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A PSCYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS

FORMATION AND REFORMATION OF EGOS' HABITS

REVIEW OF "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS"

    This book is on the basis of "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". Accordingly, if possible, please read this book after those books are read. However, writers of this book will try to write it so that readers can read it even if those books are not read. "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS" explained the basis and theory of egos' habits. This book will explain their application and practice. "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS" will be simply summarized below.
    Intentional functions can be classified in the following way.

Intentional functions
  (1) Voluntary movements
    (1-1) Unitary voluntary movements
      Bending and stretching joints, moving eye balls, moving tongues, tension and straining and relaxing vocal cords, and so on.
    (1-2) Complex voluntary movements
      They consist of unitary ones.
      Walking upright on two legs, running alike, swimming the crawl, butterfly, and so on, and so on.
  (2) Pure mental intentional functions
    (2-1) Manipulations of images
      Combining images, dissolving them, switching them, escaping them, and so on.
    (2-2) Thinkings
      They consist of associations and manipulations of images.
      Thinkings in a narrow sense, retracings, foreseeings, and daydreamings.
  (3) Synthetic functions
    They consist of voluntary movements, perceptions, and pure mental intentional functions.
    Speaking and writing words, operating machines, interpersonal functions, and so on.

    Simply, it is egos that cause intentional functions in situations. In other words, it is egos that intervene between situations and intentional functions. A little more closely, it is egos that decide which intentional functions to cause in situations.
    In addition, simply, it is egos' habits that decide which intentional functions to cause in situations, and it is intentional functions' abilities that decide how good intentional functions caused by egos are. Accordingly, egos are more important than intentional functions are, and egos' habits are more important than intentional functions' abilities are.
    What is called personalities consist of intelligence, knowledge, mental emotions' habits, intentional functions' abilities, and egos' habits. The most important of them are egos' habits. The next most important of them are intentional functions' abilities or mental emotions' habits.
    A larger ego (limiting ego) contain smaller egos (limited egos). In a situation, in a limiting ego, when a lot of limited egos arise, a limited number of those which have the largest tendencies to be caused while excluding others are caused. Such tendencies are formed while making outlines units like escaping, facing up, waiting and seeing, adhering, showing off the self, controlling, or destroying. After all, a limited number or less of limited egos which have the largest tendencies of outlines of limited egos, and decide which intentional functions to cause. Matrices of the tendencies of limited egos' outlines are the habits of egos. For example, there are limiting egos' outlines like escaping, facing up, waiting and seeing, adhering, showing off the self, controlling, destroying. In addition, there are tendencies of limited egos' outlines like those to escape, to face up, to wait and see, to adhere, to show off the self, to control, to destroy. Again, matrices of the tendencies of limited egos' outlines are egos' habits. For example, the habit of egos of an individual in the situation of an interpersonal relation is described as (tendencies to escape, to face up, to wait and see) = (4, 3, 5), and after all, waiting and seeing is caused.
    There are also outlines in intentional functions like escaping, facing up, and waiting and seeing corresponding there's being outlines in egos. Again, the tendencies of limited egos are formed making outlines units. In addition, in daily life and psychology, egos and intentional functions are argued making outlines units. Accordingly. the words of "outlines of" are usually omitted in these books. For example, the words of escaping, facing up, waiting and seeing, adhering, showing off the self, controlling, destroying, and so on designate the outlines of egos or intentional functions. In addition, when it is clear whether it is egos' or intentional functions', the words of "egos'", "intentional functions", or "egos' or intentional functions'", and so on are omitted in these books.
    That the tendencies of limited egos(' outlines) or intentional functions' abilities get large can be called their being Formation or Being Formed, and the contrary can be called their Reduction or Being Reduced. In addition, that egos' habits as the matrices of the tendencies of limited egos(' outlines) changes can be called their Reformation or Being Reformed. The word "Reduction" may give a bad impression. However, when an outline of limited egos causes some pain, the pain is reduced by its tendency's being reduced.
    In addition, above all, that general tendencies of limited egos(' outlines) get larger before and in the adolescent period can be called egos' habit's Formation, and that it changes after it can be called egos' habit's Reformation.
    From now on, the abstract words of escaping, facing up, waiting and seeing, adhering, showing off the self, controlling, destroying, and so on designate egos' or intentional functions' outlines, the concrete words of crying, laughing, walking upright on two legs, and so on designate intentional functions. In addition, From now on, the words of tendencies and the tendencies to escape, to face up, to wait and see, and so on designate the tendencies of limited egos' outlines, and the words of abilities and the ability to walk, to run, to swim, and so on designate intentional functions' abilities. In addition, from now on, the word of habits designate egos' habits.

PERIODS DURING WHICH ABILITIES AND TENDENCIES ARE FORMED IN LUMPS

    There are some periods as follows during which (intentional functions') abilities and (limited egos' outlines') tendencies are formed in lumps.

[0-3 period] The baby and infant period
    During this period, though a lot of images are generated and recollected, nothing that happens during it will be recollected after it. Averagely, it is the time from the late prenatal period to the age of 3. It is divided into the following periods.
[-0 period] The late prenatal period
    Few images' sources are generated because the fetus is protected and isolated in its mother's womb. However, some parts of the somatic sensation and autonomic sensations are functioning.
[0-1 period] The baby period
    Whether it is from mother's breasts or from bottles, milk is vital even if some baby food is taken.
    Crying⇒smiling⇒moving its eyes⇒moving its face⇒tossing and turning⇒holding up its head⇒crawling⇒standing up while holding onto something⇒starting to walk upright on two legs⇒starting to speak a few isolated words.
    It is, averagely, the time from delivery to the age of 1. However, this is only an average. Not walking or speaking does not always mean any disorders.
[1-3 period] The infant period
    Milk is not vital.
    Walking upright on two legs⇒speaking more isolated words⇒starting to speak a few sentences.
    Averagely, it is the time from the age of 1 to that of 3.
[3-10 period] The post-infant and pre-adolescent period
    Something that happens during this period will be recollected after it, and the rapid development of sexual functions has not started yet.
    It is divided into the following periods.
[3-6 period] The post-infant period (3 to 6 period)
    The self's images which were defined in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" are generated and recollected during it. The child has not been in the human relations independent of its home yet.
    Running, speaking sentences, starting to write a few words, and making friends through the introductions by mothers, brothers, sisters, and so on.
    Averagely, it is the time from the age 3 to that of 6.
[6-10 period] The pre-adolescent period
    The child is in the human relations independent of his or her home.
    Swimming the crawl, the butterfly, and so on, writing words, studying, making friends by his or herself, making boy or girl friends in spite of the sexual immaturity.
    Averagely, it is the time from the age of 6 to that of 10.
[10-15 period] The adolescent period
    From the beginning to ending of the rapid development of sexual functions.
    Broadening or escaping interpersonal relations. Egos as was defined in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS" gets matured.
    Averagely, it is the time from the age of 10 to that of 15. However, this is only an average, and the differences among the sexes and individuals are very large.
[15- period] The post-adolescent period
    It is the time after the end of rapid development of sexual functions. That is, it does not include the adolescent period. In contrast, the adolescent period and the post-adolescent period are also called the "Adolescent Period or Later" in these books. And, the time before the adolescent period and the adolescent period are also called the "Adolescent Period or Earlier" in these books.

INFANT, PRE-ADOLESCENT, AND ADOLESCENT FUNCTIONS

[0-3] Infant Functions
    Averagely in human beings, the functions whose abilities, tendencies, or habits are formed mainly in the baby and infant period can be called "Infant" Functions.
    Infant functions' abilities, tendencies, or habits are the most hard to form, reduce, or reform after this period. Infant intentional functions include walking upright on two legs and speaking words, which are the most fundamental of all human intentional functions. If their abilities were not formed in this period, it would be hard to form them after it.
    Moreover, infant limited egos' outlines include adhering, showing off the self, controlling, destroying, destroying complex images, and so on, as will be explained later.
    In addition, infant mental emotions include interpersonal anxiety. Its tendency is formed, above all, in this period.
[3-10] Pre-adolescent Functions
    Averagely in human beings, the functions whose abilities, tendencies, or habits are formed, reduced, or reformed mainly in the post-infant and pre-adolescent period can be called "Pre-adolescent" Functions.
    Pre-adolescent functions' abilities, tendencies, or habits are harder to form, reduce, or reform than the following are but easier than the above are. Pre-adolescent intentional functions include reading and writing words and fundamental interpersonal functions.
    Moreover, the self's images are generated in this period. Infant recollections of images include the gap between the world and the self, the self's going fat, and so on, as will be explained later.
[10-15] Adolescent functions
    Averagely in human beings, the functions whose abilities, tendencies, or habits are formed mainly in the adolescent period can be called "Adolescent" Functions.
    Adolescent functions' abilities, tendencies, or habits are harder to form, reduce, or reform than the following are but easier than the above are. Adolescent intentional function include more complicated interpersonal functions.
    Moreover, adolescent limited egos' outlines include the escaping and patching up falling habits, as will be explained later.
[15-] Post-adolescent Functions
    Averagely in human beings, the functions whose abilities, tendencies, or habits are formed mainly in the post-adolescent period can be called "Post-adolescent" Functions.
    Post-adolescent functions' abilities, tendencies, or habits are hard to form, reduce, or reform, but easier than the above are. Post-adolescent intentional functions include the most complicated but superficial interpersonal functions like flattering, joking, and observing.
[0-] General functions
    Averagely in human beings, the functions whose abilities, tendencies, or habits are formed, reduced, or reformed through his or her life or fluctuate can be called "General" Functions.
    General limited egos' outlines include facing up, escaping, and waiting and seeing.
    In addition, general mental emotions include interpersonal anxiety. Though its tendency is formed, above all, in the baby and infant period, as was explained above, it can be formed in any period of time.

CARE OF CHILDREN

    The functions to a child by some older human beings which are essential to its existence and development, above all, in the baby and infant period can be called their "Care" of it. It includes nursing, diapering, hugging, bathing, letting them play, and weaning.

MOTHERS

    The human beings in the position where they should mainly take care of a child in the baby and infant period can be called its "Mothers". Again, those who are in such a position are mothers, and they do not always take proper care. In addition, they do not always do so with love.
    Though they are usually a real mother, they can be a real father, mothers-in-law, fathers-in-law, grand mothers or fathers, older sisters or brothers, specialists, or so. In addition, mothers are not always one. For example 1, in the case that a child's real father is in unemployment and that its real mother is in employment, the two can be its mothers. For example 2, in the case that a child's real mother died at its age of one and that one of its grandmothers brought it up after her death, the two can be its mothers. Accordingly, the plural form of "mothers" are often used in these books. Nonetheless, most mothers are a real mother. That is because not of an idealistic reason but of a realistic one.

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS OF CHILDREN IN THE BABY AND INFANT PERIOD

    The interpersonal relations of children before the age of three are limited to their mothers and a few persons. In addition, they have no choice of interpersonal relations. They cannot help acquiring the care for existence and growth, satisfying drives to gather and interpersonal desires, and reducing the anxiety about isolation in such limited interpersonal relations.

MOTHERS' LOVE

    Emotions were explained closely in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". Pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called Emotions. Love is a kind of complex emotion which consists of sexual drives, drives to gather, drives to protect and nurse children, anxiety about isolation, interpersonal desires, and so on. Not only human beings but some mammals have some love. Human beings have the most complicated love of all animals.
    Love is very different depending on its object. From the beginning, it might be wrong that mothers' love for their children, the love between different sexes, the love for particular human beings, the love for general human beings, the love for the truth, and so on are argued with the same word "love". In this book, from now on, the word "love" designates mothers' love for their children.
    Mothers' love for their children is influenced by the change of endocrine systems and neural systems which start with pregnancy. However, such a change is not everything. A part of love is what is caused for the first time when mothers face their babies after delivery. Such a part can be caused not only in a real mother but also in any young or old man or woman who is in the position where he or she should mainly take care of a baby, that is, any mother. In addition, babies or infants grow and change and attract mothers also after the first encounter. The love which is caused by such encounters can be called Mothers' Natural Love. The emotion where such natural love is dominant can be called Mothers' Love.
    There are some surprise at and curiosity in the birth and growth of human beings or animals in such encounters, and mothers' love contains such emotions. Even if a mother's child is a second, third, or so one for him or her, there are some surprise at and curiosity in the universality and the individual difference of human beings or animals.
    Mothers' love is infused with some selfish desires that children will become some labor force when grown up, that children will take care of mothers when in their old ages, and so on. Such desires are much influenced by social systems. For example 1, in a nation where elderly welfare is much promoted, fewer mothers will want their children to take care of them. For example 2, in a nation where the systems for the protection of laborers' right and for children's education are established, fewer mothers will make their children to work. Anyway, the emotions where such selfish desires are dominant cannot be called mothers' love. However, not only it is inevitable that such selfish desires infuse into love to a degree but also such infusion to a degree is harmless for children.
    In addition, mothers' love is accompanied with the feeling of the duty to bring up their children in good health. Such a duty is also based on the customary and written law. The complex emotion where such the feeling of duty is dominant cannot be called mothers' love. However, some feeling of duty is necessary.
    Again, the complex emotion where the natural love as was explained above is dominant can be called Mothers' Love.
    On those ground, mothers do not need to think of love seriously. Though extreme, those who think what is love do not have it.
    In general, other persons' emotions are recognized and perceived. However, that recognition is not always correct. However, in psychology, incorrect recognition is also a mental function which affects other functions.
    Also in the children before the age of three, mothers' love is grasped, perceived, and recognized. Mothers' love is easier to feel and recognize than the care essential for their existence and growth and other interpersonal relations. It is after the pre-adolescent period that they can recognize that care is essential for their existence and growth. It is after the adolescent period that they can recognize complicated interpersonal relations. In contrast, even a baby can recognize whether or not its mothers have love for it. After all, it is mothers' love that a baby or infant recognize and perceive the most and seeks the most.
    Moreover, children do not seek deep or abundant love but do seek common love where the natural love as was explained above is dominant. For example, excessive body contact is sticky and irritating also for babies. Accordingly, mothers do not need to think what is love or how to represent love. Though extreme, the mothers who think what is or how to do not have any love.

MOTHERS' THINNESS OF LOVE

    In mothers, it often happens that their love become thin temporarily. In contrast, that mothers' love is thin continuously or continually can be called mothers' "Thinness" of Love. For example 1, when mothers are isolated and they have few interpersonal relations with others, some of them do not let their children go away from them and make use of the relations with them in order to reduce the feeling of being isolated. In such a case, the ego intending to reduce that feeling by making use of the relations with them are dominant, and love becomes thin. That is, not letting their children go away in such a way is ostensible love. For example 2, when their general desires like desires for work, for partners, and so on are unsatisfied, some mothers heighten their desires for their children and try to satisfy them. Such desires for children heightened in such a way make love thin. Moreover, some of them lead to the enclosure which will be explained later.
    When mothers take care of their children with love in the baby and infant period, they are satisfied with the love, they are sometimes bored with it, they seek the things other than love and go apart from their mothers, and they get independent little by little from about the age of three. In contrast, when mothers' love is thin, their children cannot be satisfied with love, they exclusively seek it forever, and they cannot get independent after about their age of three. Moreover, the tendencies to adhere, to show off the self, and so on, which will be explained later, are formed by their going on seeking love forever.
    In addition, when mothers take care of their children with love in the baby period, even if the care is delayed for a while, they come to be able to wait and see about the age of six months. In contrast, when mothers' love is thin, they cannot wait and see, they come to short-circuit and to be desperate, and they keep desperately crying. Moreover, the tendencies to short-circuit, to be desperate, to destroy, and so on, which will be explained later, are sometimes formed.
    Mothers' thinness of love are the most intense external situation that forms falling habits which will be explained later.
    Battering, neglect, and so on are more serious and clearer than mothers' thinness of love. However, we should not pay so much attention to the former so that we neglect the latter. Anyway, the former contain the latter. Accordingly, battering, neglect, and so on are included in mothers' thinness of love in these books.

ENCLOSURES

    An individual's, above all, a mother's keeping other individuals, above all, his or her children to himself or herself and not letting them go apart from himself or herself can be called the individual's "Enclosure" of the other individuals or Enclosing them.
    In mothers, when their desires' dissatisfaction is intense in general, the desires concerning their children are heightened, and mothers often enclose their children. Above all, when mothers are isolated and when their interpersonal relations are limited, they often enclose their children in order to reduce their loneliness.
    Enclosure is not the same as thinness of love. However, in enclosure, the egos and emotions other than love are dominant and it results in thinness of love.
    Enclosures overlap in a large part with what is called "interference". Seeming love's overflow is sometimes enclosure.
    Mothers' enclosure of their children is one of the most intense external situation that forms falling habits which will be explained later.

IMITATIONS

    When an intentional function of other individuals' is perceived and generated as images in an individual, when that intentional function is caused, when some pleasure emotions are caused by something caused by causing it like being praised of doing it, or when some displeasure emotions are caused by something caused by not causing it like being condemned of not doing it, and when those are repeated, that intentional function's ability and the tendency of limited egos' outlines of causing it are formed. This can be called the individual's "Imitation" of or Imitating that intentional function.
    Imitations are functions essential for human beings' walking upright on two legs, speaking words, writing words, and so on.
    However, above all, destructions are imitated, and limited egos' outline's tendency to destroy are formed in the adolescent period. For example, though it is a pity, we cannot help saying that the children brought up in destructive groups often go destructive. However, we need to pay attention to the fact that, if they were not given pleasure emotions by doing it and if they were not given displeasure ones by not doing it, no egos' habits could be formed, and no imitations could be caused. For example, destructive groups praise destructive children in some ways.

FACING UP AND ESCAPING

FACING UP AND ESCAPING

    When a thing (O) causes some displeasure emotions (DEO),
when an intentional function (F) dealing with O also causes some displeasure emotions,
when F can increase or maintain some pleasure emotions or can decrease some pleasure ones in the future,
and when another intentional function (E) dealing with O can decrease OP temporarily,
an ego's causing F can be called the ego's Facing Up to or Confronting O or F,
and an ego's causing E can be called the ego's escape from O or escaping O or F. In addition, the outline of F can be called (the outline of intentional functions of) Facing Up or Confronting, and the outline of E can be called (the outline of intentional functions of) Escaping. In addition, the egos causing facing up can be called (the outline of egos of) Facing Up or Confronting, and the egos causing escaping can be called (the outline of egos of) escaping.

    In addition, waiting and seeing can be looked upon as an outline of egos. After all, there are three outlines of facing up, escaping, and waiting and seeing as the outlines of intentional functions or egos which directly deal with pain.
    For example 1, it is facing up to the intentional function of running away for the people involved in a war to carry out dangerous running away for the sake of the safety in the future. In such a way, escaping is different from running away. In addition, in this case, it is facing up to the intentional function of running away.
    For example 2, as will be explained later, egos sometimes switch some images which cause some pain. It is the escape from things (O) of images. We sometimes switch and escape some of the self's images which cause the pain like self-hatred, anxiety, and so on.
    However, we usually do not face up or escape but do wait and see in our daily life. In contrast to daily waiting and seeing, daring to do so in impending situations can also be looked upon as facing up or confrontation. For example, when mothers have moderate love for their children, around the age of six months, babies come to able to wait and see without crying out desperately even if they have moderate thirst and hunger. This is an important step to independence.
    In contrast, not being able to wait and see and always facing up or escaping instantly can be called Short-circuiting. This short-circuit is often not fit for human individuals and the species to exist. For example, if we started a fight or a war with a little hostility, human individuals and species could not exist. However, it is fit for some small animals like mice, squirrels, and so on to short-circuit and running away instantly.
    Anyway, in order to prevent overwork, animals including human beings cannot always face up, and we sometimes need to escape, to wait and see, to rest, and so on. These books never say that we should always face up to all things. They make it clear what we need to face up to.

FACING UP TO AND ESCAPING IMAGES

    Some images just recollected cause some pain. This is a displeasure feeling, which was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". For example, the self's immature abilities of interpersonal functions recollected as images cause pain like anxiety, self-hatred, dishonor, and so on.
    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", it is hard or impossible for any egos to bring farther or extinguish any images being recollected directly. Accordingly, each ego brings some images farther by bringing some other images closer. This is a "switch" from some images to some other images. When some recollected images cause intense pain, all that egos need to do is reduce that pain and to switch from them to some trifles. Simply, what are switched to makes no difference. In such a case, switching from some images to some other images can be called egos' Escape from or Escaping (from) the images. For example, when the self's immature abilities of interpersonal functions are recollected as images and when those images cause anxiety, self-hatred, and so on, some egos escape from those images and switch to the images of some other abilities of theirs like intelligence, physical ability, or appearance which they think to be excellent or some possessions like power, status, or money.
    In contrast, egos' not escaping from some images causing some pain and manipulating them or start to thinking about them can be called egos' facing up to or confrontation with or Confronting the images.
    When an ego face up to some images, the confrontation with those images is recollected as the most complicated functional image. Simultaneously, the increase or maintenance of some pleasure or the decrease of some pain in the future is recollected as images, and some pleasure autonomic sensations like moderate palpitation and dyspnea are caused in the way as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". For example, the future ease, cheers, and so on caused by the formation of the self's abilities of interpersonal functions are recollected as images. Accordingly, egos face up to the self's immature abilities recollected as images though they temporarily cause the pain like anxiety and self-hatred.
    Facing up to or confrontation with and escaping from images can be represented by the words of mental facing up or confrontation and mental escaping. These words will sometimes be used in these books.

TENDENCIES TO FACING UP AND TO ESCAPE

    Facing up or confrontation, escaping, and waiting and seeing are also limited egos' outlines and there are their tendencies. For example, some human beings confront frequently and intensely, some escape frequently and intensely, some frequently and moderately wait and see.
    However, their tendencies and their intensity or frequency are not so important. It is what egos have escaped, and what egos will face up to that matter.

FALLING HABITS

FALLING HABITS

    The set of intentional functions' outlines (A, B, C, and so on) which have the following properties (1)(2)(3) can be called "(Intentional) Functions (' Outlines) Falling into a Vicious Circle" or "Falling (Intentional) Functions(' Outlines)".

(1) Each of (A, B, C, and so on) temporarily reduces the self's pain or cause pleasure. However, each of (A, B, C, and so on) intensely, continuously, or continually causes the self's and other persons' pain, above all, the self's mental pain.
(2) Most of the tendencies of of limited egos' outlines causing (A, B, C, and so on) are formed together. By egos' causing some of (A, B, C, and so on), that is, B and C's intensely, continuously, or continually, the tendencies of limited egos' outlines causing not only A and B but also C and D, and so on are not reduced but formed. Above all, by hindering egos from facing up to (A, B, C, and so on), the tendencies of limited egos' outlines causing (A, B, C, and so on) are not reduced but formed.
(3) (1)(2) are repeated.

That is, those are a vicious circle. Accordingly, again, the set of intentional functions' outlines which have the above properties (1)(2)(3) can be called "(Intentional) Functions(' Outlines) Falling into a Vicious Circle" or "Falling (Intentional) Functions(' Outlines)". In addition, limited egos' outlines causing falling intentional functions' outlines can be called "(Limited) Egos(' Outlines) Falling into a Vicious Circle" or "Falling (Limited) Egos(' Outlines)", and their tendencies can be called "Tendencies (of Limited Egos' Outlines) Falling into a Vicious Circle " or "Falling Tendencies (of Limited Egos' Outlines)".
    Out of the falling tendencies of human beings, most of them reach their peaks in the baby period period and reduced thereafter, and some of them reach their peaks in the adolescent period and reduce thereafter.Accordingly, not only the absolute values but also the standard deviation ones of the tendencies of limited egos' outlines in the same species and the same age can be called Falling Tendencies. In addition, the falling tendencies which is clearly larger than the averages in the same species and age can be called Falling Tendencies. In addition, not only those absolute values but also those standard deviation ones' getting larger or smaller can be called falling tendencies' Being Formed or Reduced. Then it sometime happen that, even if their absolute values are reduced, their standard deviation ones are reduced, and that we say that it is falling tendencies' being formed.
    By the way, though the word "reduction" would make a bad impression, the intense, continuous, or continual pain of the self and other persons in (1), above all, the mental pain of the self are reduced by reducing falling tendencies.
    Moreover, even if falling functions and tendencies are recognized by the individual, the falling functions or tendencies where the intense, continuous, or continual pain in (1) are recognized by the individual can also be called Falling Functions or Tendencies, and the habits of egos which include some falling tendencies in such a sense can be called "Falling (Egos') Habits". That is, falling functions, tendencies, and habits are recognized vaguely through the intense, continuous, or continual pain in (1) by the individual.
    Moreover, not only intentional functions and egos and egos' tendencies and habits falling (into a vicious circle) but also the important mental functions causing them can be called Functions Falling (into a Vicious Circle. For example, the expansion of the gap between the Self and the World is not intentional functions, egos, or their tendencies or habits but the contents of complex images' sources, it is included in falling functions because it influence falling tendencies.
    Falling functions include the following, and the following occupy most of them.

SHORT-CIRCUIT

    Egos' not waiting and seeing and not thinking much and causing intentional functions can be called "Short-circuit" or Short-circuiting. The contrary is waiting and seeing, bypassing, thinking much, and so on.
    Some pieces of short-circuit is fit for animal individuals and the species to exist. For example, the small animals like mice, squirrels, and so on could not exist if they did not run away instantly when attacked by large ones.
    In addition, some waiting and seeing and bypassing is fit for animal individuals and the species to exist. For example, small animals need to keep still for a while after they run away or hide themselves. In addition, some carnivores ambush others.
    Averagely in animals, babies short-circuit, and they come to wait and see and bypass step by step. That is also fit for them to exist.
    Also in human beings, a newborn cry and cry and short-circuit when it has pain, hunger, or thirst. However, when its mothers takes care of it with love, even if care like nursing is delayed, it comes to be able to wait and see for minutes around the middle of the baby period (about the age of 0.5), and the tendency to short-circuit is reduced. Also after it, children experience the needlessness and disadvantages of short-circuiting and the necessity and advantages of waiting and seeing and bypassing, and the tendency to short-circuit is reduced and the tendency to wait and see is formed.
    In contrast, when mothers' love is thin, it cannot wait and see, it goes on short-circuiting and crying desperately, and the tendency to short-circuit, to be desperate, and to destroy are often formed.
    When the tendency to short-circuit is formed, egos only cause the intentional functions which are short-circuiting and those whose abilities have already been formed, above all, falling intentional functions. Accordingly, the abilities other outlines of intentional functions and the tendencies of other outlines of limited egos are hardly formed, and falling tendencies are hardly reduced. This is also a vicious circle.
    However, short-circuit sometimes strikes a chord by accident and the child is sometimes admired as a genius. Such admiration often makes children fall into the vicious circle, too.

DESPERATION

    When their mothers' love is thin and when babies cannot wait and see if care is delayed, they cry desperately and go desperate. When most animals including human babies go desperate, they hardly stop themselves from destroying themselves or others. Accordingly, the tendency to be desperate and that to destroy are often formed together.
    In addition, babies can attract mothers' attention by being desperate and destructive. Above all, higher mammals' babies including human beings' go desperate and destructive in order to attract mothers' attention. After all, the tendencies to short-circuit, to be desperate, to destroy, and to show off the self are often formed together.

DESTRUCTION

    When animals suffer the attacks from the same or different species or natural disasters, they protect themselves, fight back, run away, hide themselves, and so on. Switching them depending on the situation is fit for animal individuals and species to exist. However, when they are not effective, some animals go desperate and destroy anything. Such destruction sometimes involves the self as a result. Though their success rate is smaller than the functions mentioned above, desperation and destruction are sometimes fit for the animals facing danger to exist and are usually the last resort.
    Destruction is directed toward the same species in human beings more often than in other animals. For example, battering, bullying, violence, war, slaughter, and so on are included in destruction.
    In addition, in human beings, destruction is sometimes directed toward the self intentionally. Not only suicide and self-injury but also anorexia, bulimia, drug abuse, and so on are included in the destruction of the self. Such destruction of the self is included in destruction.
    Animal babies also go desperate and destroy. For example, human babies cry and kick their beds and mothers when their nursing is delayed.
    In human beings, when a baby is taken care of with love by its mothers, around the middle of the baby period (around age of 0.5), it comes to be able to wait and see, do not need to destroy anything, and cause some interpersonal functions other than destruction to its mothers and other persons, and its destructive tendency is reduced.
    In contrast, when its mothers' care and love are not enough, it goes on short-circuiting, going desperate, and destroying, and its destructive tendency is often not reduced but formed.
    In such a way, the tendency to destroy is formed also in the baby period by babies' short-circuiting and going desperate by mothers' thinness of love. The destruction whose tendency is formed in the baby period is usually directed toward the self. The origin of the tendency of self-injury after the adolescent period like wrist cutting, overdose is formed in such a way in the baby period. In addition, such a destructive tendency leads to drug dependence, eating disorder, and so on.
    In contrast, the destructive tendency is formed also after the pre-adolescent period by children's imitation of seniors. For example 1, though it is a pity, the children of destructive parents are often destructive. For example 2, though it is a pity very much, the children brought up by terrorists are often destructive. Those are caused by children's imitation of seniors. Such destruction whose tendency is formed after the pre-adolescent period is usually directed toward other persons.
    In addition, mothers and other persons' enclosure of children and children's intense destruction of that enclosure in the adolescent period often form destructive tendencies. Children need to rebel against their parents and to destroy their enclosure in order to win independence. That is, moderate destruction of enclosure is necessary. However, when parents' enclosure and children's destruction are too intense and frequent, destructive tendencies are formed.
    In addition, though moderate rebellion promote children's independence, in excessive rebellion, they rebel wholly and rarely cause other functions, and so their independence are hindered.

ADHERENCE

    Limited egos' outline intending not to come apart from and not to let go things including other individuals belonging to the same species, and in human beings, not only not to come apart from and not to let go things but also intending to get love from other persons can be called "Adherence" to or Adhering to them. Being sticky, persistent, dangling, and so on are included in adherence.
    Adherence is a function fit for animal babies to exist. That is because they could not exist if they went apart from their parents. For example, mammals' babies dangle about their parents even crawling. In human babies, because it takes months for them to crawl, such dangling about is not clear. Accordingly, they cry and call mothers. That is, the adhere to mothers through crying.
    In human beings, when a baby or infant is taken care of by its mothers with love, around the middle of the baby period (around the age of 0.5), they start to wait and see, and its adherent tendency start to be reduced. Then, around the ending of the infant period or beginning of the post-infant period (around the age of 3) being weary of its mother's love and its own adherence, it is separated from its mother and cause some interpersonal functions other than adherence toward some persons other than its mother, and its adherent tendency is reduced.
    In contrast, if its mothers' love is thin, a baby or infant goes on seeking love and goes on adhering to its mothers, and its adherent tendency is often not reduced but formed after the infant period, too. As was explained earlier, compared with the average of the same species and age, even if it is reduced to a degree in the child, it is reduced so rapidly in other children that the former cannot looked upon as being reduced. Such a child also adheres to persons other than its mother after the infant period, and its adherent tendency is often formed.
    In such a way, mothers' thinness of love is the main external situation forming adherent tendencies acquiredly. In the things forming acquiredly adherent tendencies, there are also mothers' enclosure of children and children's imitation of mothers. That is because mothers' enclosure can hinder their children from going apart from them. In addition, that is because enclosure is often caused by mothers' adherent tendencies, children imitate their mothers' adherence.
    When adherent tendencies are not reduced after the infant period, often, they are not reduced, and adherence is directed toward friends, classmates, and teachers in kindergarten or school, later toward colleagues, staffs, and bosses in office, and toward friends and boy or girl friends everywhere, husbands or wives and children at home. In such a way, mothers' adherence is sometimes directed even toward children, and it is imitated by them. This is a vicious circle, too. In addition, the adherence in the adolescent period or later is complicated and cunning. For example, they come to involve and to manipulate other persons.
    Adherent tendencies cause intense pain. First, they cause intense anxiety and solitude when they cannot adhere to other persons and those having them cannot help adhering to others desperately. Second, they cause isolation and solitude by being kept away from others. Also for this reason, they cannot help adhering more and more.
    Moreover, because they wholly adhere to others by adherent tendencies, the interpersonal tendencies other than adherent ones are hardly formed. Also for this reason, they cannot help adhering more and more. This is also a vicious circle.
    In addition, adherence, showing off the self, control, destruction, isolation, and so on often exist together. That is because human beings try to show themselves off in order to adhere and get love. When they cannot adhere or get love, they try to control or destroy others. As a result they are alienated and isolated. In such a way, the tendencies to adhere, to show off the self, to control, to destroy, and to be isolated, and so on are often formed together. In addition, they are formed together in th following way. The main things forming them acquiredly are the same mothers' thinness of love and enclosure and the child's imitation of the same mothers. This is also a vicious circle.
    Most falling functions and tendencies are the same as adherent functions and tendencies. Accordingly, the following explanations will be simplified.

SHOWING OFF THE SELF

    Showing off the self to other animals of the same species excessively can be called "Showing Off the Self". In human beings, it includes putting on airs, talking too much about the self, boasting of the self, talking too much about his or her past, talking the self as exaggerated or fabricated.
    Showing off the self is fit for animal babies to exist. That is because they could not exist if they did not attract their parents' attention and care. For example, the babies of cats, dogs, human beings, and so on cry in the way to attract their parents' attention.
    We sometimes think that somebody else's child is lovely. That is a natural feeling. In addition, we sometimes praise a child frankly. All the more in mothers, they think that their child is lovely, and this feeling overlap with love. When they have such love, they praise their child frankly.
    In human beings, when a baby or infant is loved and praised by its mothers in such a way, around the end of the infant period (about the age of 3), being weary of its mothers' love and praise and its own showing off the self, it causes some interpersonal functions other than it to some persons other than its mothers, and its tendencies to show off the self begins to be reduced.
    In contrast, when its mothers' love and praise are not enough, it cannot be weary of them and its own showing off the self, it goes on doing that, and its tendency is not reduced but formed. In addition, when it is short of its mothers love and care, it needs to show off the self more and more as the means of gaining them. In such a way, the main external situations forming the tendency to show off the self acquiredly are the shortage of mothers' love and praise.
    The formation of the tendency to show off the self and their relation with other falling tendencies are almost the same as those of adherent tendency. Accordingly, most of their explanation is omitted, and only the things characteristic of it will be explained. Though it is in order to show the self done so to others that we exaggerate or fabricate the self, the self's images recollected to the self are done so to a degree, and the real self go hard to recognize. As a result, the tendencies to show off the self hinders egos from facing up to their falling functions and habits. Also because of this reason, falling habits are hard to reduce.

CONTROL

    An individual or group's controlling other individuals or groups of the same species concerning anything intensely, continuously, or continually can be called its "Control" of them or Controlling them. For example, human beings' controlling other living things or the nature is not included in control in these books. In human beings, it includes presiding over anything, even over trifles, rising anyway, expanding any territories, monopolizing anything.
    Switching between control, entrustment, submission, non-submission, and resistance depending on situations is fit for animal individuals and the species to exist. Animal babies including human ones also try to get care and love by controlling their mothers, and it is a fit function for them to exist. For example, human babies control mothers' nursing by crying fiercely.
    In human beings, when a baby or infant is taken care of by its mothers with love, it do not need to control them, it causes some interpersonal functions other than control to its mothers and other persons, and its controlling tendencies are reduced. That is, not controlling but entrusting or intentionally submitting to others can be done through the, as it were, margin of egos' habits.
    In contrast, when their mothers care and love are not enough, infants go on controlling, and their tendencies to control are often not reduced. In such a way, the main external situation forming controlling tendencies are mothers' thinness of love.
    Tendencies to control are sometimes formed more and more in the post-adolescent period. Those who have gained status, power, and money and are able to control others will try to gain them more and more and to control others more and more. In such a way, tendencies to control can be formed for life.
    Those who have large tendencies to control seek status, power, and money, some of them also have tendencies to destroy, to show off the self, and so on, and some of them cause despotism, war, massacres, and so on. When they cannot get them, they become what is called lions at home and mice abroad, try to control home, and sometimes cause their enclosure of children and partners, domestic violence, and so on.

DESTRUCTIONS OF COMPLEX IMAGES

    In human beings, when some things recollected as complex images cause displeasure feelings like anxiety, fear, self-hatred, and so on, the comparatively mature egos after the infant period switch images from such ones to others through escapes of images as was explained earlier. However, the egos in the baby and infant period are immature, and so they cannot perform such a switch well. Accordingly, some of them where some images cause severe pain try to destroy them anyway. Such destruction is different from the dissolution which mature egos can perform. As a result, some of the complex images, recollections of images, associations, egos, thinkings, the self's images, and so on sometimes become unexpected things for general human beings and even for psychologists or psychiatrists. It can be thought that "dissociative disorder" is one of those examples. Destroying images causing pain anyway and the result caused by it can be called "Destruction of Images" or Destroying Images.
    It is probable that some destruction of images develop into some dissociation in dissociative disorder and some split in borderline personality disorder.
    For example, a battering mother's images cause anxiety and fear. The children after the infant period can escape such images. However, those in the baby and infant period can hardly escape them, and so they destroy them at random.
    The tendencies to destroy images are usually formed by mothers' thinness of love, above all, by the extremes like battering, neglect, and so on.

ISOLATIONS

    Going apart from its group like herd, flock, home, society, and so on is not fit for animal babies to exist. However, when an individual is destroyed, attacked, or alienated and when it has been grown to a degree, going apart from such a group is sometimes fitter for it to exist than staying in it.
    Physically in human beings, also children are protected through legal and social systems. In contrast, mentally, they can be alienated and isolated. However, human beings can play even if they are alone. Even if they cannot play physically alone, they can play mentally with images as in day dreams. That is manipulation of images explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". That a child or an adult exist at least mentally alone even with such a physical or mental play can be called its "Isolation" or Being Isolated.
    In human beings, when their mothers' love is thin, children are isolated at least mentally and the tendencies to be isolated are formed from the middle of the baby period (about the age of 0.5). If there is some battering or neglect and if they are also physically isolated the tendencies to be isolated are intensely formed.
    Isolation prompts the formation of the falling tendencies concerning the self which will be explained later.

NARCISSISM

    Each of the children who have rarely been loved or praised in the infant period comes to love and praise the self by itself. When it is loved and praised moderately, it comes to be weary of being done so and of loving the self, it loves other persons and things, and moderate "narcissism" is formed. Otherwise, intense narcissism is formed. Narcissism is sometimes represented as showing off the self. In addition, it leads to playing alone and playing with images like daydreaming and to isolation.
    In addition, narcissism is unstable, and sometimes alternates with intense self-hatred when the real self is recognized. In addition, it sometimes alternates with the intense love and praise of particular persons as the compensation for those of the self. In addition, the latter alternates with intense hatred of them when the real self is projected to them.

MOTHERS' FALLING HABITS, THINNESS OF LOVE, AND ENCLOSURE, AND CHILDREN'S IMITATION OF MOTHERS' FALLING FUNCTIONS

    Adherence does seek love but does not give it. Destruction accompanies little love but much hate. When we love somebody and when we cannot get his or her love, we sometimes destroy him or her. Showing off the self and narcissism do not love others. Accordingly, when those who have falling habits become mothers, their love for children is often thin, too.
    In addition, those who have falling habits have various desires' dissatisfaction mainly because they are isolated and alienated. Accordingly, as was explained earlier, they often heighten the desires concerning children, enclose their children, and try to satisfy those desires. Simply, they try to make a monopoly of their children.
    In addition, even babies or infants imitate familiar persons. Though it is hard for them to imitate the falling functions like escaping, patching up, and so on whose tendencies will be formed in the later period, it is easy for them to imitate the falling functions like desperation, destruction, adherence, showing off the self, and so on whose tendencies are formed in the baby and infant period. Of course, mothers' falling ones are imitated. After all, children imitate seniors' falling functions from the baby period to the adolescent period, and they imitate those particular to each period.
    On those ground, when mothers have falling habits, the possibility that their children will have them is large. Mothers' thinness of love and enclosure caused by their falling habits and children's imitation of their falling functions are the major things forming children's falling habits.

BABY AND INFANT FALLING FUNCTIONS AND TENDENCIES

    Averagely in the human beings, the tendencies of falling limited egos' outlines which have been explained in the previous sections are reduced by the end of the infant period or the beginning of the post-infant period (around the age of 3). However, those tendencies are sometimes not reduced but formed mainly by their mothers' thinness of love, mothers' enclosure, and children's imitation of adults' falling functions. Accordingly, those functions can be called "(Baby and) Infant" Falling Functions, and the tendencies of limited egos' outlines causing them can be called Baby and Infant Falling Tendencies.
    Not only baby and infant falling tendencies but also falling ones in general are formed together. Moreover, above all, baby and infant ones are formed together because of the following reason. The situations of the formation of baby and infant tendencies are almost only homes, above all, the relations with mothers. Accordingly, that formation are affected directly by mothers' thinness of love, their enclosure, and children's imitation of their falling functions.

GENERATION OF THE SELF'S IMAGES

    The self was defined in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY". In human beings, the self is recollected as complex images consisting of the past, present, and future bodies, emotions, recollections, associations, intentional functions, egos, and their tendencies, abilities, and habits, and so on. The self's images are generated and recollected in the beginning of the post-infant period, that is, around the age of four, and get the most clear in the adolescent period.

THE ANXIETY ABOUT THE SELF'S DYING SOONER OR LATER

    In a while after the generation of the self's image, the temporal limitation of the self and the self's dying sooner or later are recollected as images, and they come to cause the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later. Such anxiety is the ultimate anxiety. The decisive way to transcend it was explained in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY".

ATTEMPTS TO MAKE THE SELF ETERNAL

    The anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later causes some egos, desires, and intentional functions to make the self eternal anyway. Such egos and desires can be called "Desires to Make the Self Eternal", and such egos and intentional functions can be called "Attempts to Make the Self Eternal".
    Some attempts to make the self eternal overlap with love. For example 1, we in the midst of love say "love is eternal". For example 2, some lovers attempt double suicides. In addition, some attempts to make the self eternal overlap with religion. In addition, some overlap with control, will to power, and so on. For example, they overlap with a holder of powers' building his or her massive tomb.

EXPANSION OF GAPS BETWEEN THE SELF AND THE WORLD

    In those which are recollected as images, there are some gaps between the images of the self and those of the things other than the self. Such gaps can be called the "Gap between the Self and the World".
    When a baby or infant is not isolated, because such a gap is filled with its mothers, some other persons, pets, toys, and so on, it is small.
    In contrast, in those individual who were isolated in the baby and infant period, such a gap is expanded. While the falling functions which has explained were mainly egos' outlines and while they are caused by the tendencies of limited egos' outlines, such expansion is caused by the contents of memories.
    The human beings where the gap between the self and the world is small can easily get to the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later because of the continuity of the images of the self and those of the things other than the self, and that anxiety are rarely caused and, if ever, faintly caused.
    In contrast, the human beings where that gap is expanded can hardly get to the way to transcend that anxiety, and that anxiety are caused frequently and intensely. In addition, as was explained above, the desire to make the self eternal gets intense.
    The expansion of the gap between them often cause the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later and the desire to make the self eternal, and they often enhance the tendencies to show off the self, control, and so on. For example, those who have gotten large powers often try to control the people and try to leave their glory or massive tomb. Moreover, because falling tendencies are formed together, they often have not only large tendencies to show off the self and to control but also those to destroy, and they try to hold powers, to destroy liberal rights, social rights, political right, democratic systems, separations of powers, the rule of law, and the right to exist in general, to run wildly to despotism, autocracy, war, the research, development, and hold of totally destructive means, and so on. Accordingly, reducing such falling tendencies is also one of the ways to secure existence and liberty.

THE SELF'S GOING FAT

    In the expansion of the gap between the self and the world, that gap is often filled with the self's images. That is because it cannot be filled with the things other than the self's because of isolation. If the relations with some other persons, animals, or the nature are resumed, that gap is filled with others to a degree. If the isolation continues, it keeps on being filled with the self's. The self's image goes larger as a result. This can be called the "Self's Going Fat". It is the contents of memories in the same way as the expansion of the gap between the self and the world.
    The self's going fat is formed together with not only the expansion of the gap between the self and the world but also the tendencies to show off the self, control, and so on which were explained earlier and the beautification of the self which will be explained below.

BEAUTIFICATION OF THE SELF

    The images of the self where falling tendencies are formed cause pain like anxiety, fear, self-hatred, and so on. The immature egos of children as they are beautify the self in order to reduce such pain. For example, they beautify the self as a pitiful one who is not loved by and is alienated from their mother and general human beings. The beautified self's images are generated by such beautification. Such beautification of the self also hinders egos from facing up to the self's falling functions and tendencies. In addition, the beatification of the self overlaps with showing off the self, narcissism, and so on and they prompt one another.

PRE-ADOLESCENT FALLING FUNCTIONS AND TENDENCIES

    Most of the tendencies of falling functions explained in the previous sections are formed in the post-infant and pre-adolescent period after the self's images were generated. Accordingly, those functions can be called "Pre-adolescent" Falling Function, and the tendencies of limited egos' outlines causing them can be called Pre-adolescent Falling Tendencies.
    We can trace back from pre-adolescent falling tendencies to, at least, those of isolation, and they are included in baby and infant falling tendencies. In addition, most of the baby and infant falling tendencies are formed together. In addition, most of the pre-adolescent ones are formed together. Accordingly, a lot of baby and infant falling tendencies and pre-adolescent ones coexist. Anyway, it is impossible for one of them to be exclusively formed.

IMMATURITY OF ABILITIES OF INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONS

    When children are alienated and cannot help being isolated or when the tendencies to be isolated are formed, egos rarely cause interpersonal functions as intentional functions, and the abilities of interpersonal functions as abilities of intentional functions are hardly formed and stay immature. The abilities of interpersonal functions as intentional functions can also be called Interpersonal Abilities. For example, for not only children but also adults, after they are cloistered for months, interpersonal functions will not go well.
    In addition, the more children and adults are isolated, the more intense interpersonal anxiety gets, the more egos cause interpersonal escapes, the less they cause general interpersonal functions, the more firmly general interpersonal abilities stay immature.
    Moreover, when falling tendencies are formed, egos cause falling interpersonal functions. While the abilities of falling ones are formed, those of interpersonal functions other than them are not formed, and the general interpersonal abilities stay immature. For example, when a person always resorts to controlling and destructive interpersonal functions, the abilities of cooperative ones are not formed, and general interpersonal abilities stay immature.
    In addition, those who have intense falling tendencies and often cause falling interpersonal functions are often alienated and isolated, and their abilities of interpersonal functions stay immature.
    Moreover, because the abilities of interpersonal functions stay immature, they are alienated and isolated, and interpersonal abilities stay immature, and interpersonal anxiety is not reduced.
    Those are vicious circles, too. Above all, the tendencies escaping and patching up interpersonal functions which will be explained later cause interpersonal tendencies' immaturity.
    However, when falling tendencies are reduced, the abilities of interpersonal functions are formed unexpectedly quickly. After all, falling habits are more serious than the immaturity of the abilities of interpersonal functions.

ESCAPING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS

    As was explained in the above section, when falling habits are formed and when the abilities of interpersonal functions are immature, if egos cause interpersonal functions, intense pain is caused. Accordingly, egos escape interpersonal relations, and tendencies to escape interpersonal relations are formed. Though these tendencies are formed mainly in the baby and infant period, they still fluctuate. However, they are often formed intensely and fixed in the adolescent period.
    In addition, the egos in the adolescent period escape interpersonal functions not simply but complicatedly. For example 1, they escape deep interpersonal relations and only enter superficial ones. For example 2, they show off their destructive appearances which other persons are hard to come close to. Such interpersonal functions overlaps with patching up which will be explained later. In the adolescent period, such complicated escapes of interpersonal relations are caused, and such complicated tendencies to escape them are formed.
    Because egos escape interpersonal relations continuously and continually in such a way, the abilities of interpersonal functions stay immature more and more. This is a vicious circle, too.

PATCH UP THE IMMATURITY OF THE ABILITIES OF INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONS

    The egos in and after the adolescent period not only escape interpersonal relations but also patch up the immaturity of the abilities of intentional functions. For example, they show off their status, power, money, appearance, and so on, and patch up it. Though those in the adolescent period do not have their own status, power, and money, they can show off their parents'. Those in the post-adolescent period often show off theirs in order to patch up various things. Appearance, looks, style, and so on are good means to patch up various things in the very adolescent period.
    Though such patching up is rarely looked through completely, it will cause displeasure feelings to others. Also through such feelings, those patching up are often alienated, and their abilities of interpersonal functions stay immature more and more.

PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS

    In addition, in the external situations of interpersonal relations, if the self's falling functions and tendencies are found by other persons, because it causes the pain of shame, egos hide and patch up them. That is, it is not only the immaturity of the abilities of interpersonal functions but also falling functions and tendencies in general that egos in and after the adolescent period patch up. Those can be called "Patching Up" Falling Habits or Functions Patching Up Falling Habits.
    For example 1, it causes the pain of shame that some other persons find that egos go on seeking mothers' love after the baby and infant period and adhere and that adherent tendencies have been formed. Accordingly, egos in and after the adolescent period behave themselves seemingly lightly. For example 2, it causes the pain of shame that some other persons find that they show off themselves because they were not praised in the baby and infant period and that the tendencies to showing off the self have been formed. Accordingly, they behave themselves seemingly lightly. However, because those tendencies are alive, they patch up them, adhering and showing off the self. Accordingly, they are often looked upon as queer persons by oters.
    While those are repeated, the tendencies for limited egos' outlines to patch up the self's falling functions and tendencies. Those can be called Tendencies to Patch Up Falling Habits.
    When tendencies to patch up falling habits are large, functions patching up are almost always caused, functions other than them are rarely caused, and the tendencies and abilities other than those to patch up are not formed. For example, the tendencies and abilities to frankly talk with other persons are not formed.
    On those grounds, functions patching up falling habits are included in falling functions, and habits patching up falling habits are included in falling habits.
    The interpersonal functions which patch up falling habits by causing interpersonal functions which are extremely opposite to falling functions can be called an "Opposite Representation". For example, some persons who were disliked by others as sober sometimes behave themselves light-minded. Opposite representation often brings misunderstanding. That is because few people can see that it is opposite representation on the basis of falling habits.
    In such ways, tendencies patching up falling habits are formed mainly acquiredly in the adolescent period.

ESCAPING FALLING HABITS' IMAGES

    When the self's falling functions, tendencies, or habits are recollected as images, those images cause intense mental pain like anxiety, self-hatred, and so on. Accordingly, egos usually escape the self's falling functions, tendencies, and habits recollected as images by means of switching of images as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". Escaping the self's falling functions, tendencies, and habits recollected as images can be called Escapes from Falling Habits(' Images), Escapes from Falling Habits(Recollected as Images), Escaping Falling Habits(' Images), or Escaping Falling Habits (recollected as images).
    Because escaping falling habits recollected as images reduces such pain as was enumerated temporarily, egos do so again and again, and tendencies for limited egos' outlines to do so are formed. The tendencies for limited egos' outlines to do so can be called Tendencies Escaping Falling Habits(' Images) or so. For example, because, the self's adherence, simply, being sticky recollected as images causes intense mental pain like anxiety, self-hatred, shame, and so on, egos switch images from it to harmless ones and escape it again and again, and tendencies to do so is formed.
    When the tendency to escape falling habits' images are large and when egos escapes falling functions, tendencies, habits every time they are recollected as images, egos cannot face up to them, the self's falling tendencies in general are not reduced. That is, escapes from falling habits' images directly hinder egos from facing up to them. Accordingly, escapes from falling habits are included in falling functions, and tendencies escaping falling habits are included in falling tendencies. Far from that, they are the most vicious cycles and are the most vital of all falling functions and tendencies.
    When compared with the time of the formation of tendencies to patching up falling habits as was explained above, the time when the tendencies to escape falling habits are formed fluctuates. However, they are formed mainly in the adolescent period.

PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS' IMAGES

    In contrast to patching up the self's voluntary movements and synthetic functions in external situations explained above, there is patching up the self's pure mental functions in internal situations as follows. In addition, in contrast to escaping images explained above, there is patching up images, which is a little more complicated than escaping. Because falling functions, tendencies, or habits, when they are recollected as images, cause intense pain like anxiety, self-hatred, and so on, above all, adolescent egos which have gotten mature to a degree not only escape but also patch up the self's falling functions, tendencies, or habits recollected as images. This can be called Patching Up Falling Habits(' Images), Patching Up Falling Habits (Recollected as Images), or so. In addition, the tendencies for limited egos' outlines to do so can be called Tendencies to Patch Up Falling Habits(' Images) or so.
    For example 1, the girls, boys, ladies, and gentlemen who have confidence in their looks sometimes cover the images of their falling habits with those of the self having them. Not that excellent looks are harmful in general, but that they are so if they are made use of in such a way. For example 2, those who have status, power, or money sometimes cover the images of their falling habits with those of the self having them.

ESCAPING AND PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS' IMAGES

    Escaping falling habits' images and patching up them are the same, including cause and effect, excluding that the latter is a little more complicated, excluding that former are more often made use of, and excluding that the former tendencies are formed not only in and after the adolescent period but also before it. Accordingly, they can be called Escaping and Patching Up Falling Habits(' Images) or so. In addition, the tendencies for limited egos' outlines to do so can be called Tendencies to Escape and Patch Up Falling Habits(' Images) or so.
    Again, they are the most vicious circle, and they are the most vital of all falling functions and tendencies.

ENHANCING THE SELF'S IMAGES AS THE PERSECUTED AND REACTION OR REVENGE

    Those who have falling habits are often alienated and isolated, and they sometimes consider such alienation and isolation to be the persecution by other persons, general human beings, or the society.
    If they enhance the self's images as the persecuted and cover their falling habits with them, such enhancement and cover is patching up falling habits' images which was explained above.
    If they enhance the self's images as the persecuted more intensely than to the degree enough to patch up their falling habits, such enhancement can lead to some reaction or revenge against the alleged persecutors. If such enhancement accompanies desperation, destruction, and so on which were explained earlier, such reaction or revenge can be fierce. In addition, such destruction is sometimes directed toward the self.

DESTROYING MIRRORS

    Through its genes and gene functions, its mother's thinness of love, enclosures, and its imitations, habits, above all, falling habits of each child resemble its mother's, father's, brothers', sisters', and so on. This is as if a mirror reflected its own. In addition, each child has pain like anxiety, self-hatred, and so on against its falling habits. Accordingly, each child has pain against its mother, father, and so on's falling habits as if they were its own. Accordingly, such a child or young man or woman as has large falling habits tries to destroy its mother, father, and so on or their images. This can be called Destroying Mirrors.
    Though destroying mirrors overlaps with what is called rebellion, as long as falling habits continue, most tendencies destroying mirrors are not reduced after the adolescent period. It is the adolescent period that destroying mirrors get clear for the first time.
    Destroying mirrors also hinders egos from facing up to the self's falling functions, tendencies, or habits. That is because the self's falling habits have been projected on others. Accordingly, destroying mirrors is included in falling functions, and tendencies destroying mirrors are included in falling tendencies.

EXCESSIVE REBELLIONS

    When its parents' enclosure and control are intense and go on in the adolescent period or later and when a child, young men, or women always try to rebel against them, sometimes, the functions other than rebellions are not caused, and the tendencies other than rebellious ones are not formed. For example, some young men or women get separated or married in order not to be independent but to be separated from his or her parents. The tendencies to live independently is not formed by such separation or marriage. Accordingly, excessive rebellions are included in falling functions.

ADOLESCENT FALLING FUNCTIONS AND TENDENCIES

    The falling intentional functions' outlines which are caused by tendencies of limited egos' outlines which are formed mainly in the adolescent period and those tendencies can be called "Adolescent" Falling Functions and Tendencies.
    Functions and tendencies to escape and patch up falling habits' images are the most serious of all adolescent falling ones. Far from that, they are the most serious of all falling ones.
    As for the tendencies to destroy and to control which are mainly formed in the baby and infant period, not small parts of them are formed or reinforced by adolescent egos' imitation. Their formation, above all, in violent groups is serious.
    Anyway, adolescent and post-adolescent tendencies are more or less formed on the basis of pre-adolescent and baby and infant ones.

POST-ADOLESCENT FALLING FUNCTIONS AND TENDENCIES

    The falling tendencies of limited egos' outlines which are mainly formed in the post-adolescent period can be called post-adolescent falling tendencies, and the intentional functions' outlines caused by them can be called Post-Adolescent Falling Functions.
    There are a few ones and no important ones belonging to them. That is, no important ones emerge in the post-adolescent period. However, falling functions go complicated and cunning in general, above all adolescent ones like functions escaping and patching up falling habits' images do so. Accordingly, it gets harder and harder for both other persons and the self to find them out.

ATTRIBUTING THE CAUSE OF THE SELF'S FALLING HABITS TO OTHER PERSONS

    As was explained earlier, there are mothers' thinness of love, enclosure, and children's imitation of their seniors as the major external causes of falling habits.
    However, it is of no use and is a kind of falling function that we vaguely think that the major cause is in other persons and that we blame them forever.
    Even if the major cause is in others, falling habits are those of egos of the self at present, and they are rooted deep in the self because they are habits. Accordingly, it is no more of use to blame others.
    However, from the beginning, is the major cause in others? Is the major cause in escaping and patching up falling habits' images in and after the adolescent period, isn't it? We can hardly do anything if it is in the self or others in the baby and infant period, which we cannot remember. However, if the major cause is in the egos of the self in and after the adolescent period, which we remember well and which is going on even now, we can no more attribute it to others, and it is certain that we can do something by ourselves.

FACING UP TO THE SELF'S FALLING FUNCTIONS AND TENDENCIES

REVIEW OF EGOS

    Each ego consists of a rational system and a emotional system and the promotion of the former by the latter.

FALLING EGOS' BEING STOPPED

    Each ego consists of a rational system and a emotional system and the promotion of the former by the latter. Metaphorically, The rational system propose some intentional functions outlines which should be caused in the situation as functional images, and the emotional system decides which of them to adopt and carry out with autonomic sensations and functional impulses, simply, with emotions. Accordingly, if an intentional function recollected as functional images causes displeasure autonomic sensations like anxiety or fear, the functional impulses, the egos, and the intentional functions are not caused. As for falling functions, if falling intentional functions(' outlines) recollected as functional images cause displeasure autonomic sensations, the functional impulses, the falling egos(' outlines), and the falling intentional functions(' outlines) are not caused. For example, even if (falling intentional function's outline of) adherence or showing off the self is recollected as functional images, if it causes displeasure autonomic sensations like anxiety, self-hatred, it is not caused. Simply, even if the idea to do it occurs to us, when we feel bad, we stop it.
    That a functional image is recollected but that the whole of the ego is not caused is the ego's being stopped, and is not its complete stop but incomplete stop.

REDUCING THE TENDENCIES OF LIMITED EGOS' OUTLINES

    In such a way, when falling intentional functions(' outlines) recollected as functional images cause displeasure autonomic sensations, limited egos(' outlines) are not caused, and so falling intentional functions(' outlines) are not caused. However, when displeasure autonomic sensations are caused in egos, the tendencies of falling limited egos(' outlines) have already been reduced. Then, what reduce the tendencies of falling limited functions(' outlines) and make displeasure autonomic sensations caused from falling intentional functions(' outlines) recollected as functional images.
    If some pain are caused intensely, continuously, or continually when some falling intentional functions are caused, then the image to emotion neural ways from the images sources of those intentional functions(' outlines) to some displeasure autonomic sensations are activated, and those displeasure autonomic sensations come to be caused when those intentional functions are recollected as functional images, and the tendencies of limited egos(' outlines) causing those intentional functions are reduced.

EGOS' FACING UP TO NOT ONLY FALLING FUNCTIONS BUT ALSO THE OUTLINE OF THE VICIOUS CIRCLE

    However, such pain as is caused by falling intentional functions' being caused has been suffered as alienation and isolation. Accordingly, egos have escaped interpersonal relations and patched up falling habits. By suffering such pain, most egos have not recognized that the main cause of such pain is in the self's falling habits, and some have attributed it to others persons and blamed them. In addition, some have repeated extreme beautification of the self or Narcissism and extreme self-hatred, and have blamed the whole of the self. By those, we only fall into the very falling habits and only escape facing up to the very falling habits.
    The self's falling functions, tendencies, and habits have been recollected as images occasionally. Those recollected as images have caused intense pain like anxiety and self-hatred. Accordingly, egos have escaped and patch up those recollected as images. As a result, the tendencies to escape and patch up falling habits' images have been formed. As a result, falling tendencies in general have not reduced, and the pain like anxiety, self-hatred, or shame has been caused intensely, continuously, and continually. These has been repeated. This is the outline of the vicious circle. When egos face up to the outline of this vicious circle again and again, falling functions, tendencies, and habits recollected as images come to cause the pain like being tired, bored, or weary which is different from anxiety, self-hatred, or shame. Then, in egos, even if falling intentional functions are recollected as functional images, they come to cause the pain like being tired, bored, or weary, and falling egos are stopped. While this is repeated, the tendencies of falling limited egos' outlines are reduced, and falling egos' habits are reformed.

USELESSNESS OF IMAGES OF OTHERS' MENTAL FUNCTIONS TO THE SELF

    As soon as the self's falling functions and habits are recollected as images, others' mental functions to the self (1) are sometimes recollected as images like pity, grief, rebuke, criticism, cynicism, alienation, neglect, and so on, and they cause some mental pain (2). The others in (1) can include parents, brothers and sisters, friends, teachers, bosses, judges, psychiatrists, psychologists, preachers, superegos, the society, the god, and those who use the carrot and the stick. The displeasure feelings (2) caused by (1) recollected as images can include sense of guilt, shame, dishonor, and regret. While (1) are recollected as images and cause (2), the images of the self's falling functions, tendencies, or habits (3) are overwhelmed, it is hard to face up to (3). It is probable that egos actually face up to (1) while intending to do so to (3). While (1) are recollected, egos need to switch from (1)'s images to (3)'s images again and again. However, it is very hard to do so. When we cannot do so, we had better leave (1)' images and (2) as they come and wait until they disappear naturally.

USELESSNESS OF SOME OF THE SELF'S MENTAL FUNCTIONS TO OTHERS

    Indeed, there are mothers' thinness of love, enclosure, children's imitation of destruction, battering and alienation at home, bullying and alienation at school, and so on as the external and indirect causes of the self's falling functions and tendencies. In addition, in order to recognize not only falling functions and tendencies but also the outline of the vicious circle which was explained above, we had better recognize those external and indirect causes.
    However, if the destruction of mirrors, excessive rebellion, and blaming others are caused against those external and indirect causes, they hinder egos from facing up to the self's falling functions, tendencies, or habits or the outline of the vicious circle. They are fierce, and so we had better leave them as it comes and wait until it disappears naturally.

FACING UP TO FALLING INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS RECOLLECTED AS (ABOVE ALL FUNCTIONAL) IMAGES

    As was explained above, in order to change the pain like anxiety and self-hatred into that like being tired, bored, or weary and to reduce the tendencies of falling limited egos' outlines, egos need to face up to not only the images of the self's falling functions and tendencies but also those of the outline of the vicious circle caused by them. However, it is probable that facing up to the latter end up in a mere theory.
    In contrast, egos need to face up to the former on site each time they are recollected as images. Moreover, each time falling intentional functions are recollected as functional images in egos, egos need to face up to them. As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", each ego have a multilayer structure, and it is possible that smaller egos think of and face up to the functional images recollected in a larger ego. Simultaneously, egos need to face up to the latter. It takes those two pieces of facing up only seconds, and so it is possible on site in our daily life. In addition, egos need to repeat those. Then, the image to emotion neuronal ways from the functional images' sources of falling intentional functions to the autonomic sensations like being tired, bored, or weary are steadily activated, falling egos are stopped, and falling tendencies are gradually reduced. For example, each time the falling intentional function of showing off the self is recollected as functional images in the situations of an interpersonal relation, when egos face up to them, its tendencies, and the vicious circle where the anxiety and self-hatred are repeated because egos have escaped and patched up showing off the self and its tendency recollected as images, egos come to be tired, bored, or weary of it and its tendency, and its tendency is gradually reduced.

FACING UP TO FUNCTIONS AND HABITS ESCAPING AND PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS

    However, falling tendencies and habits are persistent, falling functions are often caused, and falling tendencies are not easily reduced. Why?
    That is because the tendencies to escape and patch up falling habits' images are the most persistent of all falling tendencies, because doing so is often caused and often hinders egos from facing up to falling functions and tendencies in general. Accordingly, it is escaping and patching up the self's falling habits recollected as (above all, functional) images and its tendency and the outline of the vicious circle caused by it recollected as images that egos need to face up to with the most intense concentration. For example, egos need to face up to the fact that they have covered the self's falling functions recollected as (above all, functional) images with the images of the self having status, power, or money or honorable poverty or appearance, that accordingly falling tendencies have not reduced, and that vain efforts have been repeated.
    Moreover, it is escaping and patching up escaping and patching up recollected as (above all, functional) images and its tendency and the outline of the vicious circle caused by it recollected as images that egos need to face up with the most intense concentration. For example, though they have faced up to falling functions or tendencies only halfway, some egos cover escaping and patching up recollected as (above all, functional) images with the images of the self who finished facing up.
    After all, the largest cause of falling habits are escaping and patching up falling habits' images, and they are formed mainly in and after the adolescent period. That is, the largest cause of falling habits are not mothers' thinness of love, enclosure, or children's imitation of seniors but adolescent egos. The self and egos in the adolescent period are closer to those at present than those in the baby and infant or pre-adolescent period are. Accordingly, facing up to escaping and patching up falling habits' images is easier than that to those formed in the period earlier than it. Simply, that formation would be remembered as if it had taken place yesterday.

References

A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES
A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS
EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

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