into the frequencies of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions by sensory groups, and such frequencies are retained in (2). For example, the neuron which was transmitted by a sensory cell which excited and transmitted at 100Hz excite and transmit at 100Hz. As a result, all the neurons belonging to a series of neurons actually joining excite and transmit at 100Hz. Thereafter, replays reconvert such frequencies into the qualities like color and high-law of sound and the quantities like the intensity of pain.

(3) SENSORY GROUPS' CONVERSION OF MATERIAL AND BODILY SOURCES INTO NEURONAL SOURCES

    In the first part of a sensation's neuronal source, some functions of the sensory group convert the material and bodily source's qualities like color and high-law of sound and quaintities like the intensity of pain into the frequencies of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and convert its quantities like brightness and loudness into the concentrations of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions. Such conversion can be called a Sensory Group's "Conversion" or "Coding" of a material and bodily source into a neuronal source or Converting or Coding a material and bodily source into a neuronal source.
    Their frequencies and densities are explained a little more closely here. In a sensory group, there are sensory cells each of which excites and transmits with a certain frequency corresponding some kinds of qualities and some kinds of quantities. The sensory groups containing such sensory cells can be called Sensory Groups "Selective and Specialized (Concerning Freqeuncy)." They convert some kinds of qualities and some kinds of quantities into the frequencies of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions. In addition, there are sensory cells which have various thresholds for excitement. The sensory groups containing such sensory cells can be called Sensory Groups "Having Various Thresholds." They convert some kinds of quantities into the densities of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions. After all, sensory groups are selective and specialized concerning frequency and have various thresholds.
    However, the above is fundamental conversion, and there can be complicated conversion. For example 1, some kinds of quantities or qualities is converted into the pattern of the change of frequancy. For example 2, as is the case with color, quality and quantity, and frequency and density can go intricate. A little more closer, it is probable that the densities of the qualities of blue, green, and red compose the qualities of other colors. Anyway, if it were not for such conversion by sensory groups, neuronal sources would be chaotic. When we take it into account, we found that not only neuronal group in a narrow sense but also sensory groups are vital for sensations.

(4) THE ACTIVATIONS AND ABILITIES AND EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS OF NEURONAL GROUPS SELECTIVE AND SPECIALIZED CONCERNING FREQUENCY

    Only when transmitted to at a certain frequency, some neurons are activated, retain the abilities, and will excite and transmit at that frequency next time they are transmitted to. Such neurons can be called "Neurons Selective and Specialized (Concerning Frequency)." In addition, a neuronal group which contains such neurons and also retains (1)(2)(6) can be called a Neuronal Group Selective and Specialized (Concerning Frequency).
    As will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES," some images' sources need to be memorized and stored so that they can be recollected after a while. First, the neuronal groups memorizing and storing images' sources need to be those which can be acquiredly activated. Second, in order for some kinds of qualities and some kinds of qualities as frequencies to be memorized and stored and retained, those neuronal groups need to be neuronal groups selective and specialized concerning frequency.
    After all, some kinds of qualities and some kinds of quantities as frequency is retained, in the short run, by (2)(3), and, in the long run, by (4).
    Individual images' sources can be memorized and stored and recollected in the above ways. In contrast, complex images' sources can be recollected in the following ways.

(5) THE ACTIVATIONS AND ABILITIES AND EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS OF THE NEURONAL WAYS AMONG NEURONAL GROUPS MEMORIZING AND STORING INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES

    In order for complex images' sources to be recollected, a lot of individual images' sources need to be recollected spatially and temporally close, and to compose them. In order for individual images to do so, there need to be a lot of neuronal ways directly or indirectly among neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources, they need to be activated, and the abilities need to be retained for a while. Thereafter when some of the neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources or some of the neuronal ways among them excite and transmit, some other ways or groups excite and transmit, the same are repeated, a lot of individual images' sources are recollected spatially and temporally close, and they compose complex images' sources.
    In each kind of memory, the neuronal source just sensed or just recollected goes through a neuronal group diverging one after another, some properties which some parts of that neuronal source have are recognized, and those parts are generated or renewed and memorized and stored as individual images' sources. Such a neuronal group diverging one after another can be called Each Kind of Memorial Neuronal Group Diverging (One After Another). In such a neuronal group, there are some neuronal groups selective and specialized concerning frequency which were explained in the above section, and they store individual images' sources. In such a neuronal group, the more similar individual images' sources are, the closer they are memorized and stored, and after all, they are classified on the basis of similarity.
    After those are repeated and when some properties which some parts of the neuronal source just sensed or just recollected have are recognized, the following part of such neuronal group or some neuronal ways paralleling it excite and transmit, those excitements and transmissions causes those of neuronal groups memorizing and storing similar individual images' sources. After all, similar individual images' sources can arise and be recollected spatially and temporarily close, and they can compose a complex image's source. This can be called Arousals or Recollections of Individual Images Sources on the Basis of Similarity. For example, when a particular human being is recognized, a lot of individual images' sources of particular human beings are recollected on the basis of similarity, they can compose a complex image's source of general human beings, and that particular person is recognized as a general human being. Thus, first, individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of similarity compose complex images' sources. The part from recognitions to neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources of each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another or some neuronal ways paralleling it can be called "Neuronal Ways among Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Similarity." These neuronal ways are activated innately (by genes) to a degree, and are activated more by individual images' sources' recognitions, generations, or renewals.
    Such neuronal ways do exist and function only in or along each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another and do not exist or function among different kinds of them. Therefore, through them, only the same kind of individual image's source's can arise and be recollected, and different kinds of them cannot. When this needs to be emphasized, they can be called Neuronal Ways among "the Same Kind of" Individual Images' Sources' on the Basis of Similarity or Neuronal Ways among "Each Kind of" Individual Image's Source on the Basis of Similarity, and the arousals or recollections through them can be called Arousals or Recollections of the Same Kind of Individual Image's Source on the Basis of Similarity or Arousals or Recollections of Each Kind of Individual Images Sources on the Basis of Similarity.
    Second, there are a lot of neuronal ways among the same kind of and different kinds of memorial neuronal groups diverging or neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources in them. However, such neuronal ways are not activated innately (by genes). They are activated acquiredly on the basis of temporal closeness. A little more closely, the neuronal ways among the neuronal groups or ways in or through where some individual images' sources which were generated or renewed temporarily close are memorized and stored or do go are activated. Such neuronal ways can be called "Neuronal Ways among Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness." While those are repeated, when some individual images' sources arise, those activated neuronal ways excite and transmit, and the individual images' sources which were generated or renewed temporally close to them arise. Thus, individual images' sources which were generated or renewed temporarily close arise and can be recollected temporarily close, and can compose a complex image's source. This can be called Arousals or Recollections of Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness.
    Some temporarily close things are cause and effect, and through them cause and effect can be recollected as complex images or associated. For example, when a child's mother are one of those who hit their children when they are angry, in the nervous system of the child, the neuronal ways between the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources of its mother's furious face and neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources of being hit are activated. After those are repeated and when the child perceive the mother's furious face, being hit is recollected or associated. This is an example of the feeling of anxiety or fear. Thus, complex images' sources can be recollected not only on the basis of similarity but also on that of temporal closeness.
    Neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness are between not only the same kind but also different kinds of individual images' sources. Therefore, through them, different kinds of individual images' sources arise and can be recollected, and can compose complex images consisting of different kinds of individual images. When this needs to be emphasized, they can be called Neuronal Ways among "the Same Kind of and Different Kinds of" Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness, and arousals or recollections through them can be called Arousals or Recollections of the Same Kind of and Different Kinds of Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness. For example, if the above example is applied to this, the individual visual images of the mother's furious face and the individual auditory images of her furious voice are recollected temporarily close, and they compose the complex image of the furious mother. In addition, all neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness are activated acquiredly, and they make the difference among individuals clear. Therefore, for perceptions, associations, thinkings, and so on, those on the basis of temporal closeness are more significant than those on the basis of similarity.
    After all, while spatial closeness is retained by (1), temporal closeness is retained by (2) and (5-2) the activations and abilities, and excitements and transmissions of the neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness. In addition, while temporal closeness is retained, in the short run, by (2), it is retained, in the long run by (5-2).
    Two kinds of neuronal ways which were explained in this section, that is, those on the basis of similarity and those on that of temporal closeness can be called "Neuronal Ways among Individual Images' Sources" or "Image to Image Neuronal Ways." After all, the main part of complex images' sources are activations and abilities and excitements and transmissions of neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources and of the neuronal ways among them. Mainly by them, the same kind of and the different kinds of a lot of individual images' sources can be recollected spatially and temporarily close, and compose a complex image.
    By the way, there are image to image neuronal ways (neuronal ways among individual images' sources), image to function neuronal ways, function to function neuronal ways, and image to emotion neuronal ways as significant neuronal ways in these books, and they need to be clearly distinguished.

(6)THE CONSISTENCY OF THE SAME KIND OF SOURCE

    In each kind of continuous sensation and memory, all the neuronal sources are a continuous one. Each kind of continuous sensation and image's source is a neuronal group retaining spatial relative positions' excitement and transmission retaining temporal relative position (1)(2). So are (4), which memorizing and storeing neuronal sources. Therefore, in it, some kinds of qualities and some kinds of quantities as frequencies, some kinds of quantities as concentrations, spatial and temporal positions, spatial and temporal arrangements, and their changes are consistently retained. Such retention can be called the "Consistency of the Same Kind of Source."

(7)THE CONSISTENCY OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF SOURCES

    In things appearing on sensations, things appearing on different kinds of sensations appear spatially and temporally close. For example, another person's mouth appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and his or her spoken words appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears appear spatially and temporally very close. Simply, his or her spoken words come from his or her mouth. In things appearing on a perception, some things appearing on a kind of sensation and different kinds of images appear spatially and temporally close. For example, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and his or her name appearing as auditory images (as if) with both ears appear spatially and temporally close. In a complex image, different kinds of individual images appear spatially and temporally close. For example, another person's face appearing as individual visual images (as if) with both eyes and his or her spoken words appearing as individual auditory images (as if) with both ears appear spatially and temporally close. Such retention can be called the "Consistency of Different Kinds of Sources." It is premised that such consistency is caused by different kinds of sensation and image sources' meeting or paralleling somewhere in the central nervous system, perhaps in the parietal lobes.
    The consistency of the same kind of sources and that of different kinds of sources can be called the Consistency of Sources.

(8)SYMMETRICAL PAIRS OF NEURONAL SOURCES

    The nervous system of almost every animal individual is a symmetrical pair. Moreover, in such a larger pair, there is a neuronal group causing each kind of sensation and memory, and it is a symmetrical pair. Moreover, in such a pair, there is a neuronal group which each kind of sensation and image's source go through, and it is a symmetrical pair. Though it diverges and converges, that diverging and converging part is also a symmetrical pair. Though it sometimes crosses, that crossing part is also a symmetrical pair.
    Things appearing beyond sensory organs like things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and things appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears are three-dimensional or stereoscopic and beyond their own sensory organs. It is premised that a symmetrical pair of neuronal sources, their replay, and their treating functions, the last two of which will be explained later, cause things appearing beyond sensory organs. That is, they retain even three dimensionality and going beyond sensory organs.
    Neuronal sources retain the things in (1)-(8) in the ways in (1)-(8).

REPLAYS OF SOURCES

    Some nervous functions which treat and change a neuronal source into things appearing as mental phenomena can be called the "Replay" of the source or Replaying the source. However, replays are the hardest or impossible to make clear. The border between sources and replays is vague, and they overlap. It is possible that some replays begin with some sensory cells' excitements and transmissions. Moreover, it is possible that the excitements and transmissions of neuronal groups including sensory groups in themselves are replays.
    As was explained earlier, each kind of continuous sensation and memory has its own kind of continuous sensation and image's source. Concerning replays, things are a little different. Not only, each kind of sensation and memory have its own kind of replay but also even in the kind of sensation and memory, the sensation has its own replay of the sensation's source, and the memory has its own replay of the sensory image's source. That is, the replay of the sensation's source and that of the sensory image's source are distinct, and are not a continuous function. For example, in the visual kind of sensation and memory, the visual sensation has the replay of the visual sensation's source, and the visual memory has that of the visual sensory image's source.
    All the same, in each kind of sensation and memory, presumably, the replay of the sensation's source and that of the sensory image's source are not the same but alike, and are not in the same place but in close places. For example, in the visual kind of sensation and memory, presumably, the replay of the visual sensation's source and that of the visual sensory image's source are alike and in close places. For example, though extreme, it is possible, because of the disorders of some nervous functions, that visual hallucination is caused when some visual images' sources which usually reach the replay of visual image's source reaches that of the visual sensation's source which is similar and close to it, and that auditory hallucination is caused when some auditory images' sources which usually reach the replay of auditory image's source reaches that of auditory sensation's source which is similar and close to it.

PROCESSING FUNCTIONS OF SOURCES

    Some functions which process a neuronal source in some ways other than replays can be called the "Processing Functions" of the source or Functions Processing the source.
    Increasing general quantity, increasing contrast, emphasizing contours, and so forth are included in processing functions, but they are done in the places close to sensory groups. In contrast, it is thought that the following is done in deeper places.
    Things appearing beyond sensory organs like things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, things appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears, and things appearing on an olfactory sensation with both nasal cavities, are each three-dimensional or stereoscopic and beyond their sensory organs, and some nervous functions which make them so are a processing function of a sensation's source. Though things appearing on an olfactory sensation with both nasal cavities' being stereoscopic and beyond both nasal cavities are vague in human beings, it must be clearer in some other species of mammals like dogs, cats, and so forth. Human olfactory sensations were more clear once upon a time, and they may have degenerated.
    After all, it is premised that symmetrical pairs of neuronal groups' excitement and transmission as neuronal sources, the functions processing the pairs, and the replays of the pairs cause things appearing beyond sensory organs.
    As was explained earlier, sources and replays are overlapped and entangled. It is hard or nonsense to determine where sources end and where replays begin. Moreover, they and processing functions are overlapped and entangled.

REPRODUCIBLE SPACES, SENSATIONS' FIELDS AND IMAGES' FIELDS

    As was defined earlier, the part of a source which is premised to be represented as some things appearing as mental phenomena could be called the Reproducible Part of the source. Moreover, the space of the reproducible part of a source can be called the Reproducible Space of the source. The whole of the reproducible space of the source of a visual sensation with both eyes is what is called the "visual field." The whole of the reproducible space of a sensation's source can be called the "Sensation's Field" in general, and, in particular, a Visual (Sensation's) field, an Auditory (Sensation's) field, or the like. In addition, the whole of the reproducible space of a sensory image's source can be called the "(Sensory) Image's Field" in general, and in particular, a visual (sensory) image's field, an auditory (sensory) image's field, or the like. It is also a kind of image, and a kind of void of an image, as it were.
    The following are the examples of the width and depth of human sensations' fields.

○Visual field with both eyes
    About 180°ahead, light-years.

○Auditory field with both ears
    360° around, kilometers.

○Olfactory field with both nasal cavities
    360° around, meters.

○Balancing field
    The head.

○Taste field
    The tongue.

○Somatic field
    The skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints.

○Autonomic field
    The mucous membranes, cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and so forth.

OVERLAPS OF REPRODUCIBLE SPACES

    First, in each kind of sensation and sensory image's source, reproducible spaces mostly overlap. That overlap can be confirmed in things appearing on each kind of sensation and sensory image. For example, when I see a person for the first time in years and I think that he or she has grown a little older, in things appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image, his or her present face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and his or her face which appeared years ago appearing as a visual sensory image (as if) with both eyes overlap. Thus, I find his or her aging. Such overlap is caused by the consistency of the same kind of sources which was explained earlier.
    Moreover, between different kinds of sensations' sources or sensory images' sources, some reproducible spaces partially overlap. That overlap can be confirmed between things appearing on different kinds of sensations or things appearing as different kinds of sensory images. For example, birds' chirps appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears appear from the space of the forest appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes. Such overlap is caused by the consistency of different kinds of sources which was explained earlier.

SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF SENSORY IMAGES ON THEIR SENSORY ORGANS

    In each of [s1-1] visual sensations with one eye, [s2-1] auditory sensations with one ear, [s3-1] olfactory sensations with one nasal cavity, [s4] balancing sensations, [s5] taste sensations, [s6] somatic sensations, [s7] autonomic sensations, [i1-1] recollections of visual sensory Images (as if) with one eye, [i2-1] recollections of auditory sensory images (as if) with one ear, [i3-1] recollections of olfactory sensory images (as if) with one nasal cavity, [i4] recollections of balancing sensory images, [i5] recollections of taste sensory images, [i6] recollections of somatic sensory images, and [i7] recollections of autonomic sensory images, its reproducible space is the same as the space where its own sensory group exists and functions. [s1-1]-[s7] could be called Sensations "on (their) Sensory Organs," and [i1-1]-[i7] can be called Recollections of Sensory Images (as if) on (their) Sensory Organs.

SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF SENSORY IMAGES BEYOND SENSORY ORGANS

    In each of [s1-2] visual sensations with both eyes, [s2-2] auditory sensations with both ears, [s3-2] olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities, [i1-2] recollections of visual sensory images (as if) with both eyes, [i2-2] recollections of auditory sensory images (as if) with both ears, and [i3-2] recollections of olfactory sensory images (as if) with both nasal cavities, its reproducible space is not the same as the space where its own sensory group exists and functions, and its appearing things are three-dimensional or stereoscopic and beyond its own sensory group's source's space. [s1-2]-[s3-2] can be called Sensations "Beyond (their) Sensory Organs," and [i1-2]-[i3-2] can be called Recollections of Sensory Images (as if) Beyond (their) Sensory Organs.
    Each of them is a symmetrical pair of neuronal sources, the nervous functions processing the pair, and the replay of the pair.

SOURCES' BEING SENSED AND BEING RECOLLECTED AS IMAGES

    The sensation source of a thing's being replayed can be called the thing or the source's "Being Sensed." The sensory image's source, the individual image's source, or a complex image's source of a thing's being replayed can be called the thing or the source's "Being Recollected" (as a Sensory Image, as an Individual Image, as a Complex Image or Being Recollected as an Image. In addition, the perception's source of a thing's being replayed can be called the thing or the source's "Being Perceived," and the association's source of a thing's being replayed can be called its "Being Associated."
    As was explained earlier, it is probable that neuronal sources and replays overlap. Whether or not they overlap, replays and the sources which are being replayed are premised to directly cause things appearing as mental phenomena. Therefore it is premised that things appearing on sensations are caused whenever and as soon as their sources are sensed, and that things appearing as images are caused whenever and as soon as their sources are recollected. A neuronal source sometimes disappear partially. Even so, as long as the replay functions, its remaining part is replayed, and something appearing as a mental phenomena is caused. For example, by pituitary tumor, visual field defect is sometimes caused. Even so, we can see the remainder. In each kind of sensation or memory, if all the neuronal source disappear or if the replay is completely disordered, nothing appearing that kind of sensation or sensory image is caused.
    A neuronal source which is being sensed or was sensed milliseconds (thousandths of a second) ago can be called "Sources Just Sensed," and the same can apply to "Sources Just Recollected (as Images)." It is not sources which have not been sensed yet but sources just sensed that are recognized and do generate individual images' sources. In addition, as will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES," some sources just recollected as images cause the excitements and transmissions of some image to emotion neuronal ways, and cause some feelings, desires, egos, and so on. As will be explained later, some reflexes are caused by sources which have not been sensed yet.
    By the way, images' sources are also called Images in these books. That is, the word of images sometimes designates their sources in these books.
    That the source which is premised to cause a thing appearing on a sensation intensely or faintly is sensed can be called its Being Sensed Intensely or Faintly, and that the source which is premised to cause a thing appearing as an image intensely or faintly is recollected can be called its Being Recollected (as an Image) Intensely or Faintly. A neuronal source whose concentration, resolution, or extent is large or small can be sensed or recollected intensely or faintly. Though a sensation's source and the images' sources caused by it are a continuous one, their intensities are not always interrelated. For example, sometimes, a person who was seen in the far distance is recollected dead ahead, and some spoken words which were whispered are recollected in a loud voice.

FLOWS OF SOURCES

    A neuronal source is a neuronal group's excitement and transmission or activation and ability which retains such things as were explained earlier in such ways as were explained earlier. A neuronal source's excitement and transmission can be looked upon as its going, coming, or flowing through the neuronal group. A neuronal source's activation and ability is its being memorized and stored and can be looked upon as its lurking or stagnating. In addition, a neuronal source sometimes disappears when the neuronal group which it goes through or lurk in has some disorders. In addition, when the neuronal group which some neuronal sources go through converge, some of the sources go through, and the others disappear. When the neuronal group which a neuronal source starts to go through diverges, more than one identical one is sometimes generated from it. In addition, sometimes, some neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions which can no longer be called neuronal sources can be caused from a neuronal source. In addition, again, in each kind of sensation and memory, images' sources are generated from the sensation's source, and they are continuous one. Such a continuous source could be called the same kind of (continuous) sensation and image's source, each kind of (continuous) sensation and image's source, or a continuous sensation and image's source.
    In the flow of such a neuronal source, the following (1)(2)(3)(4)(5) can be distinguished:

(1) the part of a neuronal source which has not been sensed yet
(2) that which is being sensed, that is, being replayed
(3) that which has already been sensed and has not been recollected yet
(4) that which is being recollected, that is, being replayed.
(5) that which has already been recollected

(1)(2) is a sensation' s source. (3)(4)(5) will be explained closely in the following chapter. (5) causes feelings, desires, egos, and so on which will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES."
    Anyway, the time of (1)(2)(4)(5) is milliseconds, and that of (3) is from milliseconds to tens of years. That is because (3) can be memorized and stored in such ways as will be explained in the following chapter.
    Some important things not involved in memories which will be explained in the following chapter will be explained here and the following section. Some neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions which can no longer be called neuronal sources diverge from (1) and cause some reflexive functions and autonomic functions.
    Sometimes, the excitements and transmissions of sensory nerves in a narrow sense cause the contractions of striated muscles through neuronal groups other than those causing sensations, memories, or voluntary movements. This can be called a "Reflex." For example, a sensory nerve in a narrow sense diverge and join to a motor nerve, and their excitements and transmissions cause tendon reflex.
    Autonomic nervous systems also involve sensory nerves in a broad sense, and they diverge much more than those in a narrow sense or those in a broad sense in visual or auditory sensations. Such a lot of branches from them cause various autonomic functions through neuronal groups other than those causing autonomic sensations as the modulation of heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure.

RECOGNITIONS AND INSTINCTIVE FUNCTIONS

    Some properties which some parts of some sensations' sources have are recognized. Such recognition, before causing memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and recognitions in a broad sense, causes some instinctive functions. For example 1, in the newborns of mammals including human beings, mothers' nipples are recognized on olfactory, taste, and somatic sensations, and this recognition cause the instinctive function of sucking milk. For example 2, in a lot of animals, natural enemies are recognized on visual, auditory, and olfactory sensations, and this recognition causes the instinctive functions of running away, hiding, and so on. It is certain that such linkage of recognitions and instinctive functions is caused through some neuronal groups or ways distinct from the memorial neuronal groups explained in the following chapter.

MEMORIES

EACH KIND OF MEMORY

    As will be explained in this chapter, in each kind of sensation and memory, some properties or attributes of the neuronal source just sensed are recognized, the part of that neuronal source which have those properties are cut and generated as an individual image' s source. Thereafter, a lot of individual images' sources compose a complex image's source and a sensory image's source. Therefore, in each kind of sensation and memory, the sensation's neuronal source and the images' neuronal sources are continuous one. Such a continuous neuronal source can be called Each Kind of (Continuous) sensation and sensory image's source in general, and in particular, (the Visual Kind of) (Continuous) (Visual) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, (the Auditory Kind of) (Continuous) (Auditory) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, or the like.
    However, more strictly, they can be defined as follows. There are some continuous neuronal sources in a nervous system and its functions. Each of those sources can be called Each Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source. Moreover, each of those sources and the functions dealing with it can be called Each Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory in general, and in particular, (the Visual Kind of) (Visual) Sensation and Memory, (the Auditory Kind of) (Auditory) Sensation and Memory, or the like. Moreover, out of each of those continuous neuronal sources, the part following the part just sensed or just recollected and the functions dealing it can be called Each Kind of Memory in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of Memory or Visual Memory, the Auditory Kind of Memory or Auditory Memory, or the like.
    However, there is a large difference in the degree of the development of each kind of memory depending on species of animals. In human beings, because they hear, speak, read, and write words, visual and auditory kinds of memories are developed very much, and the other kinds of memories are overwhelmed or replaced and hardly exist or function. Therefore most of the explanation in this chapter is that of visual and auditory kinds of memories. In other species, it is probable that some other kinds of memories are developed more than in human beings. Above all, it is probable that olfactory kinds of memories are developed in some species of terrestrial vertebrates. Even so the explanation of such kinds of memories will be omitted in these books.
    Most of the functions which will be explained in this chapter are parts of each kind of memory and can be said to function in each kind of memory. A few functions can be said to function beyond each kind. Therefore, in this chapter, the words like "in each kind of memory" are sometimes omitted. In that case, please take it for granted that the function concerned functions in it.
    The following words of recognition, cut, generation, renewal, memorization, storage, arousal, recollection, and so on designate concrete and countable function. For example, if a neuronal group diverges into a hundred small ones, there are a hundred or less of memorizations or storages. Therefore they are used as countable nouns in these books.

EACH KIND OF MEMORIAL NEURONAL GROUP DIVERGING ONE AFTER ANOTHER

    In each kind of memory, some properties which some parts of the neuronal sources just sensed and just recollected have are recognized, and those parts are cut out and generated as individual images' sources, classified on the basis of similarity, and memorized and stored. The neuronal sources cut and classified go through a neuronal group diverging one after another. Those functions of recognitions, cuts, classifications, and memorizations and storages are caused in each branch of that diverging neuronal group. Such a neuronal group can be called (Each Kind of) "Memorial Neuronal Group Diverging" (One after Another). Each kind of memory has one memorial neuronal group diverging one after another. Though, strictly, there is one pair, a pair of neuronal groups is looked upon a neuronal group in these books.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES' RECOGNITIONS, CUTS, AND GENERATIONS

    In each kind of memory, not only that kind of sensation's source just sensed but also that kind of individual images sources just recollected go through that kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, and some properties which some parts of those sources have are recognized. By these recognitions, not only individual images' sources' generations which will be explained in this section but also individual images' sources arousals on the basis of similarity which will be explained in one of the later sections are caused.
    In each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, the neuronal source also diverge into a lot of sources. It is not that cuts start dealing with those neuronal sources after recognitions finished doing so but that recognitions and cuts go on doing so alternately. Thus, individual images' sources are generated step by step. Finally, individual images sources are memorized and stored. As a result, individual images are classified on the basis of similarity, and the more similar they are, the closer they are memorized and stored in each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another.
    A little more closely concerning those recognitions, some properties like concentrations, frequencies, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes, and so forth which some parts of those neuronal sources have are recognized by some nervous functions, and those parts are classified on the basis of similarity one after another. This can be called Individual Images' (Sources') "Recognitions (in a Narrow Sense)" or Being Recognized. These recognitions are those "in a narrow sense" in contrast to those in a broad sense explained earlier. For example 1, in the visual kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, the spatial arrangement of a jaw, a mouth, a nose, two eyes, two ears, and a head which the part of a human being's face of the visual sensation's source has is recognized, and that part is classified as a mammal's face. Next, the proportion of the size of the head to that of the other part of the face, the density and distribution of hair, and so forth are recognized, and that part is recognized and classified as the face of a human being, and the same are repeated, and the more they are repeated, the more recognitions and classifications are detailed. with the classification more and more detailed. For example 2, in the auditory kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, the first syllable of a word is recognized, its second syllable is recognized, and its accents are recognized, and the same are repeated, and the individual auditory image of the word is generated. In the way of these two examples, sptatial arrangemets are significant in individual visual images, and temporal arrangements are significant in individual auditory images.
    In addition, while some properties which some parts of each kind of neuronal source have are recognized and those parts are classified, some of those parts are cut out by some nervous functions. This can be called the Individual Image's (Source's) "Cut" or Being Cut (Out). In the above examples, the part of that face is cut out of the other part of the body and the background, and that word is cut out of the other part of the sentence or the noise. Such cutting out of backgrounds and noises is significant. If they are significant or impressive backgrounds or background music, some parts of them is cut out.
    Thus, individual images' sources are generated by being recognized, cut out, and classified. In the above examples, that face or that word are generated as individual images' sources of a particular person's face or an independent word. An individual image's source's recognition, classification, and cut can also be called the Individual Image's (Source's) Generation or Being Generated. An individual image's generation consists of its recognition, classification, and cut. In addition, the individual images sources which are being or has just been recognized, classified, and cut out can be called individual images' Sources Just Generated.
    Individual images' generations take place in the time from milliseconds (thousandths of a second) to seconds. Individual visual images are generated in the time of milliseconds because their spatial arrangements are significant, but individual auditory images are generated in the time of tenths of a second to seconds because their temporal arrangements are significant.
    More than one individual image's source can be generated from a sensation's source just sensed. For example 1, from the visual sensation's source of a particular person just sensed, the individual visual images' sources of his or her face, body, hair, clothes, and shoes can be generated. For example 2, from the auditory sensation's source of a sentence just sensed, the auditory images' sources of the words composing the sentence.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES' MEMORIZATIONS AND STORAGES

    Individual images' sources just generated are memorized and stored in the following way.
    There are some, actually, a lot of neuronal groups selective and specialized concerning frequency, which were explained earlier, in each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another which individual images' sources just generated go through. While individual images' sources just generated go through that diverging neuronal group, they activate those selective and specialized neuronal groups. That is, some neurons in each of those individual images' sources just generated which excite and transmit with a certain frequency activate some selective and specialized neurons which has the capability of exciting and transmitting with that frequency in each of those selective and specialized neuronal groups. This can be called Individual Images' (Sources') "Memorizations" or Being Memorized.
    While it is decreased naturally and increased by reactivation, the ability of the neuronal group selective and specialized concerning frequency where an individual image's source has been memorized is retained more or less. This can be called the Individual Image's (Source's) "Storage" or Being Stored.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES' RENEWALS

    Every time the same part of a source as that which has already been generated, generated, memorized, and stored is sensed or recollected and every time the same properties are recognized, that part is generated, memorized, and stored as the same individual image. After all, the same neuronal groups memorizing and storing the same individual images sources are reactivated. This can be called the Individual Images' (Sources') "Renewals" or Being Renewed.
    Because the abilities of all neuronal groups are being reduced naturally with time, the abilities of neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources which are not renewed are reduced and disappear. That is, such individual images are "forgotten." In order for individual images' sources to be stored for practical use, they need to be timely renewed. When it needs to be emphasized, the words of their "being memorized and stored, and renewed," "being generated and renewed," and the like are used in these books. However, when such words are always used, sentences will be complicated. Therefore the word of renew, renewal, or the like will usually be omitted.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES' CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF SIMILARITY

    In each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, individual images' sources are recognized, cut out, generated, memorized, and stored. As a result, the more similar sources are, the closer branch they go through and are memorized and stored in. This can be called Individual Images' (Sources') Classification or Being Classified on the Basis of Similarity. By this classification, similar images' sources can be recollected spatially and temporally close, and can compose a complex image. For example, in the visual kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, the individual images' sources of human beings are memorized and stored closer to one another than to those of other animals. Therefore the individual images' sources of human beings can be recollected spatially and temporally closer to one another than to those of other animals, they can compose a complex images of general human beings, and human beings are distinguished from other animals. Furthermore, mammals are distinguished from other animals, vertebrates are distinguished from other animals, and the same are repeated. Though we sometimes use "tree structures" when we classify things, their prototype has already existed and functioned in nervous systems.

EACH KIND OF MEMORIAL NEURONAL GROUP CONVERGING ON THE REPLAY

    When the neuronal groups memorizing and storing some individual images' sources excite and transmit, those individual images' sources proceed to the replay. This is their arousals. However, while there are a lot of neuronal group memorizing and storing individual images' sources, there is one (pair of) replay in each kind of memory, and so the neuronal group from the former to the latter is a converging one. Therefore not all the arising individual images' sources reach the replay. Some of them sometimes disappear and are not replayed or recollected. Such neuronal group converging on the replay can be called (Each Kind of) Memorial Neuronal Group Converging (on the Replay). All the same, this and the same kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, explained earlier, can be looked upon as a neuronal group. Each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another and the same kind of memorial neuronal group converging on the replay can be called (Each Kind of) Memorial Neuronal Group (Diverging and Converging). After all, memorial neuronal groups diverge and then converge.

AROUSALS OR RECOLLECTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF SIMILARITY

    As was explained earlier, in each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, some properties which some parts of the sensation's source just sensed and some parts of the individual images' sources just recollected have are recognized, individual images' sources are generated, memorized, and stored (or renewed). Moreover, those just generated not only are memorized and stored but also do arise and can be recollected instantly. Such instant recollections are an instant memory which will be explained later. However, not only those just generated but also those which were generated, memorized, and stored in the past and which are similar to them arise and can be recollected in the following way.
    In each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, the branches which an individual image's source just recognized and generated goes through, of course, excite and transmit. More precisely, those excitements and transmissions are themselves neuronal sources. Moreover, not only those branches but also some of the other branches diverging from them or some neuroal ways paralleling them excite and transmit. As was explained earlier, the closer branches are, the more similar individual images' sources have gone through them and been memorized and stored. Therefore the excitements and transmissions of those close branches or the neuronal ways paralleling them cause those of the neuronal groups memorizing and storing some similar individual images' sources, and they arise and can be recollected. Therefore, after all, not only the individual images' sources just recognized and generated but also some of those which were generated, memorized, and stored in the past and which are similar to them arise and can be recollected. This can be called Arousals or Recollections of Individual Images(' Sources) "on the Basis of Similarity." For example, a particular human being is recognized, the individual images' sources of a lot of particular human beings arise on the basis of similarity, they compose a complex image's source of general human beings, and that particular human being is "recognized" in a broad sense, as a general human being.
    Moreover, a particular human being at the present is more similar to that human being in the past than to most of the other human beings. Therefore the recognition in a narrow sense of a particular human being causes the arousal or recollection of the individual images of that human being in the past and compose the complex image's source of that human being having temporal extent, and that human being is recognized in a broad sense as that human being in a common sense. That is, what has temporal extent like human life, even if it is a particular thing, is not recollected as an individual image but recollected as a complex image or associated.
    Thus, recollections of individual images on the basis of similarity make the "recognition" in a broad sense possible for the first time. Moreover they make it possible for us to recognize and think of general things in advance of particular things. For example, it is not that this or that particular tiger is dangerous, but that general tigers are so. If we always examined whether each individual is dangerous or not, we could not survive. In human beings, whether it is fortunate or unfortunate, such acquired recollections and recognitions of general things have been being developed, and innate and intuitive recognition has been being degenerated.
    In such recollections of individual images on the basis of similarity, they are being recollected as complex images already. Therefore they can also be called Arousals or Recollections of Complex Images(' Sources) on the Basis of Similarity.

NEURONAL WAYS AMONG INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF SIMILARITY

    In arousals of individual (or complex) images sources on the basis of similarity, the branches from recognitions to neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources of each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another or some neuronal ways paralleling them can be looked upon as indirect neuronal ways among individual images' sources. They can be called "Neuronal Ways among Individual Images(' Sources) on the Basis of Similarity."
    In order for individual images' sources to be recognized, generated, and classified, they need to be activated to a degree innately. All the same, it is probable that their abilities are increased when individual images' sources are generated or renewed.

AROUSALS OR RECOLLECTIONS OF THE SAME KIND OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGE'S SOURCE ON THE BASIS OF SIMILARITY AND NEURONAL WAYS AMONG THE SAME KIND OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF SIMILARITY

    Neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of similarity are only in or along each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging and cannot be between different kinds of them. When this needs to be emphasized, they can be called Neuronal Ways among the Same Kind of Individual Images(' Sources) on the Basis of Similarity or Neuronal Ways among Each Kind of Individual Images(' Sources) on the Basis of Similarity.
    Therefore, in the arousals or recollections through them, only the same kind of individual image's source arises and can be recollected. When this need to be emphasized, they can be called Arousals or Recollections of the Same Kind of Individual Images(' Sources) on the Basis of Similarity or Arousals or Recollections of Each Kind of Individual Images(' Sources) on the Basis of Similarity.

AROUSALS OR RECOLLECTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGES SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF TEMPORAL CLOSENESS AND NEURONAL WAYS AMONG INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF TEMPORAL CLOSENESS

    However, it is no wonder that some neuronal groups or ways distinct from them exist and function and intervene in them. Some, actually many neuronal ways distinct from them exist and function between the same kind of and different kinds of memorial neuronal groups and intervene in them. They are not activated innately but activated acquiredly on the basis of temporal closeness when some individual images' sources are generated and memorized temporally close. Next time some of those individual images' sources arise, those activated neuronal ways excite and transmit, some others arise, too. After all, some individual images' sources which were generated or renewed and memorized temporarily close in the past arise and can be recollected temporarily close, and they can compose complex images or are associated. This can be called Arousals or Recollections of Individual (or Complex) Images(' Sources) on the Basis of "Temporal Closeness," and those neuronal ways can be called Neuronal Ways among Individual Images(' Sources) on the Basis of Temporal Closeness.

AROUSALS OR RECOLLECTIONS OF THE SAME KIND OF AND DIFFERENT KINDS OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGES SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF TEMPORAL CLOSENESS AND NEURONAL WAYS AMONG THE SAME KIND OF AND DIFFERENT KIND OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF TEMPORAL CLOSENESS

    Because neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness exist and function between not only a kind of but also some kinds of memorial neuronal groups, through them, not only the same kind but also different kinds of individual images' sources arise and can be recollected. For the first time through neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness, it comes to be possible that complex images consisting different kinds of individual images arise or are recollected. When this needs to be emphasized, such arousals or recollections can be called Arousals or Recollections of "the Same Kind of and Different Kinds" of Individual (or Complex) Images(' Sources) on the Basis of Temporal Closeness, and those neuronal ways can be called Neuronal Ways among the Same Kind of and Different Kinds of Individual Images(' sources) on the Basis of Temporal Closeness."
    For example, when a child's mother often gets angry and utter furious voice, in the child's nervous system, the neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness between the individual visual images' sources of the mother's furious face and the individual auditory images' sources of her furious voice are activated, and the child comes to anticipate her furious voice only when it perceives her furious face.
    Some of the things that are caused temporarily close are cause and effect. Without neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness, we could not think about cause and effect. However, before cause and effect, without them, we could not recognize even things having temporal extent.

RETENTION OF SPATIAL CLOSENESS, TEMPORAL CLOSENESS, AND SIMILARITY

    Both through neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of similarity and through ones on the basis of temporal closeness, individual images' sources arise and can be recollected both on the basis of similarity and on that of temporal closeness, and complete complex images are composed by them, arise, and can be recollected. Thus, similarity and temporal closeness are retained. As was explained earlier, spatial closeness is retained only in neuronal sources in a narrow sense. In addition, temporal closeness is retained also in neuronal sources in a narrow sense. If those neuronal ways among individual images' sources are included in neuronal sources, spatial closeness, temporal closeness, and similarity are retained in neuronal sources. They are included in neuronal sources in a broad sense in those books.
    On those grounds, spatial closeness, temporal closeness, and similarity appear to the animals having such neuronal systems with recollections of images, perceptions, and associations and even without egos. The other relations do not appear without manipulations of images by egos which will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES." For example, concering cause and effect, egos need to think, "what functions to something is a cause, and what is functioned to by somethig is an effect..."

IMAGE TO IMAGE NEURONAL WAYS

    Neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of similarity and neuronal ways among them on that of temporal closeness can be called Neuronal Ways among Individual Images Sources or Image to Image Neuronal Ways.
    By their activations and abilities and excitements and transmissions and those of neuronal group memorizing and storing individual images' sources, individual images' sources arise and can be recollected spatially and temporally close on the basis of similarity and temporal closeness and can compose complete complex images.
    By the way, there are image to image neuronal ways (neuronal ways among individual images' sources), image to function neuronal ways, function to function neuronal ways, and image to emotion neuronal ways as significant neuronal ways in these books, and they need to be clearly distinguished. (1)(2)(3)(4) are involved in memories, egos, intentional functions, and emotions and egos respectively.

ACQUIRED GENERATIONS OF IMAGES

The neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources and the neuronal ways among them on the basis of temporal closeness are activated mainly acquiredly, and those on the basis of similarity are activated mainly innately, and the excitements and transmissions of those three kinds of neuronal groups or ways cause the recollections of complex images and sensory images. However, not only that but also the following can be said. Some properties which some parts of sensations' sources just sensed have are recognized, those parts are cut out, and individual images' sources are generated for the first time in an individual. Thereafter individual images compose complex images and sensory images. Without individual images, no complex images or sensory images appear, and memories are almost nothing. Therefore it can be said that images' sources in themselves are acquiredly generated, and the modifier "almost," "mainly," or the like can be omitted. Images' sources in an individual is what is called "knowledge." That is, knowledge is acquiredly formed. This does not conflict with our daily understanding and empiricism and psychology.
    In contrast to images in themselves, the neuronal groups causing the nervous functions involved in images' sources' generations are activated mainly innately, and the abilities of those neuronal functions Nevertheless the nervous functions are formed mainly innately.
    Those can be summarized and described as follows. The "frames" of recollections of images or memories are formed (mainly) innately, and their contents are formed (mainly) acquiredly.
    By the way, what is formed innately by genes is inherited by genes and evolved. In contrast, what is acquiredly formed is not inherited by genes or evolved. Images' sources or images are not inherited by genes or evolved. Even if complicated complex images, that is, ideas are generated and constructed in individuals, they are not inherited by genes or evolved. In contrast, ideas are loaded into spoken words, written words, and other various media and transmitted among individuals. Those transmitted ideas are reconstructed in individuals and transmitted among them, and the same are repeated. Thus, ideas go more and more complicated like Ptolemaic theory or Copernican theory, Creation or Darwinism, despotism or democracy, and capitalism or communism. If such ideas, that is, complicated complex images go beyond generations, they are not inherited by genes but transmitted with media. In addition, they are not evolved but reconstructed.

COMPLEX IMAGES' SOURCES' GENERATIONS OR RENEWALS, MEMORIZATION AND STORAGE, AND AROUSALS OR RECOLLECTIONS

    The above generations, memorizations, storages, and renewals of individual images' sources and the above activations and abilities of neuronal ways among them can be looked upon as the generations, memorizations, storages, and renewals of complex images(' sources).
    In addition, the above arousals or recollections of individual images' sources on the basis of similarity and on that of temporal closeness can be looked upon as complex images(' sources) arousals or recollections.
    In addition, the above individual images' sources and the activations and abilities of the neuronal ways among them can be looked upon as complex images(' sources).

EACH KIND OF RECOLLECTION OF SENSORY IMAGE

    However, the individual images' sources which have arisen go through each kind of memorial neuronal group comverging to the replay, and some of them reach the replay and are replayed and recollected as that kind of sensory image. That is, it is not that there is a synthetic replay beyond each kind but that there is each kind of replay. For example, the visual kind of replay and the auditory kind of replay separately exist and function. That is, the individual images' sources composing a complex image's source which are to become a complex image appearing beyond each kind on the stage of things appearing as mental phenomena are replayed separately on each kind of replay and recollected as that kind of sensory image.

FUNCTIONS BEYOND EACH KIND OF SENSATION AND MEMORY

    After all, the recognitions, generations, memorizations, storages, renewals of individual images' sources', the activatons and abilities of the neuronal ways among them on the basis of similarity, and the arousals or recollections of them on the basis of similarity function only in each kind of memory and do not function beyond each kind. In contrast, (1) the activations, abilities of the neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness, and (2) the arousals or recollections of them on the basis of temporal closeness function not only in the same kind of memory but also between different kinds of memories and function beyond each kind. In addition, (3) the consistency of different kinds of sources explained earlier can function beyond each kind. In addition, from the beginning, sensations do not function beyond each kind. After all, it is only (1)(2)(3) that function beyond each kind of sensation and memory.

THE LOCATION OF MEMORIAL NEURONAL GROUPS

    Each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging and converging is localized to a pair of lobes in the cerebrum of the nervous system of an individual. In human beings, that which practically exist and function are visual kind and auditory kind. The visual kind is localized to a pair of occipital lobes, the auditory kind is localized to a pair of temporal lobes.
    Neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of similarity can be looked upon as a part of the diverging part of each kind of memorial neuronal group.
    In contrast, the neuronal ways among the same kind of and different kinds of individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness stretch their axons from a lobe to not only the same lobe in the same hemisphere but also the same lobe in the opposite hemisphere and different lobes in the same hemisphere and in the opposite hemisphere. Their axons occupy a considerable part of the cerebral medulla. All the same, their neuronal bodies and axonal terminals are in the cerebral cortex. Therefore the importance of cerebral cortices does not waver.

THE MEANING OF AROUSALS

    From the beginning, as was explained earlier, the word of "Arousal" or Arising has a general meaning. That a part of a function which can cause or change its necessary and direct part is caused or changed can be called the function's Arousal or Arising. Simply, even if a function arises, it is not always caused, and it sometimes end up halfway. Also in recollections of images, the word of arousal or arising is used in that sense, and even if images' sources arise, they are not always replayed or recollected. The reason will be explained in the following section.

NEURONAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS' DISAPPEARING

    While a neuron (u) is exciting and transmitting by the transmission of another neuron (s), even if another neuron (t) transmits to the neuron (u), the neuron (u) goes on exciting and transmitting by the transmission of the neuron (s) with the same frequency as that of the neuron (s), regardless of, simply, ignoring the transmission of the neuron (t). This can be called (s)'s excitement and transmission's "Passing Through," Going through, or Coming Through, and (t)'s excitement and transmission's "Disappearing."
    While a neuronal group (U) is exciting and transmitting by the transmission of another neuronal group (S), even if another neuronal group (T) transmits to the neuronal group (U), the neuronal group (U) goes on exciting and transmitting by the transmission of the neuronal group (S) with the same spatial and temporal position, frequency, concentration, spatial and temporal arrangement, and their changes as those of the neuronal group (S), almost regardless of the transmission of the neuronal group (T). This can be called (S)'s excitement and transmission's Passing Through, Going Through, or Coming Through and (T)'s excitement and transmission's "Disappearing."
    In a larger neuronal group diverging and converging, the branches can be looked upon as smaller neuronal groups. The above principle can also be applied to such smaller neuronal groups.
    As was explained earlier, the neuronal group from recognitions to the neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources is a diverging one, and the neuronal group from them to the replay is a converging one. They can be looked upon as larger neuronal groups, and the branches can be looked upon as smaller neuronal groups. In a larger neuronal group converging, it is a limited number (N) of the excitements and transmissions of smaller neuronal groups which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center that pass through, while making others disappear, and reach their destination.

LIMITING RECOLLECTIONS OF COMPLEX IMAGES

    Therefore, in each kind of memorial neuroal group converging, even when many complex images' sources arise, a limited number (N) of them which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center pass through and reach the replay and are recollected.
    This can be explained in the following way, too, when a reproducible space explained earlier is payed attention to. Every reproducible space is limited. It is a limited number of sources that can occupy such a limited space. For example, the reproducible space of a visual sensory image (as if) with both eyes, in a human being, is about 180°ahead in the same way as that of a visual sensation with both eyes, and when a huge complex image of a soaring edifice occupies it, the others hardly appear.
    Therefore, in each kind of memory, a limited number (N) or less of complex images' sources reach the replay and recollected. This can be divided into the following two cases.

(1) When N or less of complex images' sources arise, all of them are recollected.
(2) When more than N of complex images' sources arise, N of them which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center are recollected.

The above case of (2) can be called a recollection's "Saturation" or Being Saturated.
    However, that limited number (N) varies depending on an internal condition. The larger the arising complex images are, the smaller N gets. Simply, when we think complicated things, N gets smaller. In the above example, the larger the edifice is, the smaller N gets.

INCOMPLETE RECOLLECTIONS

    When we look into them a little more closely, we find the following. It is probable that the complex images' sources which will be recollected do not completely make others disappear and that some individual images' sources or their parts of some other complex images' sources replace some parts of those recollected. For example, the core of a thing may be recollected but its periphery may not. Such recollections can be called "Incomplete Recollections."
    All the same, when we look into them more closely, we find the following. In an association, that is, a series of a lot of recollections, those incompletely recollected, as long as they have arisen, can influence the following recollections in the association by causing the excitements and transmissions of some image to image neuronal ways. For example, it is usual that the conclusion is clear though the thinking process is vague. Therefore we do not need to worry too much about incomplete recollections.

RECOLLECTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGES IN SOME KINDS OF RECOLLECTIONS OF SENSORY IMAGES

    The individual images' sources composing a complex image's source are recollected in some kinds of recollections of sensory images. The recollection of complex images is a complex function composed by recollections of individual images' sources in some kinds of recollections of sensory images. If the recollection of complex images is a limiting function which will be explained in the following section, it is a complex limiting function.

LIMITING FUNCTIONS AND LIMITED FUNCTIONS

    In general, limiting functions, limited functions, and so on can be defined in the following way.

    There are some sets each of which (F = (f1,f2,…)) has the following properties (1)(2)(3)(4) in each of the individuals of the species of, at least, higher mammals including human beings.

(1) F go through a common process (P).
(2) In a situation (S) and in a time (LT), F arise and can be caused,
(2-1) and in the case (C1) where a number (N) or less of F arise, all of them are caused with their simple tendencies (ST) to be caused,
(2-2) and in the case (C2) where more than N of F arise, N of F which have the largest tendencies (CT) to be caused while competing with one another in the process (LP) which limits F in the process (P).
(3) However, the number (N) fluctuate in an internal condition.
(4) Out of the above, there is some difference between the individuals of the same species and of the same age in those tendencies (ST and CT), and there is little difference in the others.

In the above, the set of functions (F) and the common process (P) which F go through containing the process (LP) which limits F can be called a "Limiting Function" of the individual in the situation (S), the set (F = (f1,f2,…)) can be called the "Limited Functions" belonging to the limiting function, the process (LP) which limits F in the process (P) can be called the limiting function's or the limited functions' "Limiting Process," the time in which F are limited can be called the limiting function's "Limiting Time," a limited function's tendency (ST) to be caused in C1 can be called the limited function's "Simple Tendency (to Be Caused)," and a limited function's tendency (CT) in C2 can be called the limiting function's "Tendency (to Be Caused) (While Competing with One Another)."
    All the same, the tendencies (ST) in C1 were fundamental ones, and tendencies (CT) in C2 always contain ST. Whatever has a small CT has enough ST. In addition, usually, more than N of limited functions arise, and N of them are caused. Therefore, in general, a limited function's tendency (CT) to be caused while competing with one another in C2 can be called the limited function's tendency (to be caused). Practically, more than a limited number (N) of limited functions arise, and N of them which have the largest tendencies are caused. It is the most important thing both in recollections of images which are being explained in this book and in egos which will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES."

LIMITING RECOLLECTION AS LIMITING FUNCTIONS

    The recollections of complex images are limiting functions. Let us confirm this.
    Because a complex image consists of some kinds of individual images' sources and because the recollection of a complex image consists of some kinds of recollections of individual images, if it is a limiting function, it is a "complex" one. If this complexity were always explained, the sentences would be complicated. Therefore, in most of the following explanation, that of the complexity cannot help being omitted.

[Complex images' sources as limited functions and the limited recollection of each complex image]

    Complex images’sources, when they arise, go through memorial neuronal groups converging to the replay, and limited number N or less of them which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center reach the replay, while making the others disappear, and are recollected. Therefore complex images' sources in the recollections of them are limited functions. In addition, each complex image and its arousal and recollection can also be looked upon as a limited function. It can be called the "Limited" Recollection of Each Complex Image.

[Situations of recollections of complex images]

    The direct situations of recollections of complex images are some properties which some parts of some sensations' sources just sensed and some individual images' sources just recollected have. The recognitions of those properties start to cause the arousals of individual images' sources on the basis of similarity and then those on that of temporal closeness and start to compose complex images' sources. Furthermore, their indirect situations are the material and bodily sources which cause those neuronal sources, the materials and functions which cause those material and bodily sources, and so forth. For example, interpersonal relations are indirect external situations.

[Limiting processes of recollections of complex images]

    That each kind of memorial neuronal groups from neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources to the replay converges and that the complex images' sources which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center reach the replay while making the others disappear are the limiting processes in recollections.

[The limiting time of recollections]

    It is a time of tenths of a second. By the way, recollections in a broad sense include associations. In this chapter, the recollections not in a broad sense but in a narrow sense are being argued. An association is a series of recollections. Each of them are a recollection in a narrow sense. An association continues for seconds or more, and the number of the complex images recollected in it are not limited to N. It is a recollection in a narrow sense that is limited to N. In a recollection in a narrow sense, complex images are limited like the water filtrating through a dam. In an association, they are limited like the water filtrating through a series of dams.

[Internal conditions where N fluctuates in recollections]

    In the whole of the reproducible space, that is, the sensory image field, the larger the complex images are and the more they obstruct one another, the smaller N gets. Simply, when we think of complicated things, N gets smaller. For example, when a person who is very important for the self are recollected, N gets smaller, and when people who are not so important for the self are recollected, N gets larger.

[Tendencies of recollections of complex images]

    Directly, the tendencies for complex images to be recollected are that their sources excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center in converging neuronal groups. Indirectly, they are the abilities of the neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources which compose the complex images and the abilities of the neuronal groups among them, that is, image to image neuronal ways. All the same, it is impossible to measure them in living things. Therefore, we cannot help depending on our daily experiences or psychological tests.
    In our daily lives, we feel that "we cannot forget those which we think of again and again." As will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES," the complex images which egos manipulate and think of again and again are hardly forgotten. That is because, by egos' manipulating and thinking of images again and again, above all, the neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness are activated again and again and those abilities are retained.

[Common processes which complex images' sources or limited recollections as limited functions go through]

    They are the following neuronal groups or ways and their abilities and excitements and transmissions.

(1)The neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources composing complex images and the neuronal ways among them.
(2)some kinds of memorial neuronal groups converging to the replays
(3)some kinds of replays

[Limiting recollections as limiting functions]

    The set of complex images' sources as limited functions and the common process containing the limiting process explained above are a limiting function. It can be called the "(Limiting) Recollection (of (Complex) Images(' Sources)" or (Complex) Images' (Sources') Being Recollected (with Limitation). When it needs to be emphasized that the recollection of complex images is a limiting function, the words of "Limiting" or "with Limitation" will be used.

OUTLINES OF COMPLEX IMAGES



    There are a lot of psychological tests with which some parts of the tendencies of recollections can be examined like free association and Rorschach test. Of course, those examples are not devised for the test of those tendencies, they can, as a result, examine those tendencies. A writer of this book devised the following. The subjects will be shown several photos or pictures and asked several questions. For example, a photo of the face of a tiger looming from a bush will be shown, and the question "how will you do?" will be asked. Of course, if it were real, the person would have been killed already. Even through such unreal tests, such tendencies of recollections or egos as follows loom up. First, that question does not propose any conditions concerning whether that person was walking in the forest alone or together with some other persons. If that person answer that he or she will respond it alone, the possibility of his or her tendency to be isolated or to be independent looms up. Of course, it is only a possibility. However, when some other tests are done and combined with it, that possibility gets larger or smaller. In addition, when those tendencies are large, when some other tests are done and combined, the possibility of distinguishing whether it is the tendency to be isolated or to be independent gets larger. In addition, when researchers want to test tendencies other than that to be isolated or that to be independent, for example, that to destroy anything, they can propose the condition of walking alone, and for example, that to control anything, they can propose that of walking together with some other persons.
    In the above examples, the words of "isolation," "independence," "destroying anything," and "controlling anything" have already been used which designate some outlines. These books strictly define outlines of limited functions. The set of the limited functions whose tendencies are formed together on the basis of similarity can be called the "Outline" of limited functions. Complex images or limited recollections, too, which are limited functions, have outlines. They can be called the Outlines of (complex) images or (limited) recollections.
    Moreover, the average of the limiting functions belonging to an outline can be called the Tendency (of the outline) of (limited) function. That is, even when the word of outlines is omitted, the word of tendencies sometimes designates outlines' tendencies in these books. Moreover, the matrix of the tendencies (of the outlines) of limiting functions which can arise in a situation can be called the Tendencies or Habit of the limiting function in the situation. When they are defined so, it will be a little easier to statistically treat what is called personalities which are complicated.
    Now, we find that, also in our daily lives and psychology, we have already been arguing about some of such outlines. For example, we argue other persons' personalities in the way of saying he or she is "isolated," " independent," "destroying anything," and "controlling anything," and they are the outlines of functional images and limited egos which will be explained in "FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE."

RECOLLECTIONS OF COMPLEX IMAGES WITH INTENSITY

    As was explained earlier, each thing appearing as a mental phenomenon has quantities as properties like brightness, distance, loudness, clearness, intensity, and so forth. Such quantity can be called the "Intensity" (of the Thing) Appearing (as Mental Phenomenon). Each individual image has its intensity, too. Each complex image has its intensity, too, as the average of the intensities of the individual images which compose it. It is premised that such intensity is fundamentally caused by the property of the neuronal source of an appearing thing like the density of its excitement and transmission.
    However, some intensities appearing as images is premised to be caused by some inevitable properties of recollections. For example, every image fades in, reaches its peak, and fades out. Such change of intensity is caused not only by the properties of sources but also by those of recollections. The intensity caused by the properties of sources and that caused by those of recollections can be called the Intensity of Recollections, and recollections accompanying such intensity can be called (Limiting) Recollections (of (Complex) Images(' Sources)) with Intensity, and their Being Recollected Intensely or Faintly (with Limitation), or the like.
    However, that intensity of recollections is distinct from the tendency of limited recollections. For example, a murmur which should be faint as the former is recollected while accompanying roars which should be intense as the former.
    After all, strictly, the recollection of complex images is some kinds of limiting recollections of complex images' sources with intensity. They are usually designated by the simple words of the recollection of images, images' being recollected, or the like in these books.

PERCEPTIONS

    It is the perception of some parts of some sensations' sources that, in some kinds of sensations and some kinds of memories, some properties which some parts of some sensations' sources just sensed have are recognized, that the neuronal ways among individual images sources on the basis of similarity and thereafter those on that of temporal closeness excite and transmit, and that some complex images' sources are recollected spatially and temporally close to those parts. In addition, it is the recognition (in a broad sense) or identification in a perception of those parts that, as a result, those complex images appear to overlap even partially with those parts. For example, it is the perception of a particular person that the properties which the part of his or her face of the visual sensation's source just sensed has are recognized, and that some complex images' sources consisting of the visual individual images' sources of his or her face in the past and the auditory ones of his or her name and spoken words or some complex images' sources of general human beings are recollected spatially and temporally close to that part. In this example, it is the recognition in a broad sense in a perception of he or she as that particular person or a human being that, as a result, they appear to overlap.

ASSOCIATIONS

    Some properties which some parts of the complex images' sources (A) just recollected in a perception are recognized, the neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of similarity and thereafter those on that of temporal closeness excite and transmit, some complex images' sources (B) are recollected spatially and temporally close to A, some properties which some parts of B just recollected have are recognized, and the same are repeated. This is an association. This can be called the (Direct)Association from A to B, the (Direct) Association from B to C, and so on and the (Indirect) Association from A to C and so on. In addition, when, as a result, B and C appear to overlap even partially, the part of B and C can be called the Recognition (in a broad sense) or Identification in an association of B as C in a broad sense in an association. In the above example, if the complex images of general human beings are associated from and overlap with those of that particular person, this is that particular person is recognized as a human being.
    A series of complex images recollected in an association can be looked upon as a huge complex image which is prolonged temporarily. Such can be included in complex images. In addition, an association can be looked upon as a recollection prolonged temporarily. Such can be included in recollections. All the same, such a recollection, that is, an association is different from a recollection as a limiting function explained above. Complex images recollected by the latter are limited like the water dammed by a dam. In contrast, complex images recollected by the former are limited like the water dammed by a series of dams. Therefore associations are "complex" limiting functions in a different sense from those explained earlier.
    In an association, when N of complex images are recollected with limitation in the first recollection, even if each of N of them is recognized and causes A of complex images' arousals and if N multiplied by A arise in the second recollection, N of them are recollected with limitation. Moreover, not all the N of complex images just recollected are recognized in the second recollection, and so less than N multiplied by A arise and N or less are recollected. The complex images which are recollected in associations are limited in such a way. For example, the perceived building of school or office causes the recollection of some interpersonal relations in it, but the most important one is recognized and causes the recollection of the way to cope with it. If it were not for limiting recollections, associations would sprawl infinitely and go chaotic.
    However, as was explained earlier, individal images' sources, even if they are not recollected, as long as they have arised, can cause the excitements and transmissions of the neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness, cause the arousals of some other individual images' sources, and affect the remaining part of the association. Therefore it may sometimes happen that though we have arrived at a plausible conclusion, the reasoning process which has lead us to it is unclear.

RELATIONS BETWEEN PERCEPTIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS

    The following (1)(2)(3) are possible as the relation between perceptions and association.

(1) A new association starts from a new perception.
(2) An old association is interrupted by a new perception, and a new association starts from the new perception.
(3) An old association is changed by a new perception and the changed association starts.

(1) seems to happen when we wake up in the morning. However, usually, because we have been dreaming when we wake up, it is (3). For example, when we wake up from a dream and when we perceive our bed room, we start to doubt the reality of the dream, and start to wonder why we had such a dream, and so on. Pure (1) happens when we are suddenly awaken from deep sleep other than REM sleep or from complete loss of consciousness. However, such a state may well be looked upon as being still in a "stupor." (2) happens when an unexpected thing happen suddenly. For example, it happens when we are visited by an unexpected person on a holiday which had no schedule. Nonetheless, such completely unexpected things are rare, too. We are expecting more or less what will happen. After all, (3) is our daily lives.

LINGUAL IMAGES

    In each human being, from the neonatal period to the senile period, many spoken words are sensed on an auditory sensation, many written words and signs are sensed on a visual sensation, and many complex images' sources of words are generated, memorized, stored, and recollected. Such sources can be called Lingual Images(' Sources).
    While words are seen and heard and while lingual images' sources are generated, children are shown the things which those words designate by their seniors. In addition, things which they designate is sometimes clear in the situations. While those are repeated, not only the neuronal groups memorizing and storing lingual images and those memorizing and storing the images of the thing which words designate but also the neuronal ways between. Through them, only when we see and hear words, the things which they designate are associated. Those associated are what is called word concepts.
  Thus, lingual images and other complex images' sources are entangled, and more and more gigantic and complicated complex images' sources are generated, and complicated recollections, perceptions, associations, and recognitions become possible.
    In addition, grammar facilitate the development of complicated recollections of complex images, associations, and thinkings. For example 1, proper nouns and some pronouns designate particular things, and common nouns and some other pronouns designate general things. The generation of the images of common nouns facilitate the generation of the images of general things. For example 2, predicates usually designate the properties or attributes including functions of their subjects. It facilitates the generation of images of properties inclusing functions. For example 3, some conjunctions designate cause and effect, and they facilitate the associations, thinkings, and recognitions of cause and effect.
    After all, language is the means of not only transmissions and storages in the society but also mental functions like memories, recollections, perceptions, associations, thinkings, and recognitions in each individual.

IDEAS OR THOUGHTS

    What are called "ideas" or "thoughts" like Copernican system, the theory of evolution, liberal rights, and democratic systems are huge complex images or series of complex images recollected in associations. In addition, they are transmitted with long words. Moreover, in order for them to be formed, egos and thinkings, too, which will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES" need to function. Moreover, they have been formed in the human society and history, and so their formation need reading, attending lectures, debating, and so forth.

BEING FORGOTTEN

    The abilities of the neuronal groups or ways which are acquiredly activated decrease when left alone. The abilities of the neuronal groups storing the individual images' sources composing a complex image's source and those of the neuronal ways among them also decrease when left alone, and the tendency for that complex image to be recollected vanishes. This can be called the (complex) image's (source's) Being Forgotten.

LOSS OF MEMORY

    With some causes, in an animal individual, that the tendencies for any complex images to be recollected vanish irreversibly can be called "Loss of Memory," Losing Memories, complete forgetting, or completely forgetting all.
    Only an animal having memories loses memories. An Animal having no memories cannot lose them. As long as an animal exists and functions, loss of memory is rarely caused. Are brain death, vegetative state, and the like any exceptions? All the same, they are looked upon as death. It is clear that loss of memory is caused when an animal having memories dies.

RENEWALS OF MEMORIES

    After a complex image's source was generated, memorized, and stored, when the sources which caused it is sensed or recollected as images and recognized, that complex image's source is generated, memorized, and stored again. This can be looked upon as its renewal, and can be called the (complex) Image's (Source's) Renewal or Being Renewed, the Renewal of Its Memory, or the like.
    As was explained earlier, though every complex image is being forgotten, when it is renewed again and again, its ability are retained, and it is not forgotten. Simply, what is seen, heard, felt, and thought again and again cannot be forgotten. Renewals of memories are important parts of memories. If there were no renewals, complex images would only be forgotten, and there would be no memories. Therefore not only are renewals of memories included in memories but also when renewals needs to be emphasized, memories are called Memories and Renewals in these books.

VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS CHANGING SENSATIONS

    Concerning visual sensations, we can move our eyeballs, head, and go closer to a thing so that it can be seen largely and clearly. Concerning auditory sensations, though we cannot move our auricles like some other animals, we can move our head and go closer to a thing so that it can be heard loudly and clearly. We can do the same concerning olfactory sensations. Concerning balancing sensations, we can change our bodies' movements and postures to reduce dizziness. Concerning taste sensations, if we do not put any pieces of food into our mouth, we cannot taste them, and we can chew it well to make its taste intense and clear. Concerning somatic sensations, if we want to know a thing's touch, we can touch it, and if it is too hot or spiny, we can remove our hands. Concerning autonomic sensations, though they are not as clear as somatic sensations, if we have severe palpitation and dyspnea, we should rest, if we are hungry, we should eat, and if we are thirsty, we should drink. Such voluntary movements like moving one's eyeballs, moving one's head, going closer to the source can be called Voluntary Movements "Changing Sensations."
    There is little possibility that any parts of the sources which are not sensed intensely or clearly by voluntary movements changing sensations are generated, memorized, or stored or renewed as individual images or complex ones. For example, things which are only sensed vaguely on the periphery of the visual field with no movement of our eyeballs or head are rarely done so.
    In addition, there is little possibility that any parts of the sources which are not sensed intensely or clearly by voluntary movements changing sensations are overlapped with complex images, that is, perceived and recognized.
    When some parts of some sensations' sources are sensed intensely and clearly by voluntary movements changing sensations, the possibility gets larger that those parts are generated, memorized, and stored or renewed as individual images or complex ones.

ATTENTION

    Complex images are renewed and are hard to forget not only when the sensations' sources which caused them are sensed and perceived but also when their being recollected or associated. For example, even if we do not hear somebody's lecture again and again, when we remember its contents again and again, those contents are hard to forget.
     Moreover, that possibility gets much larger in the following way. As will be explained in "EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES," each ego, in thinkings, can manipulate complex images in the ways of bringing them closer, transforming, combining, dissolving, and so on. When egos manipulate a complex images, the possibility gets much larger that its sources is memorized and stored or renewed. That is because, though images in general are vague and transient, egos hold them steady to a degree by manipulating them.
    By the way, when the words of manipulations of images by egos are used, they may sound difficult, but we are doing them in our daily lives. For example, we often try not to think about uncomfortable things, and it is a kind of manipulation of images, which is called switching images.
    From the beginning, egos, in thinkings, can construct, dissolve, and reconstruct more and more complicated and sophisticated complex images, that is, ideas or thoughts. If the results of such constructions and reconstructions by egos were not memorized or stored, egos would always have to construct them from scratch. For the very reason that the complex images constructed and reconstructed by egos are memorized and stored, we can, for example, rethink what were thought yesterday.
    Even if egos do not manipulate the complex images when they are generated, if they are recollected and if the ego manipulate them after a while, they are memorized and stored steadily. For example, after we see a person for the first time, if we think of him or her again and again like "what is he or she," "why he or she behaved thus," and so forth, we can hardly forget him or her.
    Thus, an ego's manipulating some complex images(' sources) can also be called the ego's "Attention" to them or the ego's Paying Attention to them. After all, we can hardly forget what we paid much attention to.

OTHER FUNCTIONS SIMILAR TO MEMORIES

    So far, we have explained memories through their main stream. In that stream, we could not explain afterimages, sensory memories, instant memories, and short-term or long-term memories. They will be explained in the following sections.

AFTERIMAGE

    Even each neuron's one super-short-term excitement and transmission which compose a neuronal group's excitement and transmission continues for milliseconds (thousandths of a second). In contrast, every reproducible source changes every moment. For example, even if we trace it with voluntary movements changing sensations which were explained in one of the above sections, a running animal's spatial arrangement of the limbs changes. Therefore, even after a reproducible source have changed or disappeared, the neuronal source go on exciting and transmitting at least for milliseconds. As a result, what is called an "afterimage" is caused at least for milliseconds.
    It is significant that temporal changes are appearing at present like tracks by afterimages. For example, if an object drags its afterimage on its east side, we find that it is moving westward.

SENSORY MEMORIES

    While the neuronal sources just sensed is processed with recognitions, cuts, and so forth, some of them sometimes remain as they are without those processes for tenths of a second or for seconds. This can be called "Sensory Memories." For example, the short words spoken by another person and sensed on an auditory sensation, which were not paid attention to, are sometimes paid attention to after tenths of a second or seconds. It is possible because there are some sensory memories, in this case, auditory ones. However, only short spoken words can be paid attention to in such a way, and long spoken words cannot. In addition, only when there has been some silence after the words were spoken, they can be paid attention to in such a way.

RECOLLECTIONS OF PAST EVENTS

    If past events were memorized as they were in the same way as movies or videos, or the sensory memories explained above, the neurons of a human being, whose number is the largest of all the animals on the earth, would be insufficient. Recollections of past events share common complex images. For example, the persons like parents, partners, children, and friends, who often enter past events often remembered are shared. It sometimes happens that some of those who enter an event are of the present age though the event occurred ten years ago, but it will not cause serious problems.
    Anyway, not only past things but also present and future things and unreal things occur to us. Those are included in recollections in these books. It is present and future things that we have anxiety about and expectation for. Most of our thinking is occupied with how to do at the present and in the future.

INSTANT MEMORIES

    While the individual image's sources which have just been generated are memorized and stored, they are recollected instantly for less than seconds and disappear. This can be called "Instant" Memories, Instant Recollection of images, Instant Recollection, or images' Being Recollected instantly, and such images can be called Instant Images.
    By afterimages which were explained above and by instant memories, temporal changes are appearing at present. Simply, by comparing the past which are remaining at present and the present, we know changes.
    While the memories which have been explained consistently in this book are caused through the process of generation→memorization→storage→arousal→recollection, instant memories can be caused either by the same process where memorization→storage→arousal are an instant one or through the process of generation→arousal→recollection which lack memorization→storage. Anyway, instant memories and afterimages are included in memories and in recollections in these books.

SHORT OR LONG MEMORIES

    After a complex image's source is generated and memorized and stored, when it is not paid any attention to, the abilities of the neuronal group memorizing and storing the individual images' sources composing it and those of the neuronal ways among them decrease and disappear in a short time, maybe within seconds. When it is paid attention to within seconds, their abilities are retained, and it can be recollected after more than seconds. This can be called Short Memories. Of course, they are included in memories.
    All the same, each of us does not need to think too much in order to establish short memories. When each of us rethinks of the perceived or recollected things, some short memories have already been established. For example, we do not forget a person who we are interested in. In contrast, within seconds, we will forget people who we pass by on the way to school or office unless they are very handsome, beautiful, very interesting, or very strange.
    All the same, they are forgotten within hours or days without any more attention. In order for things to be stored for more than hours or days, those things need to be paid attention to again and again every several hours or days. This can be called "Long Memories." Of course, they are included in memories. All the same, again, we do not need to think too much in order to establish long memories. In our daily lives, what are so important that we should not forget them cannot help being seen, heard, thought of, and paid attention to again and again. In other words, what is not encountered in our daily lives is easy to forget. Above all, academic stuff is easy to forget. After all, maybe, it is what go beyond our daily lives that matter in long memories.

COMPLEX IMAGES' SOURCES = IMAGES

    Again, when the words of "complex images' sources" are always used, sentences are complicated. Therefore they are also called Images in these books.

ONTOGENESIS OF SENSATIONS AND MEMORIES

    In human beings, the sensations excluding visual and auditory ones have already been completed at delivery. It takes weeks or months after delivery for visual and auditory ones to complete themselves. That is because they are complicated ones and because their sensory organs' development switches from that in the amniotic fluid to that in the air at delivery.
    The fundamental nervous functions necessary for memories fundamentally complete themselves around the age of 3. In other words, they are not enough until that age. Therefore we cannot remember the experiences before it. After it, they develop slowly, and the abilities of memories reach their peak around the age of fifteen and thereafter reduce slowly. However, this is true of the frames of memories and is not true of their contents, that is, the richness of complex images, that is, knowledge.

PHYLOGENESIS OF SENSATIONS AND MEMORIES

    Animals have some sensations by definition in these books. In general, terrestrial vertebrates and some terrestrial arthropods have the most complicated sensations of all the animals on the earth. That is because auditory and olfactory sensations cannot be much evolved underwater. In addition, some mammals have the most complicated sensations of all the vertebrates. That is because they have the largest and the most complicated cerebrums and sensory organs. It cannot be said that human beings have the most complicated sensations. At least, human beings' olfactory ones have degenerated. In the sensations of human beings, visual ones and auditory ones are more complicated, and olfactory ones are simpler. Though the distinction between somatic sensations and autonomic ones is clear in vertebrates, it is vague in the other animals. Anyway, the functions which are premised to cause something appearing on a sensation including touches, pains, hotness, coldness, smells, tastes, and so on can be called Sensations. For example, if anything is appearing on a sensation in a jellyfish or sea anemone, the function causing it is a sensation, and otherwise, it is merely a kind of response to stimuli.
    These books define sensations in the above way. They define memories strictly in the following way. The functions which are premised to cause something appearing as images, that is, recollections of images and the functions between recollections and sensations are called Memories (in a Narrow Sense) in these books. When memories are defined in such a strict way, the animals having memories will be limited to vertebrates. Human beings have the most complicated and rich memories, and some species of mammals have comparatively complicated and rich memories.
    All the animals that have memories have sensations. That is because some properties which some parts of the sources just sensed have are recognized, those parts are cut out, and individual images' sources are generated for the first time and compose sensory images' sources and complex images' sources. The animals which have sensations and memories evolve from the animals which have sensations and no memories. Perceptions, associations, feelings, desires, egos, thoughts, and so on contain some recollections of images. Therefore the animals having such functions have sensations and memories. The animals having such functions evolve from the animals which have sensations and memories and none of such functions.
    Therefore sensations or sensations and the functions which could not exist without them can be called "Sensations or More." In addition, sensations and memories or sensations and memories and the functions which could not exist without them can be called "Memories or More."
    The relation of mental emotions→egos→thinkings is the same as that of sensations→memories. For example, all the animals having egos have sensations, memories, mental emotions, and they evolve from the animals having such functions and no egos.
    Human beings have the most complicated memories or more of all the animals so far on the earth. Moreover, on the earth from now on, it is possible that some animals having more complicated memories or more than human beings will evolve from them or from some other animals. From the beginning, human beings can evolve, too.

References

EGOS AND THEIR TENDENCIES

FACING TENDENCIES FALLING INTO A VICIOUS CIRCLE


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