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A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES

  In this book, this "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" is also called "this book". This book, "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" are also called "These Books" or "PSYCHOLOGIES OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES OR MORE". These books, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "A SEPARATION OF POWERS FOR EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", and "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENRAL THINGS" are also called "All the Books in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET" or These Books.

THINGS IN THEMSELVES AND APPEARING THINGS

THINGS IN THEMSELVES AND APPEARING THINGS

  Things excluding the time are completely divided into things in themselves and appearing things as will be explained below. That is, there are no remains or overlaps after they are divided.
  Materials, material functions, bodies, bodily functions, neural systems, neural functions, neural cells, neural cells' excitements and transmissions, molecules, atoms, nuclei, neutrons, protons, electrons, universal gravitation, electrostatic force, magnetic force, vacuum, the space in itself, and so on can be called "Things in Themselves".
  Sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, tastes, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, images, ideas, and so on can be called "Appearing Things". They can also be called "Phenomena" or Mental Phenomena. However, we need to distinguish things appearing to me, things appearing to you, things which appeared in the past, things which will appear in the future, things appearing to me at present, things appearing to each of us at the then present, and so on. Accordingly, they are called Appearing Things in these books.
  Appearing things include things appearing on sensations, things appearing as images, and so on. Things appearing on sensations include things appearing on visual sensations, things appearing on auditory sensations, and so on. For example, a sight is a thing appearing on a visual sensation, and a sound is a thing appearing on an auditory sensation. Real things occurring to me, future things expected, past things remembered, and real things imagined are included in things appearing as images. The details of appearing things will be explained in the chapter "APPEARING THINGS."
  The space in itself is included in things in themselves. The appearing space is included in appearing things. For example, in things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, a part of the space is appearing to me at present in front of my personal computer.
  The time in itself is included in things in themselves. The appearing time is included in appearing things. The latter is signs and words like number lines, chronologies, and so on appearing as images. However, like the time in itself exists as the frame of things in themselves, it is premised that the time in itself of appearing things which is different from the appearing time exists as the frame of appearing things. It is premised that it is in such time in itself of appearing things that a large number of things appearing to each of us at the then present continue. It is premised that the time in itself and that of appearing things are the same or overlap. Accordingly, the explanation was done earlier that things "excluding the time" are completely divided into things in themselves and appearing things.

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL THINGS AND THEIR PROPERTIES

  That a thing {has a spatial extent or is a point, a line, or a plane} and {has a temporal extent or is a moment} can be called a thing's being "Spatial and Temporal".
  While things excluding the time are completely divided into things in themselves and appearing things, things excluding space and time are completely divided into spatial and temporal things and their properties which will be explained below.
  A thing which is spatial and temporal, that is, a thing which {has a spatial extent or is a point, line, or plane} and {has a temporal extent or is a moment} can be called a "Spatial and Temporal Thing". For example, materials, bodies, neural systems, neural cells, sights, and sounds are spatial and temporal things.
  Every spatial and temporal thing has some things which are not spatial or temporal. The things which a spatial and temporal thing has and which are not spatial or temporal can be called the "Properties" of the spatial and temporal thing, the Properties which the spatial and temporal thing has, the things which the spatial and temporal thing has as Properties, or the Properties attributed to the spatial and temporal thing. For example, universal gravitation is one of the properties which every material has. Excitements and transmissions are one of the properties attributed to every neural cell. Colors and brightness are two of the properties of everything appearing on a visual sensation, and high-low and loudness are two of the properties of everything appearing on an auditory sensation.
  The things which every spatial and temporal thing has as properties can be called the properties "Attributed to Every" spatial and temporal thing. Every spatial and temporal thing has spatial relative positions, temporal relative positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes as properties, and so they are the properties attributed to every spatial and temporal thing. Moreover, for example, universal gravitation is one of the properties attributed to every material, excitement and transmission is one of the properties attributed to every neural cell. Colors and brightness are two of the properties attributed to every thing appearing on a visual sensation.
  Spatial positions and temporal positions are only relative. When the relativity do not need to be emphasized, spatial relative positions are called "Spatial Positions", and temporal relative positions are called "Temporal Positions" in these books.
  Moreover, most of the properties of spatial and temporal things have some properties. For example, universal gravitation, which is one of the properties attributed to every material, has direction and quantity as properties. Excitement and transmission, which is one of the properties attributed to every neural cell, has frequency and duration as properties. The properties which a property of a spatial and temporal thing has can be called the Properties of a property, the Properties which a property has, the things which a property has as Properties, or the Properties attributed to a property. For example, universal gravitation has direction and quantity as the properties of a property. A neural cell's excitement and transmission has frequency and duration as the properties of a property. Moreover, each of the properties(1) of a spatial and temporal thing often has some properties(2), and each of the properties(2) sometimes have some properties(3), and the same are repeated. Then, (1)(2)(3) and so on can be called First Properties, Second Properties, Third Properties, and so on. For example, universal gravitation is a first property, and its direction and quantity are second properties. A neural cell's excitement and transmission is a first property, and its frequency and duration are second properties. When spatial and temporal things are looked over, it turns out that most of the first properties have some second properties. Not only first properties but also second properties, third properties, and so on can be called Properties. That is, the word "properties" designate not only first properties but also second properties, third properties, and so on.
  It is often unclear whether a property is the first one, a second one, or so of a spatial and temporal thing. For example, even as for universal gravitation, it is thinkable that its mass is the first property of a material, that its universal gravitation is the first property of its mass, and that its universal gravitation is the second property of that material. However, such an argument is of no use in biology, psychology, law, politics, economics, sociology, and so on and daily life other than philosophy, logic, mathematics, physics. Accordingly, first properties, second properties, and so on are approximate in these books.
  Things in themselves and appearing things include their own spatial and temporal things and their own properties.

spatial and temporal thingsproperties
things in themselvesspatial and temporal things in themselvesproperties of spatial and temporal things in themselves
appearing thingsappearing spatial and temporal thingsappearing properties


  The spatial and temporal things which are included in things in themselves can be called Spatial and Temporal Things in Themselves. The space itself and the time itself are included in things in themselves, but neither is included in spatial temporal things in themselves. Materials, bodies, neural systems, and neural cells are included in spatial and temporal things in themselves.
  The properties of spatial temporal things which are included in things in themselves can be called Properties of spatial and temporal things in themselves or Properties in themselves.
  Every spatial and temporal thing in itself has spatial positions, temporal positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, their changes as properties in themselves. They are properties in themselves attributed to every spatial and temporal thing in itself. Moreover, spatial and temporal things in themselves excluding vacuums have mass, universal gravitation, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so on as properties in themselves. Material functions, bodily functions, neural functions, and neural cells' excitements and transmissions are included in properties in themselves.
  The spatial and temporal things which are included in appearing things can be called Appearing Spatial and Temporal Things. For example, sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, tastes, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, images, and ideas are appearing spatial and temporal things. It turns out that the example enumerated earlier was an example of appearing spatial and temporal things. However, appearing properties, as will explained below, are included in appearing things. The appearing space and the appearing time are included in appearing things, but neither is included in appearing spatial and temporal things. However, appearing air and appearing vacuum are included in appearing spatial and temporal things. For example, the air appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes in front of another person's body is included in appearing spatial and temporal things.
  The properties of spatial temporal things which are included in appearing things can be called Properties of Appearing Spatial and Temporal Things or Appearing Properties. Every appearing spatial and temporal thing has spatial positions, temporal positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes as appearing properties. They are appearing properties attributed to every appearing spatial and temporal thing. It turns out that they are not only properties in themselves attributed to every spatial and temporal thing in itself but also appearing properties attributed to every appearing spatial and temporal thing. Moreover, for example, colors as qualities and brightness as a quantity are included in properties appearing on a visual sensation, high-low as a quality and loudness as a quantity are included in properties appearing on an auditory sensation, and a spatial arrangement like ears→eyebrows→eyes→nose→mouth of another person's face in a sight is included in properties appearing on a visual sensation. Colors and brightness are appearing properties attributed to every spatial and temporal thing appearing on a visual sensation, and high-low and loudness are appearing properties attributed to every spatial and temporal thing appearing on an auditory sensation.
  In such a way, not only appearing spatial and temporal things but also their properties appear. For example, colors and brightness appear on a visual sensation, and high-low and loudness appear on an auditory sensation. Accordingly, the words of "appearing properties" will be used more often than those of "properties of appearing spatial and temporal things" from now on.

WHOLES AND PARTS

  The space has the spatial whole and parts. The time has the temporal whole and parts. For example, the time has the eternity as the temporal whole and has the past, the present, and the future as temporal parts. The whole of the space and that of the time in a true sense are endless. However, a part of them can also be called the whole. For example, a day has the time for 24 hours as the temporal whole and has the morning and the afternoon as temporal parts.
  A spatial and temporal thing has the spatial whole, spatial parts, the temporal whole, and temporal parts. For example, a neural cell has its cellular membrane and its contents as the spatial whole and has a neural body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon diverging into a lot of small ones at its terminal as spatial parts. Things appearing on a visual sensation have the continuity from awakening to falling asleep as the temporal whole and has day sights and night ones as temporal parts.
  While a spatial and temporal thing has the spatial whole and parts and the temporal whole and parts, a property has the whole and parts of its own which are different from them. The latter are not so clear as the former. For example, excitement and transmission which is a property of neural cells has postsynaptic transmission[1], excitement[2], presynaptic transmission[3], and pause[4] as parts of a property, and they are not so clear as a neural body, dendrites, and an axon which are spatial parts of a neural cell.

the wholeparts
spacethe spatial wholespatial parts
timethe temporal wholetemporal parts
a spatial and temporal thingthe spatial whole
the temporal whole
spatial parts
temporal parts
a propertythe whole of the propertyparts of the property


  However, sentences will be complicated if such wholes and parts are always distinguished and specified. Accordingly, unless necessary, the spatial whole or the temporal whole of a spatial and temporal thing, or the whole of a property is also called the Whole of a thing, and the spatial parts or the temporal parts of a spatial and temporal thing, or the parts of a property are also called Parts of a thing in these books. In addition, the whole or a part of a spatial and temporal thing or a property is also called a Spatial and Temporal Thing or a Property in these books. That is, the words "a spatial and temporal thing" or "a property" sometimes designate the whole and sometimes designate a part. In addition, a spatial and temporal thing or a property is also called a Thing in these books. That is, the words "a thing" sometimes designate a spatial and temporal thing and sometimes designate a property. For example, the words "a neural cell's excitement and transmission" sometimes designate [1]-[4] as the whole and sometimes designate post-synaptic transmission[1], excitement[2], presynaptic transmission[3], or pause[4] as a part.

THINGS

  As will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES", after some properties have been grasped and parts which have some properties have been cut, individual images' sources are generated. Accordingly, everything appearing as an image has already got some properties. Accordingly, animals including human beings can perceive and recognize only what have already got some properties. In our daily life and science, the words "a thing" designate a thing which has already got some properties. For example, the word "water" designates a thing which has already got being clear, being fluid, and involving atoms of hydrogen and oxygen as properties. Accordingly, the things including things in themselves, appearing things, spatial and temporal things, properties, first properties, second properties, and so on which have already got some properties can be called "Things". For example, a first property which has already got some second properties can be called a property. Things include things in themselves, appearing things, spatial and temporal things, and properties which were explained earlier.
  Moreover, everything has some properties without which it is not looked upon that thing any longer in our daily life and science. For example, a neural cell which does not have the ability to excite or transmit as a property is not looked upon as a neural cell any longer. The properties without which a thing is not looked upon as that thing any longer in our daily life and science can be called the "Necessary" Properties of or for the thing. For example, the necessary properties of a neural cell are being enclosed in cellular membrane, involving some genes, consisting spatially of a neural body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon diverging into a lot of small ones at its terminal, and having the ability to excite and transmit. However, being a cell, having a neural body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon, and having the ability to excite and transmit are also the necessary properties of a neural cell. In such a way, necessary properties can be represented in various words. Making a dictionary is representing the necessary properties of things in various words. Accordingly, there are various dictionaries.
  When a thing's necessary properties are caused, the thing is caused or generated. When a thing's necessary properties continue, the thing continues. That a thing keeps its necessary properties and gets or loses some other properties is looked upon as the thing's "Changing" or being changed. By definition, such changing is included in continuing. Actually, most things are usually changing. For example, even stone or rock is being eroded little by little.
  A thing's losing some of its necessary properties is looked upon as the thing's being "Changed into" another thing or "Disappearing". For example, a neural cell's losing its ability to excite and transmit is looked upon as the neural cell's being changed into another kind of cell or into a useless cell, or dying.
  A thing's being caused or changing is also called a thing's "Being" or "Existing" or "Being Caused" in these books.
  When a thing causes some other things, it does so directly or indirectly, often indirectly. For example, it is directly that plants' photosynthesis causes oxygen. It is rather indirectly through digestion, absorption, synthesis of protein, and so on that water and food cause animal bodies. However, if the words "directly or indirectly" were always used, sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, unless necessary, such words will be omitted in these books.

MATEIALS AND ITS FUNCTIONS

MATERIALS

  The spatial and temporal things in themselves which consist of some particles like molecules, ions, atoms, neutrons, protons, electrons, and so on and which have some necessary properties can be called "Materials". For example, spatial and temporal things in themselves which consist of particles like molecules, ions, and so on and which have being enclosed in cellular membrane, involving genes, consisting spatially of a neural body, a lot of dendrites, an axon diverging into a lot of small ones at its terminal, and having the ability to excite and transmit as necessary properties can be called neural cells, and they are included in materials.
  Genes, cellular membranes, cells, neural cells, neural systems, bodies, and so on also consist of particles like molecules, ions, and so on. Though they are described as living, having life, or so, they are included in materials. Simply, they are only materials. In bodies, though we look upon neural systems as special things which have mind, spirit, or so, they are included in bodies and in materials.
  Vacuums are also penetrated by some particles like photons. Vacuums have spatial positions and temporal positions as properties. Also about the properties like mass, universal gravitation, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so on, vacuums can be looked upon as having those properties whose quantities are zero ones. In contrast, the space cannot be looked upon as having such properties. Vacuums are different from the space. Accordingly, vacuums are included in materials in these books. When materials are defined in such a way, they are the same as spatial and temporal things in themselves.
  Materials have not only spatial positions, temporal positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes but also mass, universal gravitation, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so on as properties. They are the properties attributed to every material.
  A material's being caused or being changed is also called a material's Being, Existing, or Being Caused in these books.

FUNCTIONS

  As was defined earlier, when a material has some properties and some of the properties have some properties, the former properties can be called first properties, and the latter can be called second properties.
  Every material has some first properties(F) which have the following second properties of (a) and (b).

(a)The whole or part of a property(F) is caused or changed directly or indirectly by the wholes or parts of some other materials or properties' being caused or changed.
(b)The whole or part of a property(F)'s being caused or changed causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other materials or properties directly or indirectly.

  The first properties(F) of a material which have the second properties of (a) and (b) can be called the material's "Functions", the Functions which the material has, the things which the material has as Functions, the Functions attributed to the material, or merely Functions or Material Functions.
  This is a strict definition. The second properties of (a) and (b) can be simplified a little more as follows.
  As was explained earlier, when a thing causes or changes some other things, it do so directly or indirectly, often indirectly. However, if the words "directly or indirectly" were always used, sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, the words are usually omitted in these books, and they are omitted here, too.
  In addition, unless anything is caused or changed, it does not causes or changes any other things, and so strictly, the words "by … being caused or changed" and "…'s being caused or changed" are necessary. However, because such a representation will complicate sentences, the words are usually omitted in these books and are omitted here, too.
  Then, (a) and (b) are simplified as follows.

(a')The whole or part of a property(F) is caused or changed by the wholes or parts of some other materials or properties.
(b')The whole or part of a property(F) causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other materials or properties.

  Simply, the first properties(F) of a material which have the second properties of (a') and (b') can be called the material's Functions, the Functions which the material has, the things which the material has as a Functions, the Functions attributed to the material, or merely Functions or Material Functions.
  Moreover, if the words of "being caused or changed" and "cause or change" were always used, sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, being caused or changed and causing or changing are also called Being Caused and Causing in these books. Then, (a)(b) are more simplified as follows.

(a'')The whole or part of a property(F) is caused by the wholes or parts of some other materials or properties.
(b'')The whole or part of a property(F) causes the wholes or parts of some other materials or properties.

  Every material has some functions. Every material has universal gravitation as a property. The whole of its universal gravitation is changed by the wholes of all the other materials', and the whole of its universal gravitation changes the whole of all the other materials'. Accordingly, every material has universal gravitation as a function, and universal gravitation is included in functions. Every neural cell has excitement and transmission as a property. The whole or part of its excitement and transmission are caused by the whole of some other neural cells' or sensory cells', and the whole of its excitement and transmission causes the wholes or parts of some other neural cells', muscle cells' excitements and contractions, or secretory cells' excitements and secretions. Accordingly, every neural cell has excitement and transmission as a function, and excitement and transmission are included in functions.
  The functions which materials, bodies, a neural systems, and so on have can be called material functions, bodily functions, neural functions, and so on. Functions and material functions are the same. (Material) Functions include bodily functions and neural functions. Human functions include walking upright on two legs, running alike, doing the crawl, the butterfly, and so on, speaking words, writing words, calculating, playing, studying, working, and interpersonal functions.
  Again, the whole or part of a function is caused or changed by the wholes or parts of some other materials or properties and causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other materials and properties. After all, the other materials and functions by the wholes or parts of which the whole or part of a function is caused or changed directly or indirectly are endless, and we cannot enumerate all of them. For example, when we enumerate the other materials and functions by the wholes or parts of which the whole or part of a neural cell's excitement and transmission is caused, they include some other neural cells and sensory cells' excitements and transmissions, photons, sound waves, physical or chemical stimuli, and what cause or change them, and so they are endless. In addition, the other materials and functions the wholes or parts of which a function causes or changes directly or indirectly are endless, and we cannot enumerate all of them. For example, when we enumerate the other materials and functions the wholes or parts of which the whole of a neural cell's excitement and transmission causes or changes, they include some other neural cells' excitements and transmissions, muscle cells' excitements and contractions, secretory cells' excitements and secretions, sensations, memories, voluntary movements, involuntary movements, and what are caused or changed by them, and so they are endless. In our daily life and science, the self-evident of such endless things are omitted. Also in these books, the self-evident have been omitted and will be omitted. For example, when neural cells' excitements and transmissions are explained, the supply of oxygen and glucose is omitted as self-evident.
  As was explained earlier, every property has the whole or parts of its own, and functions are included in properties. Accordingly every function has the whole or parts of its own.

NEURAL CELLS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

  A neural cell consists spatially of a neural body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon diverging into a lot of small ones at its terminal.
  Sensory cells include not only sensory cells in skins, bones, striated muscles, mucous membranes, and so on in a narrow sense but also visual cells, auditory cells, taste cells, and so on in these books.
  Muscle cells include striated muscle cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiac muscle cells. Secretory cells include endocrine cells and exocrine cells.
  A neural cell stretches an "Axon" long, the axon diverges one after another into a lot of small ones, and many "Axonal Terminals" come most close to a lot of parts of the cellular membranes of some other neural cells, muscle cells, or secretory cells. In this way, one axon diverges one after another into a lot of small ones, and so one neural cell comes close to not always one but sometimes more than one neural cell, muscle cell, or secretory cell.
  Though a sensory cell does not have such long processes as a neural cell has as an axon, a sensory cell stretches some processes, such processes diverge into a lot of small ones, and many terminals come most close to a lot of parts of the cellular membranes of some neural cells. Such a process of a sensory cell is also called an Axon, and such terminals are also called Axonal Terminals, as a neural cell's are called so, in these books.
  An axonal terminal of the neural cell(1) which stretches its axon, a part of the cellular membranes of the neural cell(2) which (1) comes close to, and the clefts between them can be called a "Synapse", and such a cleft can be called a "Synaptic Cleft". By the way, synaptic clefts are not full of air but full of intercellular fluid. Of course, the inner part of a cell is full of intracellular fluid.
  In each of such synapses, when many neurotransmitters are released from the axonal terminal of (1) to the synaptic cleft, they bind to a lot of receptors on the cellular membrane of (2).
  In such ways, a neural cell or a sensory cell comes close to some other neural cells, muscle cells, or secretory cells and forms a lot of synapses. That can be called a neural cell or a sensory cell's "Joining" to some other neural cells, muscle cells, or secretory cells. In addition, a neural cell, a muscle cell, or a secretory cell has some other neural cells or sensory cells come close to itself and has them form a lot of synapses. That can be called a neural cell, a muscle cell, or a secretory cell's "Being Joined to by" some other neural cells or sensory cells. After all, a neural cell is joined to by some other neural cells or sensory cells, and joins to some other neural cells, muscle cells, or secretory cells.
  Some other neural cells or sensory cells which a neural cell is joined to by can be called the neural cell's "Presynaptic Cells", and some other neural cells, muscle cells, or secretory cells which a neural cell join to can be called the neural cell's "Postsynaptic Cells". After all, a neural cell is joined to by some presynaptic cells, and joins to some postsynaptic cells. In such a way, one neural cell is joined to by not always one but sometimes more than one presynaptic cell and joins to not always one but sometimes more than one postsynaptic cell.
  The above is when a neural cell is paid attention to. In contrast, the following is when a synapse is paid attention to.
  In each of a lot of such synapses, each of the cells which join to can be called a "Presynaptic" Cell, and its materials, functions, or so can be called Presynaptic Materials, Presynaptic Functions, or so, and each of the cells which are joined to can be called a "Postsynaptic" Cell, and its materials, functions, or so can be called "Postsynaptic" Materials, Postsynaptic Functions, or so.
  In every cell including neural cell, almost constantly, making its cellular membrane a border, the voltage where the intracellular part is comparatively negative and the extracellular part is comparatively positive is generated.
  Every neural cell(N) has the following function[1]-[4].

[1]Postsynaptic Transmission
  The neurotransmitters which are released from the axonal terminals of (N)'s presynaptic cells into the synaptic clefts bind with the receptors on (N)'s membrane, (N)'s intra-extracellular voltages changes, and such voltages are summed including subtraction. This can be called (N)'s "Postsynaptic Transmission" or "Being Transmitted" to by its presynaptic cells.
[1-1]Exceeding of the Threshold
  Some sums of (N)'s intra-extracellular voltages exceed a certain threshold toward their decrease and reversal. This can be called (N)'s "Exceeding of the Threshold" or Exceeding the Threshold.
[1-2]Misfire
  Not a sum of the voltages exceeds the threshold. This can be called (N)'s "Misfire" or Misfiring.

[2]Excitement
  When the exceeding of the threshold[1-1] in [1] is caused, the voltages' changes exceeding the threshold spread around the neural body and the axon as if they burst. This can be called (N)'s "Excitement", Exciting, or being Excited.

[3]Presynaptic Transmission
  The voltages' changes exceeding the threshold reach the axonal terminals of (N), and the neurotransmitters are released from the axonal terminals into the synaptic clefts between (N) and its postsynaptic cells. This can be called (N)'s "Presynaptic Transmission" or "Transmitting" to its postsynaptic cells.
(Moreover, (1)-(4) can be caused in each of (N)'s postsynaptic cells, (1)-(4) can be caused in each of its postsynaptic cells, and the same can be repeated.)

[4]Pause
  Only for milliseconds(thousandths of a second), (N) is not able to excite, but it is able to after milliseconds. That can be called (N)'s "Pause" or "Pausing".

  The above [1-1][2][3][4] can be called a neural cell's "Excitement and Transmission" or "Exciting and Transmitting".
  Let the presynaptic cells of a neural cell(N) be (A),(B)…, and let its postsynaptic cells be (X),(Y)…. The totality of (A)(B)…'s [3]s and (N)'s [1]s can be called the transmission from (A),(B)… to (N), and its being caused can be called (A),(B)…'s transmitting to (N). The totality of (N)'s [3]s and (X),(Y)…'s [1]s can be called the transmission from (N) to (X),(Y)…, and its being caused can be called (N)'s transmitting to (X),(Y)…. Even if (A),(B)… transmit to (N), (N) does not always excite and transmit. When (N)'s [1]s end up with misfire[1-2], (N) does not excite or transmit. In contrast, when (N) exceeds the threshold, that is, when [1-1] is caused, (N) always excites and transmits, except that some unusual things happen like its axon is cut, like neurotransmitters are depleted, and so on.
  A sensory cell is excited by some photons, sound waves, physical and chemical stimuli, and so on and transmits like a neural cell. This can be called a Sensory Cell's Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting.
  A muscle cell excites like a neural cell, transmits to some other muscle cells a bit like a neural cell, and contracts. This can be called a Muscle Cell's Excitement and Contraction or Exciting and Contracting.
  A secretory cell excites like a neural cell, transmits to some other secretory cells a bit like a neural cell, and secretes hormones, mucous, enzymes, and so on. This can be called a Secretory Cell's Excitement and Secretion or Exciting and Secreting.
  When they do not need to be distinguished, neural cells, sensory cells, a muscle cells, and secretory cells are called Neural Cells, and neural cells' excitements and transmissions, sensory cells' excitements and transmissions, muscle cells' excitements and contractions, and secretory cells' excitements and secretions are called Neural Cells' Excitements and Transmissions in these books. That is, sensory cells, muscle cells, and secretory cells are sometimes included in neural cells, and excitements and contractions or excitements and secretions are sometimes included in excitements and transmissions in these books.
  In addition, the words of "excitement and transmission", "transmission", and so on designate concrete and countable functions which each neural cell or neural group has. For example, if there are a hundred neural cells, there can be a hundred or less of excitements and transmissions. Accordingly, those words are used as countable nouns in these books.
  After all, a neural cell can be transmitted to by not always one but sometimes more than one presynaptic cell and can transmit to not always one but sometimes more than one postsynaptic cell.
  The whole [1-1][2][3][4] or the part [1-2] of a neural cell's excitement and transmission is caused by the parts [3] of some presynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions, and the part [3] of a neural cell's excitement and transmission causes the wholes [1-1][2][3][4] or parts [1-2] of some postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions. Accordingly, neural cells' excitements and transmissions are functions.
  A neural cell's excitement and transmission as a function has each of [1-1][1-2][2][3][4] as a part of a function. A neural cell's excitement and transmission as a function consists of [1-1][1-2][2][3][4] as parts of a function.
  Like whether a neural cell excites and transmits or ends up with misfire[1-2], some functions are alternative. In contrast, some functions like universal gravitation, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so on are not alternative.
  In some functions, only a part is sometimes caused, like a neural cell sometimes ends up with misfire[1-2]. In addition, it is probable that none of the other materials or functions which the whole can cause are caused only by a part's being caused. For example, in neural cells' excitements and transmissions, no postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions are caused only by misfires' being caused.
  Not only the whole[1-1][2][3][4] but also, at least, each part of [2][3] is a function. That is because, [2] is caused by [1-1], [2] causes [3], and [3] causes [1-1] or [1-2] of some other postsynaptic cells. In such a way, in some functions, some parts are functions.
  When the exceeding of the threshold[1-1] is caused, the following [2][3][4] are caused, and the whole of the excitement and transmission is caused. Even if a neural cell is transmitted to by some other postsynaptic cells, when [1-1] is not caused, the following parts are not caused, the whole is not caused, and it ends up with misfire[1-2]. If its axon was cut or if its neurotransmitters were depleted, its presynaptic transmission[3] would not be caused even if [1-1] is caused. However, the neural cells which have no ability to transmit in such a way do not satisfy the necessary properties of neural cells and can no longer be looked upon as neural cells.
  The above [1-1][2][3][4] is one excitement and transmission continuing for milliseconds. This can be called a neural cell's "One (Super-short-term) Excitement and Transmission" or a neural cell's "Exciting and Transmitting Once (for Super-short time)". Actually, once it is caused, it is repeated at a certain frequency of hundreds times a second continually for seconds. Such a repetition can be called a neural cell's "Short-term (Continual) Repetition" of excitement and transmission or "Repeating (Continually) for Short Time" excitement and transmission. However, such a repetition can also be called a neural cell's Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting, and the words of excitement and transmission usually designate such a short time continual repetition in these books. Short-term continual repetitions need to be clearly distinguished from long-term intermittent repetitions as will be defined later.

NECESSARY FUNCTIONS, OBJECTS, AND PARTS

 As was defined earlier, the properties without which a thing is not looked upon as that thing can be called the Necessary Properties of or for the thing. For example, an excitement and transmission is a necessary property of a neural cell, and a neural cell which cannot excite and transmit cannot be looked upon as a neural cell. Moreover, every material has some functions as necessary properties. The functions which a material has as necessary properties can be called the Necessary Functions of or for the material. For example, every neural cell has excitement and transmission as a necessary function.
  Moreover, a function (first property) has a necessary property(second property) of its wholes or parts' causing or changing the wholes or parts of some other materials or functions. For example, a neural cell's excitement and transmission has a necessary property of its whole's causing the wholes or parts of some postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions. In such a function's necessary property, some other materials or functions can be called the "Necessary Objects" of the function. For example, The necessary objects of a neural cell's excitement and transmission are postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions.
  Moreover, in a function, there is a part without which none of its necessary objects are caused or changed and which directly cause or change its necessary objects. Such a part can be called the Necessary Part of the Function. For example, if a neural cell's [1-1][2][3] is not caused, its postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions are not caused, and [3] cause them directly. Accordingly, the presynaptic transmission[3] is the necessary Part of a neural cell's excitement and transmission.
  By the way, a function's necessary part and its whole are sometimes the same. For example, they are the same in universal gravitation.

DECISIVE PARTS OF FUNCTIONS

  However, actually, when a certain part of a function is caused or changed, its necessary part and its whole are usually caused or changed. For example, in a neural cell's excitement and transmission, actually, when its exceeding of the threshold[1-1] is caused, its whole is caused. In such a way, actually, when a certain part of a function is caused or changed, its necessary part and its whole are caused or changed. Such a part can be called the "decisive" part of the function.
  For example, in a neural cell's excitement and transmission, the exceeding of the threshold[1-1] is its decisive part, and [3]presynaptic transmission is its necessary part. Like this example, they are not always the same.
  The whole, decisive part, and necessary part of a function are sometimes the same. For example, they are so in universal gravitation.

FUNCTIONS' FUNCTIONING

  In a function, that its necessary part is not caused or changed, actually that its decisive part is not caused or changed, and as a result that the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are not caused or changed cannot be called the function's functioning. For example, in a neural cell's excitement and transmission, that its presynaptic transmission[3] is not caused, actually that its exceeding of the threshold[1-1] is not caused, and as a result that the wholes or parts of its postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions are not caused cannot called the neural cell's excitement and transmission's functioning. In contrast, that the necessary part of a function is caused or changed, actually that its decisive part is caused or changed, and as a result that the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are caused or changed can be called the function's "Functioning to" its necessary objects. For example, in a neural cell's excitement and transmission, that its presynaptic transmission[3] is caused, actually that its exceeding of threshold[1-1] is caused, and as a result that the wholes or parts of its postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions are caused can be called the neural cell's excitement and transmission's functioning to its postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions. In addition, when the necessary objects are self-evident, it can be called merely a function's Functioning. For example, a neural cell's excitement and transmission's functioning to its postsynaptic cell's can be called merely the neural cell's excitement and transmission's functioning. In addition, a function's functioning is also called merely a function's Being Caused in these books. That is, the words of a function's being caused designate its functioning in these books. In addition, when the necessary function which a material has is self-evident, it can be called merely a Material's Functioning to some other Materials or merely a Material's Functioning. For example, a neural cell's excitement and transmission's functioning to its postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions can be called merely the neural cell's functioning to its postsynaptic cells or merely the neural cell's functioning.

MATERIALS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

  The words of a material imply its properties including functions. A material needs to be generated and to exist so that its necessary functions can function. For example, a neural cell needs to be generated and to mature so that it can excite and transmit. However, a material which does not function is equal to not existing. For example, though neural cells which cannot excite or transmit have something to do with metabolism because they consume oxygen and glucose, they are equal to not existing for the neural functions. The following usage will be done when such functions need to be emphasized.
  A material and the properties including functions which the material has are also called the "Material and its Material Functions", the Material and its Function, or the Material in these books. A body and the properties including functions which the body has, a neural system and the properties including functions which the neural system has, or so are also called a "Body and its Bodily Function", or a Body and its Functions, or a Body, a "Neural System and its Neural Functions", or a Neural System and its Functions, or a Neural System, or so in these books.
  When the above have been defined so, the following can be said. The words "materials and their functions" designate all the things in themselves excluding space and time.
  Usually, a function is functioned to by some other functions and functions to some other functions, and the same are repeated. This is the substance of what is called "cause and effect". For example 1, a material's universal gravitation is functioned to by all other materials' and functions to all other materials', and the same are repeated. For example 2, a neural cell's excitement and transmission is functioned to by some presynaptic cells' and functions to some postsynaptic cells', and the same are repeated. Even when they go out of their neural system, they cause or change the individual's interpersonal functions, and they cause or change some other persons' neural functions, and the same are repeated.
  As was defined earlier, a material's being caused or being changed is also called the material's Being, Existing, or Being Caused in these books. In addition a function's causing or changing the wholes or parts of its necessary objects can be called the function's functioning. A material's existing and its necessary functions' functioning is also called as follows in these books.

a material or its functions' Existing and Functioning
a material's Existing and Functioning
a material and its functions' Being Caused or Changed
or a material and its functions' Being Caused

The same usage is used for a body and its bodily functions, neural system and its neural functions, and so on. For example, a neural cell's being generated, maturing, and exciting and transmitting are a neural cell's existing and functioning.

POSSIBILITIES

  The possibility of a material or a function's existing or functioning can be called the Possibility of the material or the function.
  The possibility of some materials or functions' existing or functioning involves those of some other materials and functions' existing and functioning. For example, the possibility of a neural cell's exciting and transmitting involves those of some presynaptic cells' exciting and transmitting, the supply of oxygen, glucose, and so on's existing and functioning.

SITUATIONS AND THE NATURE

  Living things, living functions, animals, animal functions, individuals, individual functions, human beings, human functions, and so on will be explained closely later. Before they are explained, the nature and situations will be explained.
  As was explained above, the possibility of some materials or functions' existing or functioning involves those of some other materials and functions' existing and functioning. Such other materials and functions can be called the "Situation" of or for the materials or functions. In addition, the situation for some living things or living functions can be called the "Nature" of or for them. For example, the sun, the earth, sunlight, oxygen, carbon dioxide, the photosynthesis by plants, the food chain from microorganisms and plants to some other animals, and so on are the nature for a species of animals. The nature of some living things or living functions includes some other living ones. For example, the nature for human beings includes a lot of other animals, plants, microorganisms, and their functions. In addition, the nature for some of a species of living things includes some other living things of the same species and their functions. For example, the nature for human individual includes some other human beings and their interpersonal functions.
  However, it is impossible to enumerate all the materials and functions involved in the nature or a situation. For example, when we enumerate all the materials and functions involved in a neural cell's nature, it involve some presynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions, the supply of oxygen, glucose, and so on, the palpitation of the heart, the respiration, the digestion and absorption of food, the chain of food, and so on, and they are endless.
  In addition, it is impossible to enumerate all the materials and functions that a material or a function causes or changes. For example, when we enumerate the materials and functions which a neural cell's excitement and transmission causes or changes, they involve some postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions, the consumption of oxygen, glucose, and so on, sensations, memories, involuntary movements, voluntary movements, interpersonal functions, other persons' interpersonal functions, home, society, the nature for a species of human beings, and so on, and they are endless.
  Accordingly, in our daily life and science, out of them, those which are not self-evident are enumerated, and the others are omitted. All the books in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET have done and will do the same. For example, the supply or consumption of oxygen, glucose, and so on, the palpitation of the heart, the respiration, the digestion and absorption of food, the chain of food, and so on will be omitted when we explain neural cells' excitements and transmissions or neural functions. All the same, if they did not exist or function, neural cells, systems, and functions could not exist or function.

ABILITIES

  In contrast to possibility, we can grasp the possibility of a material or a function's existing or functioning which is intrinsic to that material or function. It can be called the "Ability" or "Capability" for the material or the function to exist or function, the Ability or Capability of the material or the function, the Ability or Capability which the material or the function has, the thing which the material or the function has as an Ability or a Capability, the Ability or Capability attributed to the material or the function, the "Activity" of the material or the function. Because a material or a function's ability is the possibility which is intrinsic to that material or function, it does not involve the abilities of any other materials or functions. For example 1, the time of 100m and 10000m running, the change of the frequency of heart's palpitation and lungs' respiration and the concentration of blood oxygen before and after running, and so on are a sample of the ability for a human being to run. It does not involve the cheers of his or her friends or family, what or how much the prize is, or so. However, the ability to bring his or her physical condition best, stress resistant personality, and so on may be involved in the ability to run in big races. For example 2, the ability for a neural cell to excite and transmit is being joined to by some presynaptic cells, having a lot of receptors in its cellular membrane, stretching its dendrites and axon, joining to some postsynaptic cells, releasing a lot of neurotransmitters, and so on. It does not involve the ability for its presynaptic cells to excite and transmit, the ability for the body to supply oxygen and glucose, or so. However, it may involve the ability for that neural cell to take in oxygen, glucose, and so on. However, they are important but self-evident abilities of neural cells. Such self-evident abilities will be omitted in these books.
  The abilities of human functions include the ability to walk upright on two legs, to run alike, to do the crawl, the butterfly, and so on, to speak words, to write words, to think, to memorize, to calculate, to play, to study, to work, and that of interpersonal functions.
  The increase of the ability of a material or a function can be called the "Activation" of the material or the function or the material or the function's being Activated.
  When the main necessary function which a material has is self-evident, the ability, activity, activation, or so of the function can be called the ability, activity, activation, or so of the material. For example, the ability(activity) of a neural cell's excitement and transmission can be called the ability(activity) of the neural cell.

ACTIVITIES OF NEURAL CELLS

  Speaking a little more closely, the activity of a neural cell is being joined to by some presynaptic cells, having a lot of activated receptors in its cellular membrane, stretching its dendrites and an axon, joining to some postsynaptic cells, releasing a lot of activated neurotransmitters, and so on. In this way, not only neural cells but also neurotransmitters and receptors have their activities. Their activities are the abilities to change the intra-extracellular voltage.
  A neural cell's activity is decreased temporarily for seconds or less by the short-term continual repetition which was explained earlier, that is, simply, excitement and transmission. However, the activity is increased by the short-term continuous repetition's being repeated intermittently for the long time from seconds to years. Simply, repetitions are important. In contrast, the activity is decreased without such repetition. Simply, unless an animal uses its head, it goes dull. Such a long-term intermittent repetition of short-term continuous repetition can be called a neural cell's excitement and transmission's "Long-Term Intermittent Repetition" or Being Repeated intermittently for a long time. A neural cell's activity is increased by such repetition and is decreased by little or no repetition. Mainly, such repetition increases the ability of memory as will be explained later and the habits as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". Simply, the neural cells are spoiled when they do not excite and transmit. The same applies to striated muscles except for overwork. Simply, unless they are used, they are weakened. The same also apply to bones to a degree but in a different way. In contrast, the same does not apply to smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilages, joints, and so on. Please pay attention to their distinction. For example 1, when you hurt a joint of yours a little, it is better to strengthen the striated muscles surrounding that joint and to protect that joint. For example 2, when you really hurt your heart, it is better to refrain extreme exercise any longer.
  When you suffer the death or loss of some part of the neural cells in your central neural system through cerebrovascular disorder, operation for brain tumor, and so on, it is better to activate the remainder of your neural cells with early rehabilitation. This also demonstrates the importance of the activation of neural cells. However, the recovery of neural functions in such a case have some limitations. This demonstrates localizations of neural functions to certain areas of a neural system to a degree. Actually, a lot of such localizations have been demonstrated by the clinical cases of organic disorders of central neural systems. That is because organic disorders can be visible by anatomy and visualization like computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, cerebral angiography, and so on.

PROMOTIONS⇔RESTRAINTS

  The words of "excitement and transmission", "transmission", "activity", and "activation" explained earlier, "promotion" and "restraint" which will be explained below, and so on designate countable functions which each neural cell, neural group, or so has. For example, if there are ten presynaptic cells, there can be ten or less promotions, restraints, or their mixture for a neural cell, and it is a problem which is larger, the number of promotions or that of restraints. Accordingly, they are used as countable nouns in these books.
  By the whole or part of a function[P]'s being caused or changed, when wholes or parts of some other materials or functions are caused or changed or when the possibility of their being caused or changed gets larger, the function[P] can be called the "Promotion", Prompt, Promoting Function, or Prompting Function for the other materials or functions or the function[P]'s Promoting or Prompting the other materials or functions.
  In contrast to promotions, by the whole or part of a function[R]'s being caused or changed, when the wholes or parts of some other materials or functions are not caused or changed or when the possibility of their being caused or changed gets smaller, the function[R] can be called the "Restraint" or Restraining Function for the other materials or functions or the function[R]'s Restraining the other materials or functions.
  Most functions promotes some functions and restrains some other ones. For example, most neural cells' excitements and transmissions promotes some postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions and restrains some other cells' functions by the consumption of oxygen, glucose, and so on.
  When a neural cell's transmission[NP] promotes some postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions through promoting the exceeding of the threshold, [NP] can be called the Promotion, Prompt, Promoting Transmission, or Prompting Transmission for the postsynaptic cells or a neural cell's Promoting or Prompting the postsynaptic cells.
  In contrast to promoting transmissions, when a neural cell's transmission[NR] restrains some postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions through restraining the exceeding of the threshold, [NR] can be called the Restraint or Restraining Transmission for the postsynaptic cells or a neural cell's Restraining the postsynaptic cells.
  The neural cells' transmissions which release GABA's as neurotransmitters and target GABA-receptors as receptors are restraining transmissions, and most of the others are promoting transmissions.
  A neural cell is often joined to by more than one presynaptic cell and sometimes gets a mixture of promoting and restraining transmissions. In such a case, a neural cell which has got more promoting ones usually excites and transmits, and another which has got more restraining ones usually does not excite or transmit. However, it depends also on the quantity of voltage of each transmission.

FUNCTIONS' STOPS

  In contrast to a function's functioning, a function's not functioning, that is, its necessary part's not being caused or changed can be called the function or the material's Stop or Stopping. A function's stop includes its necessary part's not being caused and some other parts' being caused. Of course, it includes no parts' being caused. For example, a neural cell's stop includes postsynaptic transmission[1]'s being caused but presynaptic transmission[3]'s not being caused, that is, misfire[1-2]'s being caused. Of course, it include even misfire[1-2]'s not being caused.
  The functions' stops, above all, neural cells' stops are very important. As will be explained in the chapters below, because some of the actually joined neural cells in a neural group excite and transmit and the others stop, it is premised that the subtle quantities in sights, sounds, pain, and so on appears. If all the neural cells in a neural group either excited and transmitted or stopped, sights would be completely white or black in all the visual field, sounds would be piercingly loud or deadly silent in all the high-low, and the pain would be terribly severe or boringly senseless in all the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendon. In addition, because some of the actually joined neural cells in a neural group excite and transmit and the others stop, it is premised that what is called form or shape appears. For example, so that a tree can appear on a visual sensation, the neural cells which transmit the sky need to excite and transmit at the highest density, those which transmit the parts of the tree which get sunlight need to at higher density, and those which transmit its shadow need to at lower density.
  In such a way, most functions' stops can be looked upon as functions. Functions' stops which are looked upon as functions are included in functions in these books.
  As was explained earlier functions include restraints. That some functions restrain some other functions and that the latter stop can be called the former's stopping the latter. For example 1, that a neural cell releasing the neurotransmitters of GABA restrains some postsynaptic cells and that the latter stop is the former's stopping the latter. For example 2, that democratic systems and separations of powers restrain despotism and that the latter stop is the former's stopping the latter.

FUNCTIONS' AROUSALS

  That a part of a function which can cause or change its necessary part is caused or changed can be called the function's "Arousal" or Arising. A function's arousal includes that its necessary part is not caused or changed and that another part is caused or changed, and so it overlaps with a stop. Simply, it is probable that a function is not caused and stops even if it arises. A function's arising does not always mean its being caused. For example, that a neural cell's postsynaptic transmission[1] is caused is its excitement and transmission's arising. Even if it is caused, when the misfire[1-2] is caused and when the exceeding of the threshold[1-1] is not caused, presynaptic[3] transmission is not caused, and the neural cell does not excite or transmit and does stop. That is, a function's arising does not always mean its functioning.
  The following is the most important example of arousals. As will be explained later, though a lot of images' sources arise, a certain number(n) or less of them are recollected. This is the substance of our daily thought that we cannot think of two or more things at once.
  The following is the case as long as neural cells' excitements and transmissions and some other living functions are concerned. If no pause[4] was caused and if presynaptic transmission[3] was caused, the neural cell could transmit to and function to its postsynaptic cells. However, it is impossible for [1-1][2][3] to be caused and for [4] not to be caused. Actually, the whole of [1-1][2][3][4]'s being caused is a neural cell's exciting and transmitting, transmitting, and functioning. Simply, they are the same.

COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE STOPS

  In contrast to a function's arising, a function's not arising, that is, that neither its necessary part nor the parts that can cause it is caused or changed can be called the function's "Complete" Stop or Completely Stopping.
  In contrast to a function's complete stop, a function's arising and not functioning, that is, that some of the parts that can cause its necessary part is caused or changed and that its necessary part is not caused or changed can be called a function's "Incomplete" Stop or Stopping.
  Though the word of "incomplete" may make a bad impression, as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS", each of us need to stop the functions falling into a vicious circle not completely but incompletely in order to decrease the habits falling into a vicious circle.

LIVING THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

LIVING THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

  The materials which have the property of synthesizing some macromolecules like proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates and that of reproducing some materials which have the same necessary properties can be called "Living Things".
  For example, a gene has the property of synthesizing proteins and that of reproducing itself, and is a living thing. A cellular membrane has the property of synthesizing lipid and proteins by taking in lipids, enzymes, and so on, has that of reproducing itself by spreading and dividing, and is a living thing. Living things include genes, cellular membranes, cells, bodies, individuals, and so on.
  The functions which living things have can be called Living Functions. Living functions include biogenesis, reproduction, growth, aging, death, gathering, evolution, and so on.
  A living thing and the properties including functions which the living thing has can be called the "Living Thing and its Living Functions", the Living Thing and its Functions, or the Living Thing.
  A living thing and its functions' existing and functioning can be called its "Living" or "Life". A living thing and its function's coming to exist and function can be called its "Being Borne" or "Birth", and its coming not to exist or function can be called its "Dying" or "Death". For example, not only individuals but also cells which compose individuals are dying sooner or later.
  Living things are included in materials, and living functions in material functions. However, materials excluding living things can also be called Materials, and material functions excluding living functions can also be called Material Functions.

INDIVIDUALS

  There exist and function some living things which can be living things when they are spatially separated from the other living things. The living things which can be living things when they are spatially separated from the other living things can be called "Individuals". Most animals like insects, fishes, birds, dogs, cats, monkeys, human beings, and so on which are found in our daily life are individuals.

BODIES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

  There exist and function some individuals whose functions of sensations and images' recollections are premised on causing some appearing things and which have motor functions. Such individuals can be called "Bodies" or "Animals". For example, it is premised that things appearing on a visual sensation are caused by a neural group's excitement and transmission from the retinae via optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, eye balls can move, and an individual having such functions is a body or an animal.
  Organs, tissue, cells, neural systems, neural groups, neural cells, and so on are parts of a body.
  The functions which a body has can be called Bodily Functions or Physical Functions. Bodily functions include expansion and contraction of hearts, blood vessels, and lungs, neural groups' excitements and transmissions, muscular groups' excitements and contractions, secretory groups' excitements and secretions, involuntary movements, voluntary movements, sensations, memories.
  A body and the properties including functions which the living thing has can be called the "Body and its Bodily Functions", the Body and its Functions, the Body.

ANIMALS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

  Bodies can also be called "Animals", Animal Bodies, or Animal Individuals, and bodily functions can also be called an Animal functions. However, in daily life, the word of bodies is used for the contrast with minds or spirits and does not imply them or appearing things. In contrast, the word of animals and that of human beings can imply them. Accordingly, a body and its functions and the appearing things which some parts of them are premised on causing can be called an Animal and its Animal Functions, an Animal and its Functions, or an Animal. That is, the words of an animal and its functions are different from those of a body and its functions in that the former sometimes imply appearing things.

HUMAN BEINGS AND HUMAN FUNCTIONS

  A Body which belongs to the animal species of "Homo sapience" can be called a "Human Being", Human Body, or Human Individual, and the functions which human beings have can be called "Human Functions", and a human being and the properties including functions which the human being has can be called the "Human being and its Human Function", the Human Being and its Functions, or the Human Being. Moreover, for the same reason about animals, a human being and its functions and the appearing things which some parts of them are premised on causing can be called the "Human Being and its Human Function", a Human Being and its Functions, a Human Being, a Human Individual, an Individual, an Individual Person, or Each of Us. That is, the word of a human being and its function sometimes imply some appearing things.
  The human functions include the bodily functions enumerated earlier and walking upright on two legs, running alike, doing the crawl, doing the butterfly, speaking words, writing words, calculating, playing, studying, working, and interpersonal functions.
  Materials include living things, living things include bodies(=animals), and bodies include human beings. Material functions include living functions, living functions include bodily functions(=animal functions), and bodily functions include human functions. Materials and their functions include living things and their functions, living things and their functions include bodies and their functions(=animals and their functions), bodies and their functions include human beings and their functions.

NEURAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

  An organ which consists of neural cells, sensory cells, and neuroglial cell, cerebrospinal fluid, dura maters, pia maters, arachnoid membranes, and so on which support neural cells and sensory cells can be called a "Neural System". Not only central nerves systems but also peripheral nerves ones and autonomic nerves ones are included in neural systems, and not only neural cells and neural groups but also sensory cells, sensory group, and sensory organs are included in neural systems in these books.
  The following are called "Neural Groups" in these books.

UNITARY NEURAL GROUPS

  A group of neural cells where neural bodies assemble into what is called a nucleus and the axons bunch into what is called a nerve can be called a "Unitary Neural Group".
  Each neural cell in a unitary neural group is joined to by some neural cells in some other unitary neural groups. This can be called the unitary neural group's Being Joined to by some other neural groups. Each neural cell in a neural group joins to some other neural cells in some other unitary neural groups. This can be called the unitary neural group's Joining to some other neural groups.

SENSORY GROUPS

  Though a sensory cell does not have such a long process as a neural cell has as an axon, it joins to some neural cells and has an ability to transmit to them in the same way as a neural cell does.
  A group of sensory cells can be called a "Sensory Group".
  A sensory group joins to some unitary neural groups in the same way as a neural group does. Such sensory cells are included in neural cells, and such sensory groups are included in unitary neural groups in these books.
  However, not a neural group in a narrow sense joins to any sensory groups. A sensory group is metaphorically a starter in a joined neural group as will be defined in the following sections.

JOINED NEURAL GROUPS

  Linear neural groups, diverging neural groups, converging neural groups, and pairs of neural groups which will be explained below and their mixture are called "Joined Neural Groups" in these books.

LINEAR NEURAL GROUPS

  When one unitary neural group[A] joins to another unitary neural group[B], [B] joins to another unitary neural group[C] and when the same are repeated, [A][B][C]… can be called a "Linear Neural Group".

NEURAL WAYS

  When one unitary neural group or sensory neural group[A] joins to another unitary neural group[B], [B] joins to another unitary neural group[C], [C] joins to another unitary neural group, a muscle group, or a secretory group[D], [B][C] can be called the "Neural Way" from [A] to [D].

DIVERGING NEURAL GROUPS

  When a unitary neural group[A] joins to unitary neural groups[B][B'] whose number is the same as or larger than [A], [B][B'] joins to unitary neural groups[C][C'][C''] whose number is the same as or larger than [B][B'] and when the same are repeated, [A][B][B'][C][C'][C'']… can be called a "Diverging" or "Diffusing" Neural Group. Here, diffusing is wilder than diverging in these books.
  For example, the neural groups which individual images' generated sources go through as will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES" are diverging neural groups, and the neural groups which impulses go through as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS" are diffusing neural groups.

CONVERGING NEURAL GROUPS

  When a unitary neural group[Z] is joined to by unitary neural groups[Y][Y'] whose number is the same as or larger than [Z], [Y][Y'] are joined to by unitary neural groups[X][X'][X''] whose number is the same as or larger than [Y][Y'] and when the same are repeated, [Z][Y][Y'][X][X'][X'']… can be called a "Converging" Neural Group.
  For example, the neural groups from the unitary neural groups which store individual images' sources to the neural groups which replay sources as will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES" are converging neural groups. Accordingly, though a lot of individual images' sources arise, a number(n) or less of them are recollected.

PAIRS OF NEURAL GROUPS

  In each of most neural systems, there are some pairs of neural groups, and the two neural groups composing each pair are almost the same though some of them cross and some join to each other. For example, in each of most vertebrates' neural systems, there is a pair of neural groups from the retinae via optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes though the pair crosses. Such pairs of neural groups are included in neural groups and in joined neural groups in these books.
  As will be explained later, it is premised that a pair of neural groups' excitements and transmissions and some processing functions cause things appearing beyond sensory organ. For example, your face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes seems to be in the position beyond my eyes. In contrast, when I close my right eye, your face appearing on a visual sensation with my left eye seems to be in the position of my left eye. In addition, because neural groups compose a pair, an individual which suffer disorder in one of the pair sometimes maintains life. That also applies to eyes, ears, lungs, kidneys, limbs, testicles, ovaries, and so on. In addition, because neural groups compose a pair also in the cerebrum, the dominant hemisphere is questioned. For example, in a right handed person, the left one is often dominant. In this case, even when the right one suffer some disorder, mental and bodily functions sometimes do not suffer serious disorder.

NEURAL GROUPS

  Unitary neural groups, sensory groups, joined neural groups, pairs of neural groups as were explained above are called "Neural Groups" in these books. That is, neural groups sometimes include sensory groups in these books.

SERIES OF ACTUALLY JOINED NEURAL CELLS

  In a joined neural group, not all the neural cells join directly or indirectly. If all did so, for example, a spot in the retina might become all the field in the visual area on the occipital lobe.
  In a neural group, the neural cells which actually join directly or indirectly can be called a "Series of Actually Joined Neural Cells".

A SPATIALLY RETAINED NEURAL GROUP

  When a joined neural group is cut in round slices, it turns out that each series of actually joined neural cells has a spatial relative position in the slices as a property. Unless neural cells join to or are joined to in one-to-many way or in many-to-one way again and again and unless each nerve is what is called tangled, the spatial relative position of each series of actually joined neural cells is retained to a degree. A joined neural group where the spatial relative position of each series of actually joined neural cells is retained in such a way can be called a "Spatially Retained" Neural Group.
  The spatially retained neural groups' excitements and transmissions are one of the main properties of neural sources of appearing things as will be explained later. Otherwise, for example, it is premised that some things appearing on a visual sensation would be distorted. For example, a circle might become a curve like an ameba.

NEURAL FUNCTIONS

  The function which a neural system has can be called "Neural Functions". Neural functions include neural cells' excitements and transmissions, neural groups' excitements and transmissions, sensations, memories.
  It is premised that some parts of neural functions cause appearing things directly, and more in detail that some parts of neural groups' excitements and transmissions cause appearing things.

NEURAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

  The totality of the excitements and transmissions and stops of the neural cells or sensory cells which belong to a neural group can be called the Neural Group's Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting. In a neural group's excitement and transmission, some series of actually joined neural cells excite and transmit, and others do not, that is, stop. In contrast, in a series of actually joined neural cells, all the neural cells either excite and transmit or stop. The excitements and transmissions or stops of the neural cells or sensory cells that belong to a series of actually joined neural cells can be called the Series of Actually Joined Neural Cells' Excitement and Transmission or Stop or Exciting and Transmitting or Stopping.
  The totality of the presynaptic transmissions of the neural cells or sensory cells which belong to the unitary neural group which is, so to speak, an anchor in a joined neural group can be called the neural groups' Presynaptic Transmission or Transmitting.
  The totality of the postsynaptic transmissions of the neural cells or sensory cells which belong to the unitary neural group which is, so to speak, a starter in a joined neural group can be called a joined neural groups' Postsynaptic Transmission or Being Transmitted.

SELECTIVE NEURAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

  In the excitement and transmission of a spatially retained neural group which were explained earlier, the spatial relative positions and arrangements of series of actually joined neural cells' excitements and transmissions or stops are retained. Simply, they transmit their forms or shapes as they are. For example, a square is transmitted as it is and a circle is transmitted as it is. The excitement and transmission of a spatially retained neural group where the spatial relative positions and arrangements of series of actually joined neural cells' excitements and transmissions or stops are retained can also be called a "Selective" Neural Group's Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting and the contrary can be called a "Non-Selective" neural group's Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting.
  Neural groups' selective excitements and transmissions are one of the main properties of neural sources of appearing things as will be explained later. Otherwise, for example 1, it is premised that some things appearing on a visual sensation would be distorted, and that the spatial positions and arrangements of some pain on the skins appearing on a somatic sensation would be confused. In such ways, neural groups' excitements and transmissions causing sensations and recollections of images need to be selective ones.
  In contrast, neural groups' excitements and transmissions which cause smooth muscles' contractions or endocrine glands' secretions do not need to be selective ones. However, actually, they are also selective though they are not as selective as the former. That is because it takes more energy for joined neural groups to tangle and because their tangling means that they are no more functioning. Metaphorically, every joined neural group is in order like the fibers of a stalk of asparagus. Actually, if you experience anatomy, you will see that what is called "nerves" resemble canned asparagus in color and touch.

NEURAL GROUPS' INSTANT EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

  In every neural group, the differences among the times of series of actually joined neural cells' excitements and transmissions are of milliseconds (thousandths of a second). Such a neural group's excitement and transmission can be called the neural group's "Instant" Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting Instantly.
  In a neural group's instant excitement and transmission, the temporal positions, arrangements, and changes of the series of actually joined neural cells' excitements and transmissions are retained.
  In addition, in a neural group's instant excitement and transmission, the frequencies of neural cells' excitements and transmissions are retained.
  Neural groups' instant excitements and transmissions are one of the main properties of neural sources of appearing things. Otherwise, it is premised that, for example, the limbs' movement of a running animal of forelimbs forward and hindlimbs backward then forelimbs backward and hindlimbs forward and so on appearing on a visual sensation might become that of forelimbs forward and hindlimbs forward then forelimbs backward and hindlimbs backward and so on.

NEURAL GROUPS' ACTIVITY

  The totality of the activity or activation of the neural cells in a neural group can be called a Neural Group's Activity or Activation.

APPEARING THINGS

APPEARING THINGS

  As was explained earlier, sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, taste, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, images, ideas, brightness or darkness, loudness or silence, and so on can be called "Appearing things". Appearing things' existing or being premised on existing can be called things' "Appearing" or appearing thing's Appearing. For example, the display of my personal computer, its keyboard, my hands striking it are appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, the sounds of striking the keyboard are appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears, and slight hunger is appearing on an autonomic sensation to me as a writer of this book at present.
  The whole of appearing things appears, and its parts appear. For example, though its periphery is vague, the whole of things appearing on a visual sensation appears as what is called a visual field. Of course, its central part appears clearly. Accordingly, the whole or a part of appearing things can be called the "Appearing Whole" or an "Appearing part". In addition, the appearing whole or an appearing part can be called Appearing Things.
  Properties including qualities like colors, high-low, and so on, quantities like brightness-darkness, loudness-silence, and so on, spatial positions, temporal positions, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, their changes, and so on appear. As was explained earlier, they are appearing properties. Appearing properties appear.
  The words "appearing things" either designate sights, images, and so on or designate things in themselves like materials, bodies, and so on which are premised on being represented as appearing things. The words "appearing things" designate the former in these books. For example, materials' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction which are premised on being represented as sights are not appearing things, but sights are appearing things.
  The words "things' appearing" either designate sights, images, and so on's existing or being premised on existing or designate their being represented as sights, images, and so on. The words "things' appearing" designate the former in these books.
  Those apply to the words like "appearing spatial and temporal things", "spatial and temporal things' appearing", and so on where the word "things" are replaced by other words, the words like "things appearing on a sensation", "things appearing as an image", and so on where the modifiers like "on sensation", "as an image", and so on are attached to the verb "appear", and the words like "things which appeared to me in the past", "things' which will appear to me in the future", and so on where the tense of the verb "appear" is changed.

BASIC APPEARING THINGS

  Appearing things include the most basic appearing things as will be enumerated below.

(s)Things Appearing on Sensations

  The following (s1)-(s7) can be called "Things Appearing on Sensations".

(s1)Things Appearing on a Visual Sensation
  Sights, colors, brightness, written words, and so on.
(s1-1)Things Appearing on a Visual Sensation with One Eye
  Sights which are planar and are localized to one eye.
(s1-2)Things Appearing on a Visual Sensation with Both Eyes
  Sights which are cubic and are beyond both eyes.
(s2)Things Appearing on an Auditory Sensation
  Sounds, voices, high-low, loudness, spoken words, and so on.
(s2-1)Things Appearing on an Auditory Sensation with One Ear
  Sounds which are spatial points and are localized to one ear.
(s2-2)Things Appearing on an Auditory Sensation with Both Ears
  Sound sources which are cubic and are beyond both ears.
(s3)Things Appearing on an Olfactory Sensation
  Smells, fragrances, odors, and so on.
(s3-1)Things Appearing on an Olfactory Sensation with One Nasal Cavity
  Smells which are planar and are limited to one nasal cavity.
(s3-2)Things Appearing on an Olfactory Sensation with Both Nasal Cavities
  Smell sources which are cubic and are beyond both nasal cavities.
(s4)Things Appearing on a Balancing Sensation
  Dizziness, appearing acceleration, appearing rotation, and so on.
(s5)Things Appearing on a Taste Sensation
  Tastes, sweetness, saltiness, sourness, bitterness, and so on.
(s6)Things Appearing on a Somatic Sensation
  Pain, itches, hotness, coldness, and so on in skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, and so on.
(s7)Things Appearing on an Autonomic Sensation
  Pain, itches, hotness, coldness, and so on in mucous membranes, digestive systems, circulatory systems, and so on, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, and so on.

(i)Things Appearing as Sensory Images=Sensory Images

  The following (i1)-(i7) can be called "Things Appearing as Sensory Images" or Sensory Images.

(i1)Things Appearing as a Visual Sensory Image=a Visual Sensory Image
(i1-1)Things Appearing as a Visual Sensory Image with One Eye=a Visual Sensory Image with One Eye
(i1-2)Things Appearing as a Visual Sensory Image with Both Eyes=a Visual Sensory Image with Both Eyes
(i2)Things Appearing as an Auditory Sensory Image=an Auditory Sensory Image
(i2-1)Things Appearing as an Auditory Sensory Image with One Ear=an Auditory Sensory Image with One Ear
(i2-2)Things Appearing as an Auditory Sensory Image with Both Ears=an Auditory Sensory Image with Both Ears
(i3)Things Appearing as an Olfactory Sensory Image=an Olfactory Sensory Image
(i3-1)Things Appearing as an Olfactory Sensory Image with One Nasal Cavity=an Olfactory Sensory Image with One Nasal Cavity
(i3-2)Things Appearing as an Olfactory Sensory Image with Both Nasal Cavities=an Olfactory Sensory Image with Both Nasal Cavities
(i4)Things Appearing as a Balancing Sensory Image=a Balancing Sensory Image
(i5)Things Appearing as a Taste Sensory Image=a Taste Sensory Image
(i6)Things Appearing as a Somatic Sensory Image=a Somatic Sensory Image
(i7)Things Appearing as an Autonomic Sensory Image=an Autonomic Sensory Image

  Simply, things occurring to me, past things remembered, future things expected, unreal things imagined, and so on are sensory images.
  When the word "images" is used, visual sensory images occur to us, but auditory sensory images, olfactory sensory images, and so on also appear. For example 1, when a person who is not present here occurs to us, his or her face appears as a visual sensory image, his or her speaking words appear as an auditory sensory image, and his or her touch appears as a somatic sensory image. In addition, his or her smell sometimes appears as an olfactory sensory image. For example 2, when some events on the next day in school or office are expected at home, its buildings and people appear as a visual sensory image, their words and the sound of chimes appear as an auditory sensory image. From the beginning, we think with some visual and auditory sensory images of words. Otherwise, we could not think without writing or speaking words aloud.
  While things appearing on a sensation which is premised on being caused by the neural function which involves the excitements and transmissions of some sensory nerves in a narrow sense and which does not involve those of any autonomic nerves can be called Things Appearing on a Somatic Sensation, things appearing on a sensation which is premised on being caused by the neural function which involves those of some autonomic nerves is called a Thing Appearing on an Autonomic Sensation in these books.
  Things appearing on autonomic sensations are the vaguest of all things appearing on sensations. However, for example, palpitation and dyspnea appear on an autonomic sensation. Things appearing as autonomic sensory images are the vaguest of all the appearing things. However, for example, palpitation and dyspnea appear even a little as an autonomic sensory image together with some visual or auditory sensory images of the words of palpitation and dyspnea.
  The above are the most basic appearing things, and the following are comparatively basic appearing things.
  Strictly, palpitation, dyspnea, and so on involve not only some things appearing on an autonomic sensation but also some things appearing on a somatic sensation which accompany the chest's expansion and contraction, and are not pure things appearing on an autonomic sensation, but each of them is looked upon as a thing appearing on a sensation. An appearing thing which consists of more than one kind of basic thing appearing on a sensation and which are looked upon as an appearing thing can be called a "Thing Appearing on a complex sensation".
  However, when a thing appearing on a complex sensation involves some things appearing on an autonomic sensation, it is also called a Thing Appearing on an Autonomic Sensation in these books. That is, the words "a thing appearing on an autonomic sensation" sometimes designate a thing appearing on a complex sensation involving some things appearing on an autonomic sensation. The significance of giving priority to autonomic sensations in such a way will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".
  In each individual body, as for things appearing on a visual sensation, things appearing on an auditory sensation, and so on, each of them can be looked upon one appearing thing, and the neural function which causes it can be looked upon as one function. In contrast, things appearing on an autonomic sensation cannot look upon so. As for things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, things appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears, and so on, the function causing each of them are integrated somewhere in the cerebrum, and such integration leads stereoscopic vision, sound, and so on. In contrast, the neural functions causing things appearing on an autonomic sensation are not integrated in such a way. Accordingly, as far as things appearing on a autonomic sensation are concerned, also in each individual body, the plural form like things appearing on autonomic "sensations" is used in these books.

THINGS APPEARING ON EACH SENSATION AND SENSORY IMAGE

  Though a visual sensory image is not so clear as things appearing on a visual sensation, the former resembles the latter, though an auditory sensory image is not so clear as things appearing on an auditory sensation, the former resembles the latter, and the same are repeated. For example, though another person's face appearing as a visual sensory image is not so clear as his or her face appearing on a visual sensation, the former resembles the latter, though another person's voice appearing as an auditory sensory image is not so clear as his or her voice appearing on an auditory sensation, the former resemble the latter, and the same are repeated. Things appearing on a sensation and a sensory image which are alike in such ways can be called "Things Appearing on a Sensation and Sensory Image" or Things Appearing on "Each" Sensation and Sensory Image in general, a Thing Appearing on a Visual Sensation and Sensory Image, a Thing Appearing on an Auditory Sensation and Sensory Image, and so on in particular.
  It is in things appearing on each sensation and sensory image that things appearing on a sensation and things appearing as a sensory image are alike. It is not out of things appearing on each sensation and sensory image that they are alike. For example, a thing appearing on a visual sensation and a thing appearing as an auditory sensory image are not alike, at all. Another person's face appearing on a visual sensation and his or her voice appearing as an auditory sensory image are not alike, at all.

THINGS APPEARING ON PLEASURE AND DISPLEASURE SENSATIONS

  Some pleasure and displeasure almost always appear on sensations. For example, the pain on the skins appears on a somatic sensation, and palpitation, dyspnea, hunger or repletion, thirst appear on autonomic sensations, and they are pleasure or displeasure. For example 1, moderate hunger is sometimes pleasure, and excessive hunger is often displeasure. For example 2, though excessive palpitation and dyspnea are always displeasure, moderate palpitation and dyspnea are sometimes pleasure as expectation. Even if they cannot felt as pleasure or displeasure, they can be looked upon as properties which are of zero quantity. Each of (s3)-(s7) has such pleasure and displeasure as properties. Each of (s3)-(s7) which has some pleasure and displeasure as properties can be called "Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Sensation" in general, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Olfactory Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Balancing Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Taste Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Somatic Sensation, and Things Appearing on Pleasure and Displeasure Autonomic Sensations in particular.
  The pain, itches, hotness, coldness, and so on in the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, and so on are included in things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure somatic sensation. That is because those tissues or organs are reached mainly by sensory nurves in a narrow sense. Those in the mucous membranes, digestive systems, circulatory systems, and so on, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, and so on are included in things appearing on pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations. That is because those tissues or organs are reached mainly by autonomic nerves.
  Things appearing on sensations excluding things appearing on visual sensations and things appearing on auditory sensations are things appearing on pleasure and displeasure sensations. They are psychologically important because they have pleasure and displeasure. Neither things appearing on visual sensations nor things appearing on auditory sensations are things appearing on pleasure and displeasure sensations. For example, eyes' pain and ears' pain are things appearing on somatic sensations, things appearing on autonomic sensations, or metaphors. Though things appearing on a visual sensation and things appearing on an auditory sensation have no pleasure or displeasure, they are psychologically important because visual sensory images and auditory sensory images which they cause are dominant in sensory images.
  Pleasure and displeasure sensation has some spatial and temporal parts where pleasure is comparatively dominant and some other spatial and temporal parts where displeasure is comparatively dominant. In things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure sensation, a spatial and temporal part where pleasure is comparatively dominant can be called a "Thing Appearing on a Pleasure Sensation" or pleasure, and a spatial and temporal part where displeasure is comparatively dominant can be called a "Thing Appearing on a Displeasure Sensation".
  In such a way, it is a comparative question whether they are pleasure or displeasure. For example, when severe pain changes into slight pain, the latter is sometimes pleasure. Moderate palpitation and dyspnea are sometimes pleasure as expectation. Excessive palpitation and dyspnea are often displeasure as anxiety or fear.

THINGS APPEARING ON SENSORY ORGANS⇔THINGS APPEARING BEYOND SENSORY ORGANS

  Each of (s1-1)(s2-1)(s3-1)(s4)(s5)(s6)(s7)(i1-1)(i2-1)(i3-1)(i4)(i5)(i6)(i7) are a point, planar, or cubic and are not beyond its own sensory organ which appears. For example, when each of us closes the right eye, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with the left one is planar and is not beyond the left one which appears. Each of (s1-1)(s2-1)(s3-1)(s4)(s5)(s6)(s7)(i1-1)(i2-1)(i3-1)(i4)(i5)(i6)(i7) which are a point, planar, or cubic and are not beyond its own sensory organ which appears can be called "Things Appearing on a Sensory Organ".
  Each of (s1-2)(s2-2)(s3-2)(i1-2)(i2-2)(i3-2) are cubic and are beyond its own sensory organ which appears. For example, when each of us opens both eyes, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes is cubic and is beyond both eyes which appear. Each of (s1-2)(s2-2)(s3-2)(i1-2)(i2-2)(i3-2) which are cubic and is beyond its own sensory organ which appears can be called "Things Appearing Beyond a Sensory Organ".
  However, things appearing on auditory sensations with one ear, things appearing as auditory sensory images with one ear, things appearing on balancing sensations, and things appearing as balancing sensory images are only spatially points. It is premised that the reason why they are so is that the arrangements of sensory cells in the inner ears do not cause appearing spatial arrangements but cause high-low or other qualities.

APPEARING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL THINGS AND APPEARING PROPERTIES

  As was explained earlier, appearing things are divided into appearing spatial and temporal things and appearing properties. For example, colors and brightness are properties appearing on visual sensations and visual sensory images, and high-low and loudness are properties appearing on auditory sensations and sensory images.
  In things appearing on each sensation and sensory image, appearing spatial and temporal things are alike, and appearing properties are alike. For example, in things appearing on each visual sensation and visual sensory image, colors appearing on a visual sensation and colors appearing as a visual sensory image are alike. For example, in dreams, excluding things appearing on autonomic sensations, no things appearing on sensations appear, images appear, and most dreams have colors.
  Properties appearing on visual and auditory sensations do not include any pleasure or displeasure. Properties appearing on olfactory, balancing, taste, somatic, and autonomic sensations include some pleasure and displeasure. Properties appearing as sensory images do not include any pleasure or displeasure. For example, what seem to be pleasure and displeasure in mental emotions like anxiety, fear, and so on are the pleasure or displeasure which things appearing on autonomic sensations have as properties, as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".
  Whether they are points, planar, cubic, or properties, all appearing things on sensation and all appearing things as sensory images are spatial and temporal things or their properties. Simply, they do not transcend space and time.
  All appearing things including individual images, complex images, and so on as will be explained later are spatial and temporal things or their properties, and this explanation is sometimes omitted in these books.

THINGS APPEARING INTENSELY OR FAINTLY AND THINGS' APPEARING INTENSELY OR FAINTLY

  Every appearing spatial and temporal thing has quantity like brightness or darkness, loudness or silence, distance, size, intensity, clearness or vagueness, and so on as properties, and such quantity appear. The quantity which an appearing spatial and temoporal thing has as a property and which appears can be called "Appearing Quantity" or "Appearing Intensity". An appearing thing whose appearing quantity is large or small can be called a "Thing Appearing Intensely or Faintly". A thing appearing intensely or faintly's appearing can be called a Thing's Appearing Intensely or Faintly.
  Appearing quantities include the following. They are also represented by the words "intensities" in these books.
○Brightness⇔Darkness
  In everything appearing on a visual sensation and visual sensory image.
○Distance=Closeness⇔Farness
  In everything appearing beyond a sensory organ, that is, everything appearing on a visual sensation and visual sensory image with both eyes, in everything appearing on an auditory sensation and auditory sensory image, and so on.
○Loudness⇔Quietness
  In everything appearing on an auditory sensation and auditory sensory image.
○Intensities=Intensity⇔Faintness
  In every appearing thing.
○Clearness⇔Vagueness
  In every appearing thing.
  For example, appearing clearness will be explained here. In things appearing on a visual sensation, the periphery is vague and the central part is clear. In general, things appearing on somatic sensations are clearer than things appearing on autonomic sensations. In general, things appearing on sensations are clearer than things appearing as sensory images. Appearing clearness can be likened to the resolution of photographs. Usually, the larger the number of sensory cells in retinae is, the larger clearness is like the larger that of photodetector is, the larger resolution is. In addition, if the lenses of somebody's eyes suffer from cataract, the clearness declines like if the lens of a camera gets dirty, the resolution declines.

THINGS APPEARING AS IMAGES=IMAGES

THINGS APPEARING AS INDIVIDUAL IMAGES=INDIVIDUAL IMAGES

  In a sensory image, some spatial and temporal parts which have some properties usually appear separated, appear intensely, appear faintly, and disappear, and some of them sometimes fuse into one and are separated again. For example, in a visual sensory image, a certain person's body which has the spatial arrangement of the head, trunk, arms, and legs as a property usually appears separated from the background and other persons' bodies, comes closer, goes farther, and disappears and sometimes fuses with the background and is separated again. Moreover, only his or her face or eye sometimes appears separated from the trunk. In a sensory image, each of the spatial and temporal parts which has some properties and which usually appear separated, appear intensely, appear faintly, disappear, sometimes fuse, are separated again, and repeat the same can be called a "Thing Appearing as an Individual Image", an "Individual Image", a "Thing Appearing as an Individual Sensory Image", an "Individual Sensory Image" in general, a Thing Appearing as an Individual Visual Image or an Individual Visual image, a Thing Appearing as an Individual Auditory image, and so on in particular. For example, a certain person's face and body appearing as an individual visual image, a certain tool appearing as an individual visual image, and a certain word appearing as an individual auditory image are included in individual images. From now on, the words "an individual image" will be usually used for simplification. They are general ones. Individual images include individual visual images, individual auditory images, and so on.
  Because it is a part of a sensory image which is a spatial and temporal thing or its properties, every individual image is a spatial and temporal thing or its properties. Simply, no individual images transcend space and time.
  In addition, every individual image has some properties.
  Every individual image is a particular thing as is explained in "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS."

THINGS APPEARING AS IMAGES=IMAGES

  Things appearing as complex images, things appearing on perceptions, and things appearing on associations as follows are also called "Things Appearing as Images" or "Images" in these books.

Things Appearing as Complex Images=Complex Images

  More than one individual image appears spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images and things appearing on sensations. For example, a particular person's face appearing as an individual visual image with both eyes, his or her spoken words and names appearing as individual auditory images with both ears, and so on appear spatially and temporally closer than the other particular persons' faces appearing as individual visual images with both eyes, their spoken words and names appearing as individual auditory images with both ears, and so on. More than one individual image which appears spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images and things appearing on sensations can be called a "Thing Appearing as a Complex Image", a Complex Image, a Thing Appearing as an Image, an Image, or a Group of Individual Images.
  Moreover, more than one complex image appears spatially and temporally closer than the other complex images, individual images, and things appearing on sensations, and the same are repeated. For example, human beings appearing as complex images, apes appearing as complex images, and so on appear spatially and temporally closer than birds appearing as complex images, fishes appearing as complex images, and so on. That is because human beings are more similar to apes than birds, fishes, and so on, and because modern people know biological classification, evolutionism, and so on. {More than one complex image which appears spatially and temporally closer than the other complex images, individual images, and things appearing on sensations} and {complex images which repeat this and which become a more and more complex one} can be called a "Thing Appearing as a Complex Image", a Complex Image, a Thing Appearing as an Image, an Image, or a Group of Complex Images.
  Every complex image consists spatially and temporally of a lot of individual images or some complex images. After all, every complex image consists spatially and temporally of a lot of individual images.
  A complex image usually consists of more than one kind of individual sensory image. For example 1, a particular person appearing as a complex image consists of his or her faces and bodies appearing as individual visual images, his or her spoken words and names appearing as individual auditory images, and so on. For example 2, a general human being appearing as a complex images consists of a lot of particular persons' faces and bodies appearing as individual visual images, spoken words "human", "being", "Homo", "sapiens", and so on appearing as individual auditory images, and so on.
  However, one or two kinds of individual sensory image are usually dominant in a complex image. Above all, in human beings, individual visual images and individual auditory ones are dominant. For example, individual visual images are dominant in an image of written words or signs, and the auditory ones are dominant in a image of spoken words. A complex image where individual visual images are dominant, where auditory ones are dominant, or so can be called a "Visual Image", an "Auditory Image", or so. When they have been defined so, it can be said that complex images are visual images or auditory images in human beings.
  Because every complex image consists spatially and temporally of a lot of individual images which are spatial and temporal things or properties, every complex image is a spatial and temporal thing or its properties. Simply, they do not transcend space and time.
  Complex images are the substance of what is called "Ideas." That is, even ideas do not transcend space and time. About particular things and general things, please refer to "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS." Things which have temporal extent of more than seconds, general things, functions, and so on all appear as complex images, and do not appear on sensations, as sensory images, or as individual images. What are called abstract things appear as complex images, too. For example, a certain person which has a temporal extent of years appears as a complex image consisting of his or her faces and bodies appearing as a lot of individual visual images, his or her spoken words and names appearing as a lot of individual auditory images, and so on. General human beings appear as a complex image consisting of a lot of certain persons' faces and bodies appearing as individual visual images, certain spoken words "human", "being", "Homo", and "sapiens" appearing as individual auditory images, erect bipedalism appearing as individual visual images, and so on. Universal gravitation as a function appears as a complex image consisting of the arrows representing vectors appearing as individual visual images, spoken words "Universal" and "Gravitation" appearing as individual auditory images, and so on.

THINGS APPEARING ON PERCEPTIONS

  Some complex images and some spatial and temporal parts appearing on sensations appear spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images, complex images, and parts appearing on sensations. For example, a particular person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, his or her faces appearing as visual images with both eyes, and his or her names appearing as auditory images with both ears appear spatially and temporally closer than the other particular persons' or the background appearing on a visual sensation. Some complex images and some spatial and temporal parts appearing on sensations which appear spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images, complex images, and parts appearing on sensations can be called a "Thing Appearing on a Perception".
  All things appearing on sensations are endless and chaotic. An individual image which is a part of a sensory image having some properties and which is separated from the other parts of a sensory image is not endless and gets out of chaos. However, all things appearing on sensations, all sensory images, and all individual images are momentary things and particular things. In contrast, some complex images are continuous things. In addition, some complex images are general things like general human beings. In addition, some complex images are abstract things like liberty. When a part appearing on a sensation fuses with some complex images, that part gets out of chaos as a thing appearing on a perception. For example, the part of another person's face appearing on a sensation is not a face, a person, or a human being. Simply, we cannot recognize him or her. When that part fuses with his or her face appearing as a complex image, that part gets out of chaos as his or her face appearing on a perception. Simply, we can recognize him or her. More simply, we can look at, listen to, and feel things well by overlapping images with things appearing on sensations.

A CERTAIN NUMBER(N) OR LESS OF IMAGES

  In a time of tenths of a second or less, a certain number(n) or less of images appear, some of them appear most intensely, others appear more intensely, others appear more faintly, and the other appear most faintly. For example, when each of us thinks of the self, its images appear the most intensely, the images of some other persons who it has much to do with appear more intensely, and those of the other things appear more faintly. That is the substance of some parts of what is called "Consciousness."
  However, a certain number(n) is not determined by species or individuals but varies in situations. For example, when some images appear very intensely, the number gets small. For example, when a boy or girl friend appears, it gets smaller than when boring people appear.

THINGS APPEARING ON ASSOCIATIONS

  In a time of tenths of a second or more, some things appearing on perceptions and some complex images appear spatially and temporally closer, the latter and some other complex images appear spatially and temporally closer, the latter and some other complex images appear spatially and temporally closer, and the same are repeated. Complex images as continue in such a way are included in complex images. However, in complex images in a time of tenths of a second or more, temporal closeness is more important than spatial closeness, and a certain number(n) is not important. Accordingly, Complex image that continue in a time of tenths of a second or more can be called a "Thing Appearing on an Association". For example, when each of us wakes up in the morning, the windows appearing on a perception and our town appearing as an image appear closer, the latter and our office or school appearing as an image appear closer, and the latter and the people belonging to it appearing as images appear closer, and the same are repeated. Those images are a thing appearing on an association.
  Anyway, things appearing on associations are included in complex images.

Things Appearing as Images=Images

  Few things apply to only one group of complex images, things appearing on perceptions, and things appearing on associations. Many things apply to all of the groups. For example, all of them can cause feelings like anxiety, fear, expectation as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". In addition, if the words "complex images, things appearing on perceptions, or things appearing on associations", are always used, sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, complex images, things appearing on perceptions, and things appearing on associations are also called Things Appearing as Images or Images in these books. That is, the word "images" designate complex images, things appearing on perceptions, or things appearing on association in these books.

WORDS APPEARING AS IMAGES=LANGUAGE APPEARING AS IMAGES=LINGUAL IMAGES

  In human beings, some written words and signs appear not only in things appearing on visual sensations but also in things appearing as visual images, some spoken words appear not only in things appearing on auditory sensations but also in things appearing as auditory images, and Braille appear not only in things appearing on somatic sensations but also in things appearing as somatic images. The written words and signs appearing as visual images, the spoken words appearing as auditory images, Braille appearing as somatic images, and so on can be called "Words Appearing as Images", "Language Appearing as Images", or "Lingual Images".
  Some short isolated words appear as individual images, some short words, many long ones and some short phrases appear as complex images, and some short phrases, many long ones, clauses, and sentences appear on associations. For example, the sentence "some short phrases, many long ones, clauses, and sentences appear on associations" appear on an association.
  The more lingual images are generated, the more complex and rich general images get.

INTENSITIES OF IMAGES

  Every image has intensity as a property as an average of the intensities of the individual images or parts of things appearing on sensations which it consists of. For example, when each of us thinks of human beings as individuals, their images appear more intensely than the images of the society or nature, and the reverse is also true.

COMPOSITION OF APPEARING THINGS

  Every appearing thing consists of some things appearing on sensations or some individual images. For example, every complex image consists of a lot of individual images, and everything appearing on a perception consists of some parts appearing on sensations and a lot of individual images.
  Every appearing thing, which consists of some things appearing on sensations or some individual images which are spatial and temporal things or their properties, is a spatial and temporal thing or its properties. Simply, they do not transcend space and time. For example, an abstract thing that seemingly transcends space and time does not do so because it appears as a complex image or appears on an association.
  Appearing things include things appearing on sensations, sensory images, individual images, complex images, things appearing on perceptions, things appearing on associations, things appearing on emotions, things appearing on egos, things appearing on thinkings, and so on. In those appearing things, things appearing on sensations consist of things appearing on sensations, sensory images, individual images, complex images, and things appearing on associations consist of a lot of individual images. Things appearing on perceptions, things appearing on emotions, things appearing on egos, and things appearing on thinkings consist of some things appearing on sensations and a lot of individual images.

CONTINUITY OF APPEARING THINGS

  As long as each of us is awake or dreams, many appearing things are caused continuously. Even if no things appearing on sensations were caused, some ideas would be caused continuously as long as each of us is awake or dreams. This can be called a "Continuity of Appearing Things" or a "Continuity of Images". It is the substance of what is called a "Continuity of Consciousness", "Stream of Consciousness", and so on.
  When each of us {is asleep and does not dream} or faints, no appearing things are caused. However, as long as each of us {is awake or dreams again} and has memories as will be explained later, appearing things are looked upon as intermittent. For example, when each of us wakes up in the morning, our office or school on the day before appears as images in bed.

NEURAL FUNCTIONS CAUSING APPEARING THINGS

NEURAL FUNCTIONS CAUSING APPEARING THINGS

  Every appearing thing is premised on being caused by some things in themselves. For example, everything appearing on a visual sensation is premised on being caused by the photons which reach the retinae, the materials and their functions which reflect, permeate, and refract the photons reaching the retinae, the neural group's excitement and transmission from the retinae via optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on.
  Every appearing thing is premised on being caused directly by a part of neural group's excitement and transmission included in neural functions. For example, everything appearing on a visual sensation is premised on being caused directly by the neural group's excitement and transmission from the retinae via optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on.
  The neural function which is premised on causing appearing things can be called the "Neural Function Causing the Appearing Things". In addition, the neural function causing an appearing thing and the appearing thing which is premised on being caused by it are also called a Neural Function Causing an Appearing Thing in these books.
  In addition, the neural function which is premised on causing things appearing on a sensation, a certain number(n) or less of images, things appearing on a perception, things appearing on an association, or so can be called a "Sensation", "the Recollection of Images (a Recollection)", a "Perception", an "Association", or so. In addition, a sensation, a recollection, a perception, an association, or so and the things appearing on the sensation, the things appearing as images, the things appearing on the perception, the things appearing on the association, or so are also called a Sensation, the Recollection of Images (a Recollection), a Perception, an Association, or so in these books.
  Some will be explained more closely. As was explained earlier, a certain number(n) or less of complex images appear in a time of tenths of a second or less. The neural function which is premised on causing a certain number or less of complex images is also the "Limiting Recollection" of complex images, the Limiting Recollection of images, or a Limiting Recollection, or merely the Recollection of complex images, the Recollection of images, or a Recollection in these books. In contrast, the neural function which is premised on causing each of a certain number or less of complex images is called the "Limited Recollection" of a complex image, the Limited Recollection of an image, or a Limited Recollection, or merely the Recollection of a complex image, the Recollection of an image, or a Recollection in these books. Their details will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES". In addition, the limiting recollection of complex images, the limited recollection of a complex image, a perception, or an association is also called the Recollection of Images, a Recollection, Images' Being Recollected in these books.
  However, there are the recollection of a sensory image like the recollection of a visual sensory image(1), the recollection of an auditory sensory image(2), and so on, and each of them is independent. For example, (1) is in or near the occipital lobes, and (2) is in or near the parietal lobes.
  The following is a summary.

[nf]Neural Functions Causing Appearing Things
 [s]Sensations
  [s1]A Visual Sensation
   [s1-1]A Visual Sensation with One Eye
   [s1-2]A Visual Sensation with Both Eyes
  [s2]An Auditory Sensation
   [s2-1]An Auditory Sensation with One Ear
   [s2-2]An Auditory Sensation with Both Ears
  [s3]An Olfactory Sensation
   [s3-1]An Olfactory Sensation with One Nasal Cavity
   [s3-2]An Olfactory Sensation with Both Nasal Cavity
  [s4]A Balancing Sensation
  [s5]A Taste Sensation
  [s6]A Somatic Sensation
  [s7]An Autonomic Sensation
 [i]Recollections of Sensory Images
  [i1]Recollection of a Visual Sensory Image
   [i1-1]Recollection of a Visual Sensory Image with One Eye
   [i1-2]Recollection of a Visual Sensory Image with Both Eyes
  [i2]Recollection of an Auditory Sensory Image
   [i2-1]Recollection of an Auditory Sensory Image with One Ear
   [i2-2]Recollection of an Auditory Sensory Image with Both Ears
  [i3]Recollection of an Olfactory Sensory image
   [i3-1]Recollection of an Olfactory Sensory image with One Nasal Cavity
   [i3-2]Recollection of an Olfactory Sensory Image with Both Nasal Cavity
  [i4]Recollection of a Balancing Sensory image
  [i5]Recollection of a Taste Sensory Image
  [i6]Recollection of a Somatic Sensory Image
  [i7]Recollection of an Autonomic Sensory Image
 [cs]A Complex Sensation
 [pds]A Pleasure and Displeasure Sensation
  [ps]A Pleasure Sensation
  [ds]A Displeasure Sensation
 [ii]Recollection of Images=Recollection
  [ci]Limiting Recollection of Complex Images=Limiting Recollection of Images=Limiting Recollection=Recollection of Complex Images=Recollection of Images=A Recollection
  [lci]Limited Recollection of a Complex Image=Limited Recollection of an Image=A Limited Recollection
  [p]A Perception
  [a]An Association

  Some will be supplemented again.
  A sensation which involves sensory nerves' excitements and transmissions in a narrow sense and which does not involve autonomic nerves' excitements and transmissions can be called a Somatic Sensation. In contrast, a sensation which involves autonomic nerves' excitements and transmissions is called an Autonomic Sensation in these books. A complex sensation which involves some autonomic sensations is also called an Autonomic Sensation in these books. For example, because the neural functions which are premised on causing palpitation and dyspnea involve the excitements and transmissions of some autonomic nerves and those of some sensory nerves in a narrow sense accompanied by chest's expansion and contraction, palpitation and dyspnea are included not only in a complex sensation but also in an autonomic sensation.
  In an individual, while the visual sensation, auditory sensation, or so can be looked upon a single function, the autonomic sensation cannot be looked upon as a single function. For example, the neural functions causing palpitation or dyspnea are much different from those causing the pain on mucus membranes. Accordingly, the autonomic sensation in an individual is also called Autonomic Sensations in a plural form in these books.
  [s1]-[s7] are sensations which are basic to vertebrates including human beings. In animals excluding vertebrates, the distinction between [s6]somatic sensations and [s7]autonomic sensations is vague. It is in terrestrial vertebrates that [s2]auditory sensations and [s3]balancing sensations are clear. There can be some other sensations. For example, some reptiles have a kind of sensation which uses infrared rays, and some dolphins or whales have a kind of sensation which uses echoes. The explanations of such special sensations will be omitted in these books.
  Sensations excluding visual sensations and auditory sensations are pleasure and displeasure sensations. In the phylogenesis, ontogenesis, and individual aging of sensations, somatic, autonomic, taste, and olfactory ones precede and survive the others. Accordingly, every animal having some sensations has some pleasure and displeasure sensations.
  Recollections of images get clear in some mammals, above all, in human beings. Though the word "recollection" often designates remembering some past events in our daily life, it designates not only remembering some past things but also thinking of some present things, expecting some future things, imagining some unreal things, dreaming, and so on in these books.
  As defined earlier, the word "recollections" can designate the limiting recollection of complex images, the limited recollection of a complex image, perceptions, or associations in these books.
  Every animal's neural system on the earth is separated from the others, and no animal's neural groups join to, transmit to, are joined to by, or are transmitted to by any others'. Accordingly, it is premised that no things appearing to any others appears to me. For example, though your face is appearing to me on my visual sensation, my face appearing to you on your visual sensation never appears to me. In other words, if the neural systems of I and any other animals were intermingled, some things appearing to them could appear to me, and vice versa. Then, I could see, hear, or feel what you do so, and vice versa. Your pain could be mine not metaphorically but in a real sense. What a strange happening!

EACH SENSATION AND MEMORY

  In the neural system of an individual, the visual sensation and the visual memory including the recollection of a visual sensory image continue, the auditory sensation and the auditory memory including the recollection of an auditory sensory image continue, and the same applies to the olfactory sensation, the balancing sensation, and so on. Accordingly, some parts appearing as a visual sensory image resemble some parts appearing on a visual sensation, some parts appearing as an auditory sensory image resemble some parts appearing on an auditory sensation, and the same applies to some parts appearing as an olfactory sensory images, some parts appearing on a balancing sensory image, and so on. A sensation and a memory including the recollection of a sensory image which continue in the neural system of an individual can be called a "Sensation and Memory", "Each" Sensation and Memory, "a Kind of Sensation and Memory", "Each Kind of Sensation and Memory" in general, a Visual Sensation and (Visual) Memory, an Auditory Sensation and (Auditory) Memory, and so on in particular.
  In each sensation and memory, there function its own source, replay, and processing functions which will be explained later. For example, there function visual source, visual replay, and visual processing functions in a visual sensation and visual memory.

SOURCES OF APPEARING THINGS

  Every appearing thing is premised on being caused by making some things in themselves a source. Some things in themselves which are premised on causing an appearing thing as a source can be called the "Source of the Appearing Thing" or the "Appearing Thing's Source". In addition, in general, the source of things appearing on a sensation can be called the Sensation's Source, and in particular, the source of things appearing on a visual sensation, that of things appearing on an auditory sensation, or so can be called the visual sensation's source, the auditory sensation's source, or so. In addition, in general, the source of a thing appearing as an image can be called the Image's Source. For example, the source of things appearing on a visual sensation is the photons which reach the retinae, the materials and their functions which reflect, permeate, and refract the photons reaching the retinae, the neural group's excitement and transmission from the retinae via optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on. Moreover, the source of an appearing thing is also called a "Thing" in these books. That is, the words "a thing" sometimes designate the source of an appearing thing in these books.
  It is premised that no appearing things are caused only by sources. It is premised that no appearing things would be caused if no neural functions replayed or treated sources. It is only neural functions that can replay or treat neural functions. A part of a source needs to be neural functions so that neural functions can replay or treat it. The part of the source of an appearing thing which is neural functions can be called the "Neural Source" of the appearing thing. For example, the neural group's excitement and transmission from the retinae via optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on is the neural source of things appearing on a visual sensation.
  Every neural source is a neural group's excitement and transmission or activity. The details will be explained later.
  Anyway, some neural groups need to be generated and to exist so that their excitements and transmissions, activities, and so on can function. The functioning of a neural group's excitement and transmission or activity as a neural source can be called the neural source's "Going or Coming through" the neural group. The following are the examples of the neural groups which some neural sources go through. In a visual sensation, the neural group from the retinae via optic nerves, crossing, to visual areas on occipital lobes. In an auditory sensation, the neural group from the inner ears via acoustic nerves, not crossing, to auditory areas on temporal lobes. In a somatic sensation, the neural group from the skins, bones, striated muscles, or tendons via sensory nerves in a narrow sense, crossing, to sensory areas in a narrow sense on parietal lobes.
  The sensory group's function in a neural source can be called a "Sensory Group's Source". Sensory groups' sources are included in neural sources. The following are the examples of some sensory groups' sources. In a visual sensation's source, the sensory group's excitement and transmission in the retinae. In an auditory sensation's source, that in the inner ears. In a somatic sensation's source, that in the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendons.
  The part of a source excluding the neural source can be called a "Material and Bodily Source". The following are examples of material and bodily sources. In a visual sensation's source, light sources→photons→materials' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction→photons. In an auditory sensation's source, sound sources→the frequency and amplitude of their vibration→sound waves. In a somatic sensation's source, pressures to, heats to, and inflammations in the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendons.
  In such ways, every source includes bodily functions. For example, an autonomic sensation's source includes the blood concentration of oxygen, that of glucose, and osmotic pressures. They are premised on causing dyspnea, hunger, and thirst respectively.
  It is premised that some parts of a material and bodily source are represented as an appearing thing, that no other parts are, and that no neural sources are. Simply, I have never seen my brain or nerves directly. Unless I look at the sun directly, it is not seen. In such a way, we rarely see light sources. In contrast, materials' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction are premised on being represented as things appearing on visual sensations, the frequency and amplitude of materials' vibration are premised on being represented as things appearing on auditory sensations, and skins' inflammation are premised on being represented as things appearing on somatic sensations. The parts of the material and bodily source which are premised on being represented as an appearing thing can be called the appearing thing's "Represented Source". For example, materials' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction are visual sensations' represented sources, the frequency and amplitude of materials' vibration are auditory sensations' represented sources, and pressure to, heat to, and inflammation in the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendons are somatic sensations' represented sources.

EACH SENSATION AND IMAGE'S SOURCE

  In each sensation and memory, the sensation's source and some functions involved in the memory cause some individual images' sources, and so the sensation's source and the individual images' sources are continuous. For example, in a visual sensation and visual memory, the visual sensation's source and some individual visual images' sources are continuous, and in an auditory sensation and auditory memory, the auditory sensation's source and some individual auditory images' sources are continuous. Accordingly, in each sensation and memory, it is premised that some parts appearing on a sensation and some individual sensory images are alike. For example, some parts appearing on a visual sensation and some individual visual images are alike, and some parts appearing on an auditory sensation and some individual auditory images are alike. The sensation's source and the individual sensory images' sources which are continuous in such ways in each sensation and memory can be called a "Sensation and Sensory Image's Source" in general, a Visual Sensation and (Visual) Sensory Image's Source, an Auditory Sensation and (Auditory) Sensory Image's Source, and so on in particular.

THE MAIN PROPERTIES OF NEURAL SOURCES

  The following are the main properties of neural sources.

(1)Selective Neural Groups' Excitements and Transmissions=Spatially Retained Neural Groups' Excitements and Transmissions

  In a selective neural group's excitement and transmission, that is, spatially retained neural groups' excitements and transmissions which were explained earlier, the spatial relative positions and arrangements of actually joined neural cells' excitements and transmissions are retained. From the beginning, appearing "forms" or "patterns" are premised on being caused by such retention. Otherwise, it is premised that, for example, some things appearing on visual sensations would be distorted, and that a circle might appear to be a curve like an ameba.
  In addition, in a selective neural group's excitement and transmission, some actually joined neural cells excite and transmit, and the others do not. Therefore, it is premised that subtle brightness or darkness in sights, loudness or quietness in sounds, strength or weakness in pains, and so on appear. Each of such appearing quantities is premised on being caused by concentration of a neural group's excitement and transmission. It is necessary for some actually joined neural cells in a neural group to excite and transmit and for the others in it not to excite or transmit so that some concentration can be caused.

(2)Neural Groups' Instant Excitements and Transmissions

  In every neural group's instant excitement and transmission which was explained earlier, the temporal relative positions, temporal arrangements, and their changes of actually joined neural cells' excitements and transmissions are retained. Otherwise, it is premised that, for example, the limbs' movement of a running animal of forelimbs forward and hindlimbs backward, then forelimbs backward and hindlimbs forward, and so on of a running animal appearing on a visual sensation might become that of forelimbs forward and hindlimbs forward, then forelimbs backward and hindlimbs backward, and so on.
  In addition, in every neural group's instant excitement and transmission, the frequencies of neural cells' excitements and transmissions are retained. The qualities of material bodily sources are converted into the frequencies of a neural group's excitements and transmissions by a sensory group, and such qualities as frequencies are retained in neural groups' instant excitements and transmissions.

(3)A Sensory Group's Conversion from a Material and Bodily Source into a Neural Source

  A sensory group is the starter of a neural source metaphorically.
  Some functions of a sensory group convert a material and bodily source's qualities like waves' frequencies into the frequency of a neural group's excitement and transmission, and they convert a material and bodily source's quantities like waves' amplitudes into the concentration of a neural group's excitement and transmission. Such conversions can be called the Sensory Group's "Conversion" from the material and bodily source into the neural source or the Sensory Group's Converting the material and bodily source into the neural source. For example, in a visual sensation, the sensory group in the retinae converts colors into the frequency of the neural group's excitement and transmission from them via optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes and converts brightness into its concentration.

(4)Selective and Specialized Neural Groups' Activations and Activities

  Only when transmitted to with a certain frequency, some neural cells excite and transmit with that frequency, are activated, retain the activities, and will excite and transmit with that frequency next time they are transmitted to with that frequency. Such a neural cell is called a "Selective and Specialized" neural cell in these books. In addition, a neural group which consists of such neural cells is called a "Selective and Specialized" neural group in these books.
  As will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES", some sources are not only sensed or recollected but also memorized and stored. Some images' sources need to be memorized and stored so that they can be recollected after a while. Some qualities of material and bodily sources are converted into some frequencies of neural sources. Some selective and specialized neural groups need to be activated, to retain the activities, and to excite and transmit with that frequencies so that neural sources containing qualities can be memorized, stored, and recollected.

(5)The Activities and Excitements and Transmissions of the Neural Ways among the Unitary Neural Groups Memorizing and Storing Individual Images' Sources

  There are a lot of neural ways among the unitary neural groups which memorize and store individual images' sources. However, such ways among them are not activated innately. Such ways among them need to be activated acquiredly on the basis of temporal closeness and to excite and transmit so that individual images' sources can be recollected spatially and temporally closer and so that images' sources can be recollected. These neural ways can also be called the "Neural Ways among Individual Images' Sources". The details will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES."

(6)The consistency of sources

  In each sensation and memory like a visual sensation and visual memory, an auditory sensation and auditory memory, or so, its own functions as follows function.

Its neural source which is being explained in this section.
Its replay which will be explained later.
Its processing functions which will be explained later.
Most of the functions involved in a memory which will be explained later.

  In each sensation and memory, the sensation's source and some functions involved in the memory cause some individual images' sources, and so the sensation's source and the individual images' sources are continuous. The sensation's source and some individual sensory images' sources which are continuous in such a way in each sensation and memory could be called a "Sensation and Sensory Image's Source" or "Each" Sensation and Sensory Image's Source in general, a Visual Sensation and (Visual) Sensory Image's Source, an Auditory Sensation and (Auditory) Sensory Image's Source, and so on in particular.
  Most part of each sensation and sensory image's source is a selective neural group's instant excitement and transmission(1)(2), and so in it, the neural source's qualities as frequencies, quantities as concentrations, spatial and temporal positions, spatial and temporal arrangements, and their changes are retained consistently. This is called the Consistency of Neural Sources in these books.

(7)The consistency beyond each sensation and memory

  In things appearing on sensations, different kinds of things appearing on sensations appear spatially and temporally closer. For example, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and his or her spoken words appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears appear spatially and temporally closer. Simply, his or her spoken voice is heard from his or her mouth. In a thing appearing on perception, some parts appearing on a sensation and different kinds of individual sensory images appear spatially and temporally closer. For example, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and his or her name appearing as individual auditory images with both ears appear spatially and temporally closer. In a complex image, different kinds of individual sensory images appear spatially and temporally closer. For example, another person's face appearing as individual visual images with both eyes and his or her spoken words appearing as individual auditory images with both ears appear spatially and temporally closer. Such spatial and temporal closeness beyond each sensation and memory is also called the "Consistency beyond Each Sensation and Memory" in these books. It is premised on being caused by different kinds of sensation and sensory image sources' meeting or paralleling somewhere in the neural system, perhaps in the parietal lobes.

  In summary, the main properties of neural sources are selective neural groups' excitements and transmissions, neural groups' instant excitements and transmissions, sensory groups' conversions, selective and specialized neural groups' activation and activity, the activities, excitements, and transmissions of the neural ways among the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources, the consistency of sources, the consistency beyond each sensation and memory.

COMPLEX IMAGES' SOURCES

  Every complex image's source has all the main properties of neural sources explained above. Above all, the activities and excitements and transmissions of the neural ways among the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources are important. By them, many individual images' sources are recollected spatially and temporally closer, and so a complex image is premised on being caused.
  In contrast, no sensations' sources involve any selective and specialized neural groups' activation, activity, or any activation, activity, excitements, or transmissions of the neural ways among the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources. In this sense also, sensations are more primitive functions of animals than memories are. However, if no sensations were generated, no memories could be generated.

REPLAYS OF SOURCES

  It is premised that no appearing things could be caused only by sources. It is premised that no appearing things could be caused if no neural functions changed any neural sources into any appearing thing. Some neural functions which change a neural source into appearing things can be called the "Replay" of the source or Replaying the source.
  Replays are the hardest or impossible to make clear. The border between sources and replays is vague, and they overlap. For example, it is possible that some replays begin with some sensory groups' excitements and transmissions. Then, sensory cells are as important as neural cells are. Moreover, it is possible that replays are intrinsic to neural groups' excitements and transmissions in themselves.
  As was explained earlier, each sensation and memory has its own sensation and sensory image' source. As for replays, things are a little different. Each sensation has its own replay of a sensation's source, and each recollection of a sensory image has its own replay of a sensory image's source. Also in each sensation and memory, the replay of a sensation's source and the replay of a sensory image's source are different. For example, in each visual sensation and visual memory, the replay of a visual sensation's source and that of a visual sensory image's source are different.
  However, in each sensation and memory, the replay of a sensation's source and that of a sensory image's source are not the same but alike, and are not in the same place but in close places. For example, in a visual sensation and visual memory, the replay of a visual sensation's source and that of a visual sensory image's source are alike and in close places. For example, though extreme, it is possible, because of the disorders of some neural functions, that visual hallucination is caused when the visual sensory image's source which usually reach its own replay has reached the replay of a visual sensation's source which is close to its own, and that auditory hallucination is caused when the auditory sensory image's source which usually reach its own replay has reached the replay of an auditory sensation's source which is close to its own.

PROCESSING FUNCTIONS OF SOURCES

  Some functions which process a neural source in some ways other than replays are called the "Processing Functions" of the source or Processing the source in these books.
  For example, things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes are cubic and beyond both eyes, and some neural functions which make them so are a processing function of a visual sensation's source. The same applies to things appearing on auditory sensations with both ears and things appearing on olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities. Though the third's being cubic and beyond both nasal cavities are vague in human beings, it must be clearer in some other animals like dogs, cats, and so on. Because, otherwise, they could not chase their pray or run away from their natural enemies. Human olfactory sensations were more clear once upon a time, and they must have degenerated.
  It is premised that a pair of neural groups' excitement and transmission, the functions processing the pair, and their replay cause things appearing beyond a sensory organ.

SUMMARY

  Again, replays are the hardest of all the things or impossible to make clear. Neural sources and processing functions are much easier to make clear than replays are. Anyway, the borders among neural sources, processing functions, and replays are vague, and they overlap. For example it is possible that some replays begin with sensory groups' excitements and transmissions. Moreover, it is probable that the neural groups' excitements and transmissions in themselves are replays.
  In summary, it is premised that every appearing thing is caused by its source, processing functions, and replay. The neural function causing an appearing thing consists of its neural source, processing functions, and replay.

SOURCES' SPACES

  The space where a source exists and functions can be called the Space of the Source.
  As was explained earlier, the part of a source which is premised on being represented as appearing things could be called the appearing things' Represented Source. Out of the space of a source, out of the space of a represented source, the space of a visual represented source is what is called a "visual field" in daily life and science. In general, the space of a sensation's represented source can be called the "Sensation's Field", and in particular, the space of a visual sensation's represented source, that of an auditory sensation's represented source, or so can be called the Visual (Sensation's) field, the Auditory (Sensation's) field, or so. In addition, in general, the space of a sensory image's represented source can be called the "Sensory Image's Field", and in particular, the space of a visual sensory image's represented source, that of an auditory sensory image's represented source, or so can be called a Visual Sensory Image's Field, an Auditory Sensory Image's Field, or so.
  The following are some samples of the width and depth of sensations' fields.
○Visual Field with Both Eyes
  180°ahead in human beings, light-years.
○Auditory Field with Both Ears
  360°, kilometers.
○Olfactory Field with Both Nasal Cavities
  360°, meters in human beings.
○Balancing Field
  Head.
○Taste Field
  Tongue.
○Somatic Field
  Skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, ligaments.
○Autonomic Field
  Mucous membranes, cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and so on.

OVERLAPS OF APPEARING REPRESENTED SOURCES' SPACES

  While the spaces of represented sources are included in things in themselves, they are premised on being represented as appearing things, and they appear. For example, the space containing the horizon and the sky appears on a visual sensation with both eyes.
  First, in things appearing on each sensation and sensory image, the represented source's space of the things appearing on a sensation and those of the sensory image overlap. For example, when I see a person for the first time in years, in things appearing on a visual sensation and visual sensory image, his or her present face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and his or her years ago's face appearing as a visual sensory image with both eyes overlaps. In such a way, I know his or her aging. Those are so by the consistency of sources as was explained earlier.
  Moreover, beyond things appearing on each sensation and sensory image, some represented sources' spaces overlaps. For example, birds' chirps appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears are heard from the space of the forest appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes. Those are so by the consistency beyond each sensation and sensory image as was explained earlier.

SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES ON SENSORY ORGANS

  In each of [s1-1]visual sensation with one eye, [s2-1]auditory sensation with one ear, [s3-1]olfactory sensation with one nasal cavity, [s4]balancing sensation, [s5]palatal sensation, [s6]somatic sensation, [s7]autonomic sensation, [i1-1]recollection of a visual sensory Image with one eye, [i2-1]recollection of an auditory sensory image with one ear, [i3-1]recollection of an olfactory sensory image with one nasal cavity, [i4]recollection of a balancing sensory image, [i5]recollection of a taste sensory image, [i6]recollection of a somatic sensory image, and [i7]recollection of an autonomic sensory image, the represented source's space are the same as the sensory group's source's space, that is, the space where the sensory group exists and functions. Each of [s1-1]-[s6] can be called a Sensation "on a Sensory Organ", and each of [i1-1]-[i6] can be called a Recollection of Images on a Sensory Organ.

SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES BEYOND SENSORY ORGANS

  In each of [s1-2]visual sensation with both eyes, [s2-2]auditory sensation with both ears, [s3-2]olfactory sensation with both nasal cavities, [i1-2]recollection of a visual sensory image with both eyes, [i2-2]recollection of an auditory sensory image with both ears, and [i3-2]recollection of an olfactory sensory image source with both nasal cavities, the sensory field space is not the same as the space where the sensory group exists and functions, and is cubic and beyond the latter space. Each of [s1-2]-[s3-2] can be called a Sensation "Beyond Sensory Organs", and each of [i1-2]-[i3-2] can be called a Recollection of Images Beyond Sensory Organs.
  As was explained earlier, each of them is a pair of neural sources, whether they cross or not, neural functions processing the pair, and a replay.

SOURCES OR THINGS' BEING SENSED AND BEING RECOLLECTED AS IMAGES

  A sensation source's being replayed can be called the source or thing's "Being Sensed", a complex image's source's being replayed can be called the sources or thing's "Being Recollected" as a complex image, a perception's source's being replayed can be called the source or thing's "Being Perceived", and an association's source's being replayed can be called the source or thing's "Being Associated". In addition, a complex image's source, a perception's source, or an association's source's being replayed is also called the source or thing's Being Recollected as an image or its Being Recollected in these books. That is, the words "a thing" sometimes designate the source, and the words "a thing's being recollected as an image" designate the things' being recollected as a complex image, being perceived, or being associated in these books.
  Because it is premised that neural sources and replays are the most direct functions that cause appearing things, it is premised that things appearing on sensations are caused whenever their sources are sensed, and that things appearing as images are caused whenever their sources are recollected as images. Accordingly, that a thing is sensed and that the thing appearing on sensation is caused are also called the thing's being sensed, that a thing is recollected as a complex image and that the thing appearing as a complex image is caused are also called the thing's being recollected as a complex image, that a thing is perceived and that the thing appearing on a perception is being caused are also called the thing's being perceived, and that a thing is associated and that the thing appearing on an association is caused are also called the thing's being associated in these books. In addition, a thing's being recollected as a complex image, being perceived, or being associated in those senses are also called the thing's Being Recollected as an image or its Being Recollected in these books.
  In addition, the sources which have been sensed, are being sensed, or are to be sensed are also called Sensed Sources or Sensed Things, and the same apply to Sources or Things Recollected as Complex Images, Perceived Sources or Things, Associated Sources or Things, and Sources or Things Recollected as Images in these books. In addition, Sources Recollected as Images are also called Recollected Images in these books. That is, the word of images sometimes designate their sources in these books. In addition, sensed sources and the things appearing on a sensation which are premised on being caused by that sources are also called Sensed Sources or Things, and the same apply to Sources or Things Recollected as Complex Images, Perceived Sources or Things, Associated Sources or Things, Sources or Things Recollected as Images, and Recollected Images in these books.
  Neural sources are neural groups' excitements and transmissions, and some sensations' sources cause individual images' sources. Here, (1) the neural sources which have not been sensed yet, (2) those which have already been sensed and have not been recollected yet, and (3) those which have already been recollected need to be distinguished. (2) are also called Sensed Sources or Things, (3) are also called Recollected Sources, Things, or Images in these books. The distinction between (1)(2)(3) is important. (1) cause not only sensations but also autonomic functions including tendon reflexes. (2) cause most of the memories which will be explained in the next chapter. (3) cause feelings, desires, egos, and so on which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". Anyway, the temporal difference between (1)(2) is milliseconds, and that between (2)(3) is so in instant memories which will be explained in the next chapter.
  That the sources which are premised on causing things appearing on a sensation intensely or faintly are sensed can be called sources or things' being sensed intensely or faintly, and that the sources which are premised on causing things appearing as images intensely or faintly are recollected can be called sources or things' being recollected as images intensely or faintly. A neural source whose concentration, resolution, or extent is large or small can be sensed or recollected intensely or faintly. For example, a visual sensation's source whose concentration is large can be sensed visually brightly. Though a sensation's source causes some individual images' sources, their intensities sensed or recollected are not always interrelated. For example, sometimes, a person who was sensed far away on a visual sensation with both eyes is close recollected as an image, and some spoken words which were sensed quietly are loudly recollected as images.

MEMORIES

  In each sensation and memory like visual sensation and visual memory, auditory sensation and auditory memory, and so on, its own neural source, replay, treating functions which was explained earlier and most of the functions involved in a memory which will be explained in this chapter function, and some functions involved in a memory and a sensation's source cause some individual images' sources, and so a sensation source and some individual images' sources are continuous. A sensation's source and some individual images' sources which are continuous in such a way can be called a Sensation and Sensory Image's Source in general, a Visual Sensation and (Visual) Sensory Image's Source, an Auditory Sensation and (Auditory) Sensory Image's Source, and so on in particular. By the main properties of sources which were explained earlier, in each sensation and sensory image's sources, the qualities and quantities of the material and bodily source are converted into the frequencies and concentrations of the neural source by the sensory group, and the frequencies, concentrations, spatial positions, temporal positions, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes are retained. Most of the following functions also function in each sensation and memory. Though these are important, when they are always explained, sentences will be complicated, and so they will usually be omitted.
  In addition, the following words of grasp, cut, memorization, storage, generation, arousal, recollection, and so on designate countable functions which function in each neural group in a diverging and converging neural group. For example, if there are a hundred unitary neural groups in a diverging neural group, there can be a hundred or less of memorizations, or storages. Accordingly, they are used as countable nouns in these books.
  Each memory consists of the following functions.

MEMORIAL DIVERGING NEURAL GROUPS

  A sensed sensation's source and some recollected individual images' sources go through a neural group diverging one after another in each sensation and memory. Such diverging neural group can be called a "Memorial" Neural Group Diverging (One after Another). In such a way, there is one memorial neural group diverging in each sensation and memory. However, there can be two in each sensation and memory beyond sensory organs like a visual sensation with both eyes, an auditory sensation with both ears, and so on.

INDIVUDUAL IMAGES' GRASPS AND CUTS

  While a sensed sensation's source or some recollected individual images' sources go through a memorial neural group diverging one after another, some properties like frequencies, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes, and so on which each of some parts of them has are grasped and classified by some neural functions on the basis of similarity one after another. This can be called the Individual Image's (Source's) "Grasp" or Being Grasped. For example 1, in a visual memorial neural group diverging, the individual image' source of a certain person's face is grasped and classified in the way of the spatial arrangement of ears, eyes, nose, and mouth(the face of a mammal), that of the head's being relatively large(that of an ape or a human being), and that of the front's being relatively flat(that of a human being). For example 2, the individual image's source of a certain person's body is grasped and classified in the way of the spatial arrangement of having a head and four limbs(the body of an amphibian, reptile, or mammal), the temporal change of walking on two hindlimbs bending forward(that of a ape), the temporal change of walking upright on two legs(that of a human being).
  In addition, while they go through a memorial neural groups diverging one after another and are grasped and classified one after another, some parts of some of them which have some properties are cut by some neural functions one after another, the others of them go through uncut. This can be called the Individual Image's (Source's) "Cut" or Being Cut.
  After grasped and cut in such ways, an individual image's source is generated. For example, after the properties of the spatial arrangement of ears, eyes, nose, and mouth, and so on are grasped and after the part having them as properties is cut away off the background of the forest, town, and so on, an individual image of a certain person's face is generated. An individual image's (source's) grasp and cut can also be called the Individual Image's (Source's) Generation, Being Generated. An individual image' generation consists of its grasp, classification, and cut. In addition, an individual image's source which are being grasped, classified, and cut can be called the individual image's "Generated" Source.
  More than one individual image's source is usually generated from a sensed sensation's source. For example, individual images' sources of his or her face, body, hair, and clothes are generated from a certain person sensed on a visual sensation.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' MEMORIZATIONS AND STORAGES

  Individual images' generated sources are memorized and stored in the following way.
  There exist and function some selective and specialized unitary neural groups, which were explained earlier, in a memorial diverging neural group which individual images' generated sources go through. While an individual image's generated source goes through a memorial diverging neural group, it activates a selective and specialized unitary neural group. That is, each neural cell in an individual image's generated source which excites and transmits with a certain frequency activates a neural cell in a selective and specialized neural group which has the capability of being activated and exciting and transmitting with that frequency. This can be called the Individual Image's (Sources') "Memorization" or Being Memorized.
  While it decrease and increase by reactivation, the activity of the selective and specialized unitary neural group where an individual image's source has been memorized is retained. This can be called the Individual Image's (Source's) "Storage" or Being Stored.
  An individual image's (source's) memorization and storage can be called an Individual Image's (Source's) Memorization and Storage or Being Memorized and Stored.
  And, the activation and activity of the selective and specialized unitary neural group where an individual image' source is memorized and stored can be called the individual image's "Stored" Source.
  An individual image's source's generation, memorization, and storage can be called an Individual Image's (Source's) generation, memorization, and storage or Being Generated, Memorized, and Stored.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' GRASPS, MEMORIZATIONS, AND STORAGES ON THE BASIS OF SIMILARITY

  In each sensation and memory, in a memorial neural group diverging one after another, individual images' sources are grasped, classified, memorized, and stored. As is the most important, it is in a neural group diverging one after another that they are done so. Accordingly, similar individual images' sources are memorized and stored in close places in a memorial diverging neural group. This can be called individual images' (sources') Grasps, Memorizations, and Storages or Being Grasped, Memorized, and Stored "on the Basis of Similarity". Accordingly, similar images' sources arise and can be recollected spatially and temporally close. For example, in a visual memorial neural group diverging, to a certain person's individual images' sources, other persons' are closer than other animals' are. Accordingly, the individual images' sources of human beings arise and can be recollected spatially and temporally closer than those of other animals do and can. When we classify things, we sometimes use a "tree structure", which has already existed and functioned in a memorial diverging neural group.

ACTIVATIONS, ACTIVITIES, OR FORMATION OF THE NEURAL WAYS AMONG INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF TEMOPORAL CLOSENESS

  Among the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources, there exist and function some, actually many, neural ways

which can overlap with but are distinct from memorial neural groups diverging,

which surpass each sensation and memory,

and which are activated acquiredly on the basis of temporal closeness when some individual images' sources are grasped and memorized temporally close.

Such neural ways can be called the Neural Ways among Individual Images(' sources) "on the Basis of Temporal Closeness". In addition, their being activated acquiredly can be called their (acauired) "Formation" or Being Formed (acquiredly).
  By their activation, activity, and excitements and transmissions, on the basis of temporal closeness, surpassing each sensation and memory, when a thing's individual image's source arises, some other things' which were temporally close grasped and memorized arise. They have not been activated innately but are activated acquiredly when some individual images' sources are grasped and memorized temporally close. For example, when a mother scolds her child loudly again and again, in the neural system of the child, the neural ways between unitary neural groups memorizing and storing the auditory individual images' sources of scoldings and those memorizing and storing the visual ones of the mother's face are activated, and the former auditory ones will be recollected when the latter visual ones are recollected, and some anxiety or fear is caused to the child even when the mother' face looks calm. This is only an example, and so it is quite another problem whether scolding children is good or bad.

COMPLEX IMAGES' GENERATIONS, MEMORIZATIONS, AND STORAGES

  By (1)individual images' grasp, memorization, and storage on the basis of similarity, by (2)(2-1)selective neural groups' excitements and transmissions, (2-2)selective and specialized activations and activity on the basis of spatial closeness, (2-3)the consistency of neural sources, and (2-4)that beyond each sensation and memory, and by (3)the activations and activities of the neural ways among individual images on the basis of temporal, complex image's sources has already been generated. That is because, as will be explained later, by (1')individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of grasps and similarity, by (2')(2'-1)selective and specialized neural groups' excitements and transmissions, (2'-2)selective ones' on the basis of spatial closeness, (2'-3)the consistency of neural sources, and (2'-4)that beyond each sensation and memory, and by (3')the excitements and transmissions of the neural ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness, some individual images' sources arise and can be recollected spatially and temporally close, they compose a complex image's sources, and it is premised that a thing appearing as a complex image is caused.

MEOMORIAL CONVERGING NEURAL GROUPS

  In each sensation and memory, the neural group from unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources to the replay is converging. Such a neural group converging can be called a Memorial Neural Group Converging. After all, in each sensation and memory, the neural group where individual images' sources go through is diverging from grasps and converging to the replay.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES' AROUSALS

  The excitement and transmission of the unitary neural group memorizing and storing an individual image's source and the source going through a memorial converging neural group to the replay can be called the individual image's (source's) Arousal or Arising. In addition, an individual image's source which is arising can be called the individual image's arising source.
  Not all individual images' arising sources are replayed or recollected because they go through a memorial neural group diverging, a few of them reach the replay, and the others disappear.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES' AROUSALS ON THE BASIS OF GRASP AND SIMILARITY

  When some parts of a sensed sensation's source and some recollected images' sources are grasped,

some neural groups which diverges from the grasps in a memorial diverging neural group excite and transmit as neural ways,

the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources which their excitements and transmissions reach excite and transmit,

and some, actually many, individual images' sources arise on the basis of grasp and similarity.

This can be called individual images' sources' Arousals or Arising "on the Basis of Grasp and Similarity".
  Individual images' arousals on the basis of grasp and similarity are caused in each sensation and memory.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES' AROUSALS ON THE BASIS OF TEMPORAL CLOSENESS AND NEURAL WAYS

  In individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of grasps and similarity, some unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources excite and transmit. Then, their excitements and transmissions cause the excitements and transmissions of the neural ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness. Then, their excitements and transmissions cause some other unitary neural groups memorizing and storing some other individual images' sources. As a result, some, actually many, individual images' sources which were grasped and memorized temporally close arise. This can be called individual images' (sources') Arousals or Arising on the Basis of Temporal Closeness and Neural Ways.

COMPLEX IMAGES' SOURCES' AROUSALS

  By (1')individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of grasps and similarity, by (2')(2'-2)selective and specialized neural groups' excitements and transmissions, (2'-1)selective neural groups' excitements and transmissions on the basis of spatial closeness, (2'-3)the consistency of neural sources, and (2'-4)that beyond each sensation and memory, and by (3')the excitements and transmissions of the neural ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness and neural ways, some individual images' sources arise and can be recollected spatially and temporally close, they compose a complex image's sources, and it is premised that a thing appearing as a complex image is caused. For example, a certain person's features of face, body, and voice are grasped, the visual individual images of his or her face and body and the auditory ones of his or her spoken words and name which were seen and heard some years or months ago are recollected, he or she is recollected as a complex image, and he or she is recognized as Mr. or Ms. So-and-so. That is a perception. Moreover, his or her gesture and spoken words at that time are recollected one after another. That is an association.

FUNCTIONS BEYOND EACH SENSATION AND MEMORY

  After all, it is in each sensation and memory that individual images' sources' grasps, memorizations, and storages, individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of grasps and similarity, selective neural groups' excitements and transmissions, and selective and specialized neural groups' activations, activities, excitements, and transmissions are caused. In contrast, it is beyond each sensation and memory that the activations, activities, excitements, and transmissions of the neural ways among unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness and the arousals by them, the consistency of sources beyond each sensation and memory as was explained earlier, and limiting recollections beyond each sensation and memory as will be explained later are caused. For example, suppose that you introduce yourself to me in the daytime and that your face, name, and spoken words occur to me at night, the following are caused in my neural system. In the daytime, as soon as I saw your face and heard your name and spoken words, your face's individual visual images' sources and your name and spoken words' individual auditory ones were grasped, memorized, and stored, and the neural ways between the former and the latter were activated. At night, as soon as the former excite and transmit, the neural ways between the former and the latter excite and transmit, the latter excite and transmit, your face, name, and spoken words occur to me, and your complex images are recollected. In this example, my visual sensation and visual memory and auditory sensation and auditory memory are beyond each sensation and memory.
  Accordingly, it is premised that a thing appearing as a complex image consists of some kinds of individual sensory images like visual ones, individual ones, and so on. For example, a general human being appearing as a complex image consists of erect bipedalism appearing as visual ones, some spoken words and the words "a human being" appearing as auditory ones and so on. In the activations, activities, excitements, and transmissions of the neural ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness and complex images, for the first time, different kinds of sensations and memories are what is called "integrated". However, the neural ways among individual images' sources are not the same as what is called parietal association area. That ways run at least among the occipital lobes, temporal lobes, and parietal lobes, run among the both hemispheres, and occupy considerable part of the cerebral medullae. Though some parts of them cross, each of the neural systems of a lot of animals is a pair of neural groups. The activations, activities, and excitements, and transmissions of the neural ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness are beyond not only each sensation and memory but also each hemisphere in such a pair, and some neural ways among the hemispheres are activated, excite, and transmit.
  However, one of the pair is often dominant also in a memory. For example, a right handed person often lose more complex images' sources than a left handed person do when he or she suffers left hemisphere's infarction.

INTRODUCTIONS INTO RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES

  The neural group which comes from the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources to the replay is a converging one. Such a converging neural group can be called a Memorial Neural Group Converging.
  As long as an animal is awake or dreams, some sensations or recollections are caused. As long as some sensations or recollections are caused, some neural sources' properties are grasped, some arousals on the basis of grasps and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neural ways are caused, and some, actually many individual images' sources arise. Such individual images' sources can be called Arising Individual Image's Sources. It will be easy to see that not all of them are replayed or recollected because many arising sources come through a converging neural group toward one replay. It will be explained a little closer in the following sections.

NEURAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS' DISAPPEARING

  While a neural cell(u) is exciting and transmitting, that is, repeating short-term continuous excitement and transmission which was defined earlier by the transmission of another neural cell(s) which excites and transmits earlier and longer than another neural cell(t) does, and when the neural cell(t) transmits to the neural cell(u), the neural cell(u) goes on exciting and transmitting by the transmission of the neural cell(s) with the same frequency as that of the neural cell(s), regardless of, simply, ignoring the transmissions of the neural cell(t). That can be called (s)'s excitement and transmission's "Going Through" or "Coming Through", and (t)'s excitement and transmissions' "Disappearing".
  While a neural group(U) is exciting and transmitting by the transmissions of another neural group(S) which excites and transmits earlier and longer and broader than another neural group(T) does, and when the neural group(T) transmits to the neural group(U), the neural group(U) goes on exciting and transmitting by the transmission of the neural group(S) with the same spatial and temporal positions, frequencies, concentrations, spatial and temporal arrangements, and their changes as those of the neural group(S), almost regardless of the transmissions of the neural group(T). That can be called (S)'s excitement and transmissions' "Going Through" or "Coming Through" and (T)'s excitement and transmissions' "Disappearing".
  As was explained earlier, the neural group from grasps to unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources is a diverging one, and the neural group from them to the replay is a converging one. When many neural groups' excitements and transmissions are caused in a converging neural group, a certain number(n) or less of them which excite and transmit the earliest and longest and broadest go through and the others disappear.

LIMITING RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES

  On the ground which were explained in the above section, in each sensation and memory, when a certain number(n) or less of images' sources arise, all of them reach the replay and are recollected, and when a number more than the number(n) of images' sources arise, the number(n) of images' sources reach the replay and are recollected. Actually, because a lot of images sources arise at once, the number(n) of images' sources are recollected. That can be called a (Limiting) Recollection of images(' sources), images(' sources') Being Recollected (Limitingly), things' Being Recollected (as images) (Limitingly). In addition, that a limiting recollection of images' sources and the images which are premised on being caused by that images' sources are caused can be called a (Limiting) Recollection of images, images' Being Recollected (Limitingly), or things' Being Recollected (as images) (Limitingly).
  However, such a number(n) varies with individuals, species, the intensity of recollection, the number of individual images' sources composing complex images, and kinds of sensations and memories. For example, the complex images of the self, egos, and so on are complicated ones, consist of a lot of individual images, and so the number(n) gets smaller when they are recollected. In such a way, when some images which consist of a lot of individual images are recollected, the number(n) gets smaller.

THE SUBSTANCE OF LIMITING RECOLLECTIONS

  The substance of limiting recollections is what was explained earlier. That is

that a certain number(n) of them which excite and transmit the most early and long and broad go through and the others disappear when many neural groups' excitements and transmissions are caused in a converging neural group.

LIMITING RECOLLECTIONS BEYOND EACH SENSATION AND MEMORY

  Basically, a limiting recollection functions in each sensation and memory. However, it is possible that there function some functions or properties which limitingly recollect images' sources beyond each sensation and memory. For example, when some visual images are recollected intensely, auditory images are recollected faintly or are not recollected. For example, when the visual images of the face of a person raging fiercely are recollected intensely, the auditory ones of his or her voice can be recollected faintly or are not recollected. Such a limiting recollection can be called a Limiting Recollection beyond Each Sensation and Memory.

ACTUAL RECOLLECTIONS

  However, not all kinds of recollections in all kinds of sensations and memories always function clearly. For example, in human beings, visual recollections and auditory ones always function, but olfactory recollections, balancing ones, taste ones and so on rarely function. At least in a human being, in actual recollections, the visual recollections and auditory ones are dominant. For example, when the images of a certain person are recollected, they consist of some visual images of his or her face and auditory images of his or her name and spoken words actually. However, if such composition was always explained, sentences would be complicated, and so such an explanation will be omitted in these books.

A LIMITED RECOLLECTION OF AN IMAGE

  When one complex image's source is paid attention to, it (a)does not arise from the beginning, (b)does arise and is not recollected, or (c)is recollected in a limiting recollection. (c) can be called the (Limited) Recollection of the image ('s source), the image's (source's) Being Recollected (Limitedly), the thing's Being Recollected (as an image) (Limitedly). In addition, the limiting recollection of an image's source and that image can be called the (Limited) Recollection of the image, the image's Being Recollected (Limitedly), or the thing's Being Recollected (as an image) (Limitedly).

HABITS OF LIMITED RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES

  Every limited recollection of an image has its "habit" which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". Its habit is the activities and concentration of individual images' sources consisting the complex image, the activity of the neural ways among them, images' sources' exciting and transmitting early and long and broad, and so on.
  The activations and activities of the neural ways among unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources are the most important of them. Which of the ways are activated decides not only the limiting recollections but also emotions, egos, and thinkings which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". For example, some ways to cope with things causing pain are also recollected as complex images, and what kinds of ways are recollected decides the human life of each of us.
  Limiting recollections are included in Limiting functions, and limited recollections are included in limited functions which will be defined in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS".

THE RELATIONS WITH OTHER FUNCTIONS

  The functions from grasps via some functions to a limiting recollection of images as were explained so far in this chapter can be called a "Memory." temporarily.
  As soon as a sensation is caused, some recollections of images are caused by the above (1')(2')(3'). This is a perception. As soon as some recollections of images are caused, other recollections of images are caused by (1')(2')(3'), and the same are repeated. This is an association.
  If no sensations were caused and if any images were recollected spontaneously, other images could be recollected, and the same could be repeated. This is nearly a dream. However, because each dream involves some anxieties, fears, and so on, some autonomic sensations are caused in it, as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". In contrast, most of the other sensations are pausing when each of us sleeps or dreams.
  Perceptions, associations, and dreams are included in recollections of images in these books.
  As will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", the neural ways from images' sources to pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are activated and excite and transmit, and the feelings like anxieties, expectations, and so on are caused. These neural ways are different from those among individual images' sources which were explained in this book.

LINGUAL IMAGES' SOURCES

  In each human being, from the neonatal period to the senile period, many spoken words are sensed on an auditory sensation, many written words and signs are sensed on a visual sensation, and many words images' sources are generated. Such sources can be called Lingual Images' Sources or Lingual Images.
  While a lot of lingual images' sources are generated, a lot of images' sources other than lingual images' are generated, and the neural ways among them are activated. Accordingly, many complicated images' sources are recollected by the above (1')(2')(3'), and complicated recollections, perceptions, associations, thinkings, and so on are developed.
  After all, lingual sources are sensed, generated, some of them are recollected, and some of them are spoken, written, and transmitted. Those are "Words" or "Language".

Ideas=Thoughts

  The complex images' sources which human beings speak, write, and transmit can be called an Idea or Thought. For example, Ptolemaic systems, Copernican systems, creationism, evolutionism, monarchy, democratic systems, separations of powers, the rule of law, and so on which are spoken, written, or transmitted with words are ideas or thoughts.

BEING FORGOTTEN

  Every neural group's activity decreases or disappears sooner or later. The activities of neural groups storing individual images' sources and of the neural ways among them also decrease or disappear sooner or later. By Decreasing or disappearing of the activities of neural group storing individual image's sources composing a complex image or of the neural ways among them, a complex image's source's losing the capability of being recollected can be called the image's (source's) Being Forgotten or the thing's Being Forgotten.
  Being forgotten is an usual function in our daily life and science. However, it is not the only cause of images' sources' losing the capability of being recollected. Also because of some underdevelopment, aging, disorders, and so on of some of the functions which composes a memory, some images' sources lose the capability of being recollected.

Loss of Memory

  Because of some of the causes, in an animal individual, all the images' sources losing the capability of being recollected can be called "Loss of Memory", Memories' Being Lost, complete forgetting, or forgetting all.
  Only the animals having memories lose memories. The animals having no memories cannot lose them. As long as an animal exists and functions, loss of memory is rarely caused. Are brain death, vegetative state, and so on are any exceptions? However, they are looked upon as death. It is clear that loss of memory is caused when the animal dies.

RENEWALS OF MEMORIES

  After some complex images' sources were generated, memorized, stored, when the identical and similar things are sensed, recollected and grasped, while some new complex images' sources of them are generated, memorized, stored, some old ones of them arise. As a result, some unitary neural groups storing individual images' sources and the neural ways among them are activated again. These can be called the "Renewal of a Memory", a Memory's Being Renewed, Renewals of Sources, Sources' Being Renewed, Renewals of Images, Images' Being Renewed, Renewals of Things, or Things' Being renewed. For example 1, a person who has not been seen for decades has often been forgotten. In contrast, another person who is seen every day cannot be forgotten. For example 2, the ideas which are often recollected cannot be forgotten. They are so because of renewals of memories.
  After all, it can be said that renewals are important parts of memories. Accordingly, renewals of memories are included in memories in these books. When renewals needs to be emphasized, memories are called Memories and Renewals or sources, images, or things' Being Memorized and Renewed in these books.
  In contrast to the memories as have been explained so far, there function afterimage memories, sensory memories, instant memories, and short-term or long-term memories, as will be explained in the following sections.

AFTERIMAGE MEMORIES

  Each neural cell's one super-short-term excitement and transmission which compose a neural group's excitement and transmission continues for milliseconds (thousandths of a second). In contrast, every represented source changes every moment. For example, a running animal's spatial arrangement of the limbs which is included in the visual represented sources changes every moment. In such a way, after a represented source changed or disappeared, the neural source continues at least for milliseconds. As a result, what is called an "afterimage" is caused at least for milliseconds. This can be called an "Afterimage Memory", and a thing appearing in such a way can be called an Afterimage.
  No afterimage memories are what is called memory in our daily life or science. However, afterimage memories are included in memories in these books. It is one of the most important that temporal changes are appearing at present like tracks by afterimages.

SENSORY MEMORIES

  While some parts of a sensed neural source is grasped and cut in an individual image's generation, some parts of it sometimes remains as it is without grasp or cut for tenths of a second or for seconds, and is sometimes replayed, grasped, and cut after that. This can be called a "Sensory" Memory. For example, the short words spoken by another person and sensed on auditory sensation, which were not paid attention to, are sometimes paid attention to after tenths of a second. This is a sample of the auditory sensory memories. However, only short spoken words can be paid attention to in such a way, and long spoken words cannot. In addition, only when there has been some silence after the words were spoken, they can be paid attention to in such a way. When the words has been being spoken without a pause, they cannot be paid attention to in such a way.
  A sensory memory is guessed to be caused either by a prolonged afterimage memory or by a specialized neural group's long excitement and transmission.
  Sensory memories also help temporal changes appear at present.

INSTANT MEMORIES

  While the individual image's sources which have just been generated is memorized and stored, they are recollected instantly for less than seconds and disappear. This can be called an "Instant" Memory, Instant Recollection of images, Instant Recollection, or images' Being Recollected instantly, and such images can be called Instant Images.
  By afterimage memories and sensory memories as were explained earlier and by instant memories, temporal changes are appearing at present. Simply, by comparing the past which are remaining at present and the present, each of us know changes. Instant memories are included in memories and recollections in these books.
  While the basic memories explained earlier are caused by way of generation→memorization→storage→arousal→recollection, instant memories can be caused either by the same way or by way of generation→arousal→recollection where there are no memorization or storage. Perhaps, both the ways function.

SHORT OR LONG MEMORIES

  After its generation, memorization, storage, and instant memory, when a complex image's source is neither recollected nor renewed, the activities of the unitary neural group memorizing and storing the individual images' sources which compose it and those of the neural ways among them decrease and disappear in a short time, maybe in seconds. When it is recollected or renewed in such a time, their activities are retained, and it has the capability of being recollected after more than such a time. That is also called a "Short" or "Long" Memory. Of course, short or long memories are included in memories.
  Some identical or similar things' sources need to be sensed, recollected, and renewed so that a short or long memory can be caused. That is what is called "what have not been attended to (what each of us has not been conscious of) are forgotten soon" or "what have been attended to (what each of us has been conscious of) are well remembered" in our daily life and science. However, each of us does not need to think of difficult things. When each of us rethinks of the perceived or recollected things, some short or long memories have already been established. For example, we never forget another person who we talk with for hours and think of again and again for days. In contrast, we do not remember all the faces of those who we pass by on the way to school or office unless they are very handsome, beautiful, or strange.
  The distinction between short and long memories is comparative. However, it is probable that long ones involve some functions which short ones do not involve.

THE ABILITIES OF MEMORIES

  Each of individual images' grasps, cuts, generations, memorizations, storages, images' generations, memorizations, storages, arousals, recollections, and each of the memories, short ones, long ones has their own abilities.
  Generally in human beings, the ability of memory gets larger rapidly] from the prenatal and neonatal period to the first half of the infant period, reaches its peak during the adolescent period, get smaller slowly thereafter. In contrast, it gets smaller rapidly in dementia.

IMAGES'SOURCES=IMAGES

  When the words of an "image's source" are always used, sentences are complicated. Accordingly, an image's source or an image is also called an Image in these books.

THE SUBSTANCES OF CONSCIOUSNESS, UNCONSCIOUSNESS, AND SO ON

  Every image is generated after prenatal period when the sensations start functioning, and most images are generated after neonatal period, that is, after the delivery. This can be called Acquired Generation of Images or Images' Being Generated acquiredly.
  The "richness" of images and the abilities of memories are different. The main cause of the former is to sense, perceive, recollect, and associate various things. That is the substance of what is called experience or knowledge.
  In milliseconds, though many individual images arise, a certain number(n) or less of images are recollected. This is the substance of some parts of what is called "consciousness" in our daily life and science. In addition, this is the substance of what is called "we cannot think two things a time", in our daily life. After all, though many images are generated, memorized, and stored, excluding instant memories, many do not arise and most are not recollected.
  Emotions, feelings, desires, egos, and so on will be closely explained in "PSYCHOLOGIES OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". If any arising sources that were not recollected caused any of them, that could be the substance of some parts of what is called "unconsciousness". However, it is not clear whether or not such things exist or function.
  However, in each of most animal individuals, the neural sources which have not been sensed yet cause some functions like tendon reflexes, some of conditioned reflexes, and so on.

SENSATIONS OR MORE

  In these books, by definition, animals have some sensations. In large, terrestrial vertebrates and some terrestrial arthropods have the most complicated sensations of all the animals on the earth. That is because auditory and balancing sensations cannot be much evolved underwater. In addition, some mammals have the most complicated ones of all the vertebrates. That is because they have the largest cerebrums and sensory organs. It cannot be said that human beings have the most complicated ones. At least, the human beings' olfactory ones have degenerated. In the sensations of human beings, visual ones and auditory ones are more complicated, and olfactory ones are simpler. Though the distinction between somatic sensations and autonomic ones is clear in vertebrates, it is vague in the other animals. Anyway, The functions which are premised on causing some appearing things including touches, pains, hotness, coldness, smells, tastes, and so on can be called Sensations. For example, simply, if a jellyfish or sea anemone feels anything, the function causing it is a sensation.
  Vertebrates and some arthropods have the memories as have been explained so far. Human beings have the most complicated and the richest memories, some mammals have comparatively complicated and rich ones and the other vertebrates and some arthropods have simpler and poorer ones. Such simpler and poorer memories are included in the memories in these books.
  Not all the animals that have sensations have the memories as have been explained. For example, though a jellyfish, sea anemone, and so on have such sensations as tactile ones, it is inconceivable that any images are recollected in them. It is conceivable that they have some memories which involve no recollections. Such memories as involve no recollections of images are not included in memories in these books.
  All the animals that have memories have sensations. That is because some parts of the sensed sources are grasped and cut, and some individual images are generated for the first time. The animals which have sensations and memories evolve from the animals which have sensations and no memories. The perceptions, associations, feelings, desires, egos, thoughts, and so on involve some recollections of images. Accordingly, the animals having such functions have sensations and memories. The animals having such functions evolve from the animals which have sensations and memories and none of such functions.
  Accordingly, sensations or sensations and the functions which could not be caused without them can be called "Sensations or More". In addition, sensations and memories or sensations and memories and the functions which could not be caused without them can be called "Memories or More".
  The relation of recollections→perceptions→associations→feelings→desires→egos→thinkings is the same as that of sensations→memories. For example, all the animals having egos have recollections, perceptions, associations, feelings, and desires, and they evolve from the animals having such functions and no egos. Accordingly, for example, egos or egos and thinkings, and so on can be called Egos or More, and the animals having them can be called the Animals Having the Egos or More.
  Human beings have the most complicated memories or more of all the animals so far on the earth. Moreover, on the earth from now on, it is possible that some animals having more complicated memories or more than human beings will evolve from them or from some other animals. From the beginning, human beings can evolve, too.
  After all, it is premised that some appearing things are caused by sensations or more. After all, sensations or more are the functions which are premised on causing appearing things.

References

A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS
A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS

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